Organelles

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Cell Organelles

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Organelles

  1. 1. The Cell The foundation of life
  2. 2. Levels of Organization Big/ Complex Small/ Simple Multicellular Organism Organ Systems Organs Tissues Cells Organelles
  3. 4. Eukaryotes vs Prokaryotes <ul><li>Most times, when we talk about cells, we are talking about Eukaryotes and their cell organelles. </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryotes do not have cell organelles. Single circular DNA strand </li></ul><ul><li>Always one celled organism </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria & Archaebacteria </li></ul>
  4. 5. Cell Organelles <ul><li>Function like little organs inside the cell to keep life processes going </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials brought in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finished products move out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients (food) in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste products out </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. 1. Mitochondria <ul><li>Breaks down food molecules to release energy (ATP) </li></ul><ul><li>Inner membrane has folds that increase surface area for chemical reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Contain its own DNA </li></ul>
  6. 8. 2. Golgi Bodies/ Apparatus <ul><li>Packaging and secreting organelle products </li></ul><ul><li>Attach carbohydrates and lipids to proteins </li></ul>
  7. 9. 3. Lysosomes <ul><li>“ Garbage Disposal”/ Recycling Center </li></ul><ul><li>Filled with catabolic (digestive) enzymes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>worn out cell parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>food </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. 4. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) <ul><li>Transportation system or “Cell Subway” </li></ul><ul><li>Moves materials from the cell membrane to the nuclear membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Rough has ribosomes embedded in it </li></ul>1   Nucleus     2   Nuclear pore     3  Rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER)     4  Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER)     5   Ribosome on the rough ER     6   Proteins that are transported     7  Transport vesicle     8   Golgi apparatus     9  Cis face of the Golgi apparatus     10  Trans face of the Golgi apparatus     11  Cisternae of the Golgi apparatus
  9. 11. 5. Nucleus <ul><li>“ Brain” of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Location of several specialized features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear Envelope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleolus – assembly of ribosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromatin </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. 6. Ribosomes <ul><li>Protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>On ER or free floating in cytoplasm </li></ul>
  11. 13. 7. Cell Membrane/ Plasma Membrane <ul><li>Cell “skin” </li></ul><ul><li>Absorbtion </li></ul><ul><li>Lipid Bilayer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds the cell as a single unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulates what enters and exits the cell (cell transport) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. 8. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) <ul><li>Distribution system </li></ul><ul><li>Lipid Synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No Ribosomes </li></ul></ul>1   Nucleus     2   Nuclear pore     3  Rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER)     4  Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER)     5   Ribosome on the rough ER     6   Proteins that are transported     7  Transport vesicle     8   Golgi apparatus     9  Cis face of the Golgi apparatus     10  Trans face of the Golgi apparatus     11  Cisternae of the Golgi apparatus
  13. 15. 9. Vacuole <ul><li>Warehouse </li></ul><ul><li>Stores food, water and waste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single Large one in Plant cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many smaller ones in Animal Cells </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. 10. Cytoplasm <ul><li>The “grounds” of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site for chemical reactions to occur </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. 11. Chromatin <ul><li>Contains DNA and proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Condenses to form chromosomes </li></ul>
  16. 18. 12. Nucleolus <ul><li>Structure in the center of the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Creates the Ribosomes </li></ul>
  17. 19. 13. Nuclear Cytoplasm
  18. 20. 14. Centriole <ul><li>Specialized structure that is attachment point for spindle fibers during mitosis </li></ul><ul><li>“Anchor” </li></ul><ul><li>Only in Animal Cells </li></ul>
  19. 21. What is one way animal cells differ from plant cells <ul><li>Centrioles – present in animal cells, not present in plant cells </li></ul>
  20. 22. Plant Cells <ul><li>Some of the same structures, some different structures </li></ul>
  21. 23. Plant Cells <ul><li>Vacuole </li></ul><ul><li>Cell Wall* </li></ul><ul><li>Golgi Apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth ER </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Rough ER </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul>
  22. 24. Plant Cells <ul><li>Cell Membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatin </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleolus </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear Envelope </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplast* </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul>
  23. 25. Cell Wall <ul><li>Rigid structure outside the cell membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made of cellulose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Support and protect the plant cell </li></ul>
  24. 26. Chloroplasts <ul><li>Round structures involved in photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Change light energy into chemical energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Dioxide + Water  Glucose + Oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll is one of the chemicals in chloroplasts responsible for trapping light energy. It’s a green pigment. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. Chloroplast
  26. 28. What are three ways in which plant cells differ from animal cells? <ul><li>No centrioles </li></ul><ul><li>Cell Wall (with cellulose, a carbohydrate) </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts </li></ul>
  27. 29. Occasionally Cilia or Flagella <ul><li>Locomotion </li></ul><ul><li>Cilia – a lot of little “hairs” </li></ul><ul><li>Flagella – a single long tail </li></ul>

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