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5-4 Classifying Reactions

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5-4 Classifying Reactions

  1. 1. <ul><li>Write the formula for the following compounds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potassium hydroxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>KOH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfur dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SO 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron (II) phosphate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fe 3 (PO 4 ) 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tetracarbon octahyride </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C 4 H 8 </li></ul></ul></ul>Warm-up ( own paper )
  2. 2. 5-4 Types of reactions <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classify chemical reactions as synthesis, decomposition, single-replacement, double-replacement, or combustion reactions. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Classifying Reactions <ul><li>Three classes (types) of matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid, liquid, gas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reactions can also be classified differently. </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis – combining two reactants to make one product. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A + B  AB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2H 2 + O 2  2H 2 O </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Classifying Reactions <ul><li>Decomposition – Compound breaks down into two or more simpler substances. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AB  A + B </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CaCO 3  CaO + CO 2 </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Classifying Reactions <ul><li>Single replacement – one element takes the place of another element in a compound. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A + BC  B + AC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cu + 2AgNO 3  Cu(NO 3 ) 2 + 2Ag </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Activity Series <ul><li>After experimentation chemists compiled a list of elements arranged in decreasing activity. </li></ul><ul><li>The element at the top of the list will replace those elements at the bottom. </li></ul>Activity series of Metals Lithium (Li) Potassium (K) Calcium (Ca) Sodium (Na) Magnesium (Mg) Aluminum (Al) Zinc (Zn) Reactivity Decreases Iron (Fe) Lead (Pb) Hydrogen (H) Copper (Cu) Mercury (Hg) Silver (Ag)
  7. 8. Classifying Reactions <ul><li>Double Replacement – two different compounds exchange positive ions and form two new compounds. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AB + CD  AD + CB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pb(NO 3 ) 2 + 2KI  PbI 2 + 2KNO 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CaCO 3 + 2HCl  CaCl 2 + H 2 CO 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 CO 3  CO 2 + H 2 O </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Combustion <ul><li>A reaction in which a substance reacts rapidly with oxygen, often producing heat and light. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C x H y + O 2  CO 2 + 2H 2 O (+ Heat + Light) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most combustion reactions are with carbon (organic compounds.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2H 2 + O 2  2H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combustion of hydrogen, but also a synthesis. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. 5-4 Summary <ul><li>What are the five types of reactions? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decomposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single-replacement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double-replacement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combustion </li></ul></ul>

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