Learning object 1994. Definition. "a collection of content items, practice items, and assessment items that are combined based on a single learning objective". The term is credited to Wayne HodginsLO 2004. Horizon This technology is in use in a rapidly growing number of universities today, as evidenced by the tremendous growth of both general and discipline-based learning object repositories, and will likely find its way into broad use within the next 12 months.Martin et al. (2011): There are few mentions to this group among the HR predictions. Learning objects were forecasted in the 2004 HR (Johnson & Laurence,2004) as arriving in the short term (2004–2005). This technology appears again in the 2010 HR (Johnson et al., 2010) as open content, which was also forecasted to have an impact in the short term because of the current trend of offering open content for free on the Web. Thistemporal gap is represented inFig. 4 as an arrow from learning objects to open content. One of the best proponents of this trend is the OpenCourseware Initiative (ocw.mit.edu) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).Tabuenca et al (2012): Previously, Koper (2001) had proposed a meta-language that allows to codify (see Figure 1) the pedagogic values of learning objects as units-of-study, associating each element of content with information describing its instructional strategy. Chitwood & Bunnow (2005) defined LOs with five characteristics: small units of learning, typically ranging from 2 minutes to 15 minutes; self-contained, each learning object can be taken independently; reusable, a single learning object may be used in multiple contexts for multiple purposes; can be aggregated, learning objects can be grouped into larger collections of content, including traditional course structures; are tagged with metadata, every learning object has descriptive information allowing it to be easily found by a search.
OER repositories must do their best to provide suitable mobile contents. So far no clear work was found synthesizing how OER repositories are adapting to the mobile learning paradigm and the facilities they are providing. The contribution of this paper is giving an answer to these questions: which is the position of OER repositories after all these changes?; how are OER repositories and mobile devices coexisting?; did content repositories take the speed train of mobile computing?; how do OER owners adapt their portals to the mobile era? .
In the last years, the usage of mobile devices has grown in many application fields of the education. Contents are mobile and LOs have evolved to Mobile Learning Objects (MLOs). OERs are stored in repositories facilitating efficient search, retrieval and re-use among different educational communities. There are existing works aiming to provide personalized learning contents based on variables supplied by our mobile devices. The work from Su, Tseng, Lin & Chen (2011) summarizes research on adapted mobile content delivery based on mobile capabilities, learners’ preferences, and network conditions.
page 1Repository-übergreifende Suche:Erfahrungen bei ICOPERRoland KlemkeOpen University of the NetherlandsExpertenforum: OER-Suche22 April 2013
page 3Definition: Learning objectKoper (2001)“a collection of content items, practice items, andassessment items that are combined based on asingle learning objective”. Hodgins (1994)LerneinheitenSelf-containedWiederverwendbarAggregierbarMeta-daten
page 4Definition: OER“Teaching, learning and research materials inany medium, digital or otherwise, that reside inthe public domain or have been released underan open license that permits no-cost access,use, adaptation and redistribution by otherswith no or limited restrictions. Open licensingis built within the existing framework ofintellectual property rights as defined byrelevant international conventions and respectsthe authorship of the work”UNESCO 2002
page 8ICOPER: Outcome-oriented Learning• Annahme: Lerner sind individuell und unterschiedlich• Prozess• Gewünschte Lernergebnisse (Outcomes) definieren stattLernressourcen• Feingranular definieren statt in großen Curricula denken• Passende Ressourcen für das jeweils gewünschte Ergebnissauswählen• Nutzen: Ergebnis-orientierter Lernprozess kann personalisiert,beobachted und angepasst werden• Herausforderung:• Individualisierte Lernprozesse erfordern interoperableWerkzeuge und Inhalte
page 13Learning Outcomes & Content in SpITKom• Basis: European Computer Driver License (ECDL)• See: ecdl.org• ECDL Syllabus defines Learning Outcomes• Syllabus organised in 7 Modules, defines fine grainedindividual skills to achieve: e.g. “Understand that a cell in aworksheet should contain only one element of data, (forexample, first name detail in one cell, surname detail inadjacent cell).”• Basis for defintion of IT-Skills in SpITKom• Learning Content• Learning modules,• Simulations• Assessment• Assessment questions integrated in gameplay
page 15Fazit• Wiederverwendung von OER so zu gestalten, dass für denLernenden ein angenehmer Lernprozess entsteht erfordert vielAufwand bei der Gestaltung der auf OER basierendenLernumgebungen• Angenehm bedeutet dabei, dass der Lernende sich nicht mittechnischen Details der OER-Suche herumplagen muss, sondernsich auf den Lernprozess konzentrieren kann• Insbesondere die für den jeweiligen Lerncontext benötigtenMetadaten müssen i.d.R. neu gestaltet werden, da dieursprünglichen Daten den Zielprozess nicht im Blick haben