The First Computer Game In 1952, A.S. Douglas wrote his PhD degree at the University of Cambridge on Human-Computer interaction. Douglas created the first graphical computer game - a version of Tic-Tac-Toe. The game was programmed on a EDSAC vacuum-tube computer, which had a cathode ray tube display. The EDSAC was the world's first stored-program computer to operate a regular computing service. Designed and built at Cambridge University, England, the EDSAC performed its first calculation on May 06, 1949 .
The First Computer Game The EDSAC, taken shortly after its completion in May 1949
The First Computer Game EDSAC under construction, c.1948
The First Computer Game Adjusting CRT monitor tubes, which showed contents of memory and registers
The First Computer Game Print out from the EDSAC's first programs
The First Computer Game Key punching a program for the EDSAC
The Second Computer Game William Higinbotham, head of the Brookhaven National Laboratory's Instrumentation Division in 1958, is thinking about how to entertain the people who will be touring the place in the fall. So, he does something that he thinks is fairly obvious. He puts together a little electronic circuit to play tennis on an oscilloscope. It takes him three weeks. “ Tennis for Two”
History of Game Design <ul><li>The history of game development can be broken down into: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The older more traditional board games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The more recent electric game </li></ul></ul>
History of Electric Game Design <ul><li>Video Games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first path started in 1951 when Martin Bromley launched Sega. Sega was originally founded in 1940 as Standard Games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Martin Bromley, Irving Bromberg, and James Humpert provided coin-operated amusements for American servicemen on military bases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bromley suggested that the company move to Tokyo, Japan in 1951 and in May 1952 " SE rvice GA mes of Japan" was registered. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This development launched the coin-operated games of the 1970s called Video Games . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These games later developed into the console games of today </li></ul></ul>
History of Electric Game Design <ul><li>Computer Games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Started in colleges and universities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>College programmers wanted to practice their skills and entertain themselves during breaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their efforts resulted in mainframe games that came on the market with the personal computer revolution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These types of games were called computer games . </li></ul></ul>
History of Video Games <ul><li>Arcade Games: Early arcade games consisted of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electromechanical pinball located in small amusement parks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As the games became more popular, the arcades </li></ul></ul><ul><li>became more accessible. </li></ul><ul><li>Locations were now </li></ul><ul><li>closer to schools and in </li></ul><ul><li>local neighborhoods. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often lacked a “family friendly” atmosphere. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These arcades became a very popular hangout area. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pinball Machine of this era includes: </li></ul></ul>
Video Games – Space War <ul><li>Developed in 1961 by Steve Russell a MIT student. </li></ul><ul><li>The game started as a mainframe game and later marketed as Computer Space in the coin-op arcades of 1971. </li></ul><ul><li>This game is believed to have started the “ coin-op ” industry. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1978, Space Wars was introduced and adapted from the original game. </li></ul>
Video Games – Space Wars Steve Russell programmed the first version of Spacewar!
Video Games – Space Wars Two players using the front-panel of a PDP-12 to play Spacewar at the Vintage Computer Festival
Video Games – Pong <ul><li>In 1958, Willy Higginbotham of Brookhaven National Laboratories in New York released a primitive table tennis game. </li></ul><ul><li>Magnavox Odyssey later converted it to a “table tennis” game in 1970. </li></ul><ul><li>Atari released “Pong” in 1972 and became the first successful coin-op arcade game. </li></ul><ul><li>Magnavox sued Atari over the idea and it was settled out of court. </li></ul>
Video Games – Asteroids <ul><li>Atari later developed a very successful arcade game - Asteroids, which became the first blockbuster for Atari. </li></ul><ul><li>It was also the first game to allow users to enter their initials after they achieved a high score. </li></ul><ul><li>This game, developed by Ed Long, used monochrome vector graphics, instead of pixels. </li></ul>
Video Games – Asteroids Click to begin animation
Video Games – Asteroids 2007 Paul Neave www.neave.com
Chuck E Cheese’s Pizza Atari owner Nolan Bushnell Pizza with your game-Atari owner Nolan Bushnell wanted to clean up the stigma associated with video arcades, so he placed video games in a pizza parlor. Known as Chuck E. Cheese , customers were offered tokens with their orders. They could play games while waiting for pizza.
Space Invaders The first "slide-and-shoot" game, Space Invaders has players piloting a laser base that moves right and left along the bottom of the screen, firing upward at descending aliens. Each wave of invaders consists of 55 enemies grouped in 11 columns, moving in unison horizontally, and dropping a level each time they reach either side of the screen. The player's job is to destroy the invaders before they reach the bottom of the playfield. Eliminating the Mystery Ship that flies intermittently over the top row of invaders will earn the player Bonus points. Positioned across the lower section of the screen lie four bunkers, under which players can hide. However, the bunkers erode piece-by-piece when shot by enemy or friendly fire. In addition to being the first of its type, Space Invaders was the first game to post a continuous high score. Other features include menacing sound effects, addictive gameplay and a high degree of character design and animation. The game was enormously popular, with more than 60,000 machines sold in its first year in the U.S. It was such a hit in Japan it caused a shortage of the 100-yen piece used to play the game.
Pac Man Pac Man was released in 1980, by Namco. It appealed to a larger market with out the shooter aspect. Over 300,000 units were sold making Pac-man the most popular game in arcade history. Pac-man had levels and in later spin offs. Ms. Pac man used plot structure and animated sequences. The Ms. Pac-man game also appealed to girls and families thus widening the market.
Centipede Centipede, Atari Inc., 1981. Designed by Ed Logg and Dona Bailey, Centipede was the first arcade game from a woman designer. Colorful graphics and ingenious game play made Centipede the first game to attract more female fans than male.
Donkey Kong Nintendo released Donkey Kong in 1981 when arcades were new and popular. Gas stations, fast food places and other restaurants were sure to have one of the many one-quarter arcades that had been produced. Players controlled a construction worker (or carpenter) known as Jumpman who tried to get back his girlfriend Pauline from a huge gorilla known as Donkey Kong (which means " Stupid Monkey ") by jumping over several obstacles and climbing up ladders. The single-screen game was a big hit