# Scientific Method

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### Scientific Method

1. 1. Scientific Method How Scientists Do Science
2. 2. Science is  A process of Discovery  Determining Cause and Effect
3. 3. How does this work?
4. 4. Watch out for BOLD vocabulary words!
5. 5. Scientific Method 1. Observation – uses 5 senses, a fact 2. Inference – Why do I think (what ever I observed) happened? 3. Hypothesis – Statement of reasonable guess what happened  “If….then….”
6. 6. Scientific Method (cont.) 4. Controlled Experiment – way of testing the hypothesis/guess  More on this…. 4. Conclusion – seeing if the data from the experiment agrees with the hypothesis  It’s ok if it doesn’t!
7. 7. Lets put Science into Action  Observation  Inference  Hypothesis  Controlled Experiment  Conclusion
8. 8. Controlled Experiment  The heart of science  Eliminates other causes so we can link a single cause with a single event.
9. 9. Controlled Experiment  Hypothesis: If the water is polluted, then the fish will die.  Cause: Pollution  Effect: Death  Set up 2 groups to test the hypothesis  Control Group: Normal Conditions  No pollution in the water  Experimental Group: Change one thing  Put pollution in the water
10. 10. Controlled Experiment  Independent Variable – What have I changed?  Presence or absense of pollution  Dependent Variable – What will I measure?  Number of dead fish
11. 11. Controlled Experiment Synonyms Independent Variable Manipulated Variable Cause Ex. Pollution Dependent Variable Responding Variable Effect Ex Fish Deaths
12. 12. Other parts of an experiment  Controlled Variables – all the other stuff that could effect the experiment.  This has to be kept the same between the experimental and control groups.
13. 13. Data – Chart form Independent Variable Dependent Variable No Pollution 43 live fish, 2 dead fish Pollution 20 live fish, 30 dead fish
14. 14. Data – Graph form X axis – Independent Variable – Quantity of Pollution Yaxis–DependentVariable– Numberoflivefish
15. 15. We will spend more time on graphing as it is ALWAYS on the Regents…and also on your test.
16. 16. Use the Data to draw a Conclusion  Hypothesis: If the water is polluted, then the fish will die.  Does the data agree (confirm) or disagree (refute) our hypothesis?  It is ok to disprove a hypothesis. What else might be going on?
17. 17. Are there any new questions that could be asked? Creative Thinking is Key! Be Curious About the World
18. 18. Science builds on prior knowledge There is always more to learn! Experiment Experiment New questions New Questions New Experiment New Experiment More new Questions More New Questions More new questions More new questions
19. 19. A few more terms  Theory – an accumulated body of knowledge that is well tested and unifies a broad range of observations  Gene-Chromosome Theory of Genetics  Cell Theory of Life  Evolutionary Theory  Law – an accepted fact  Law of Gravity