Parents who reported themselves as more active participants in their child’s video game play reported a greater belief that video games could help their child with planning, time management, understanding themselves/others, and overall performance in school.
General strategies that work with ADHD children… something to do, to be able to move, to be able to talk , or to be able to fidget when concentratingResearch on ADHD and vigorous exercise (Verret et al 2010, Ratey in Spark)…what about exergames as a tool for increasing focusing skillsBest (2011) Exergaming immediately enhance EFs
LWK pilot research (N=10) that targeted areas of specific EF weakness resulted in gains in these areas, not in others, similar to what Mackey found where they targeted sollely by the games played, =rather than by child’s needs and games/playbooks selectedOther studies support targeted approaches, the use of mediators, the importance of intensity and duration (5-6 weeks 40 minutes per day)
Games as a teaching tool,Building metacognition and generalization into processTargeting skills individuallyHot vs. cold Efs, games seem to be better for cognitive than self control skills ( eg planning, cognitive flexibility, organization, time management, task initiation…than regulation of affect, response inhibition)
Mediation, metacognition, goal setting, FUN!
Far transfer and metacognitionPractice across settingsExpand the skill sets to other similar skills
Generalization of Game-Based Learning for Children with ADHD
Generalization of Game-BasedLearning for Children with ADHD Randy Kulman, Ph.D. email@example.com @rkulman LearningWorks for kids 2012 APA Conventionwww.learningworksforkids.com www.apa.org/convention @lw4k @APAConvention
Presentation DisclosureRandy Kulman, Ph.D. commercial interests:• President, Majority Stockholder, LearningWorks for Kids, Inc.• Cogmed Working Memory provider
Overview• What do we know about children with ADHD and video games?• Why use video games and digital media to help children with ADHD?• What are the characteristics of interventions proven to work with children with ADHD?• Why do children with ADHD not become scholars after playing video games?• What can we do to make video games a more productive learning tool for children with ADHD?
What do we know about ADHD kids and video games?• Clinical and anecdotal observations - too much and often too intensely! (but this is exactly why we need to use this behavior)• No research evidence of difference concerning frequency or duration of play between ADHD and typically-developing children ages 10 to 12.• Similar enjoyment for the same types of games (Bioulac 2008).• South County Child and Family Consultants Data
LWK study of ADHD kids and parents on video game play• (Current sample of 60 children with a primary ADHD diagnosis based upon a full neuropsychological evaluation)• Survey asks parents to describe their own media usage to see if it is correlated to attitudes regarding video games• Also asks them to describe their concerns and hopes for benefits of video games and other digital media• Digital media use of ADHD kids- Most time television, video games, music (different from what is seen in national studies of typically developing kids)
Children, parents, and video game playHow many hours a week does your child spendplaying video games?• 34% Less than 1 hour per• 32% 2-4 hours• 20% 5-7 hours• 13% 8+ hoursHow many hours per week do you spendobserving or interacting with your child when theyplay video games?• 23% no time• 46% less than 1 hour• 27% 1-5 hours• 4% 6+ hours
Children, parents, and video game play Do you play video games with your child? • 25% Never • 57% Sometimes • 14% Often • 3% Always How much do you believe that video games can help your child with problem solving? • 34% Somewhat • 25% Quite a bit • 19% A little bit • 13% A great deal • 8% Not at all
Why use video games and digital media to help children with ADHD?• Video game play requires the use of executive functioning skills.• Other skills such as organization and metacognitive skills are required for success.• Both simple and complex video games regularly use skills such as planning, cognitive flexibility, self-control, and time management.• Many games specifically tax working memory skills and attentional skills.
Why use video games and digital media to help kids with ADHD? Kids with ADHD or Video Games and Digital Media Attention DifficultiesMay become easily bored and • Require ever-changing skills unable to sustain attention • Employ video, sounds, words, and actions • Multi-modal Often require immediate • Provide clear and immediate feedbackreinforcement or consequence • Constantly let player know what he is to stay focused on a task. doing wrong and rightOften require that their body or • Extremely engaging mind to be actively engaged. • Many require physical and cognitive involvement
Why use video games and digital media to help kids with ADHD? Kids with ADHD or Attention Video Games and Digital Media Difficulties Usually have problems with • Teach by trial and error or following directions. guided discovery • Require that the player understand the instructions in order to succeed May struggle to learn new • Most negative feed back from information and experience video games and other digitalfrustration or low self-esteem as a media occurs privately. result. • Causes less embarrassment and frustration • Teaches the player how to handle these emotions
What are the characteristics of interventions that work best with children With ADHD?• Point of performance interventions• Immediacy of feedback• Powerful and engaging feedback and meaningful consequences• Multimodal presentations and multiple intervention agents• Individualized to child’s capacities• Strategic teaching principles including: previewing, setting explicit goals, partnering, metacognition, and generalization strategies
Why do children with ADHD not become scholars after playing video games?• Existing games are generally not designed to promote skills in children with ADHD.• Existing games focus on other things, while using important thinking skills.• Metacognitive skills are not built into existing video games.• Generalization and strategic teaching skills are not built into existing game.
Research on Executive/Thinking Skills and Video Games• LWK pilot research on differentiated instruction, targeting areas of EF weakness with video games• Combination of board and video games improve fluid reasoning and processing speed (Mackey, 2011)• Working memory video games improve WM, fluid reasoning skills (Cogmed ) Intensity/duration• Computer-based training improves executive attention in preschoolers (Rueda, 2005)• Video game like math and reading programs improves learning, reduces attention symptoms• Games (non video) that increase cognitive load and used as a teaching tool by parents reduce ADHD symptoms in Preschoolers (Halperin, 2012)
How well do game based skills transfer to the real world?• Game play alone results in modest improvements in real-world executive skills• Children with learning and attention problems have problems in generalizing strategies• Kids like to talk about playing video games and may be willing to learn from that• Games prompt partnering and motivation to learn executive skills• Practice and rehearsal of executive skills
BUT…games are not enough!!!• The key to success is effective teaching or mediation (can be done in the game)• Teachers (including peers, parents, and imbedded instruction) make the connection between game-based learning and real-world skills• Actual learning requires knowledge of the skill, understanding how and when to use it, and practice across many situations
What can we do to make video games a moreproductive learning experience for children with ADHD? • Utilize a differentiated instructional model that identifies the specific skills that a child with ADHD needs to improve • Teach skills and then practice them in game and technology play • Talk about gameplay and skills, metacognitive approaches • Build generalization strategies, practice skills outside of the game • Consider duration and intensity of game play to practice skills • Mediated learning, including parents, psychologists, educat ors, and peers
Play Together• Talk before, during, and after gameplay. Choose gameplay goals with your child.• Have fun playing the game with your child!• Reflect on gameplay, emphasizing the use of the targeted thinking or academic skills.• Direct your discussion to how these same skills are useful in daily activities.
Make it Work• Explain the benefits of digital play, and introduce the skills being exercised in the game.• Encourage non-digital activities that use the same skills.• Regularly connect game-based skills to things your child is struggling with in the real-world.• Try different games and skills