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Body Mass Index

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Body Mass Index

  1. 1. Dr.R.Kalidasan Assistant Professor (SG) Department of Physical Education Bharathidasan University Tiruchirappalli-620 024 BODY MASS INDEX (BMI) 18/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan
  2. 2. Body Mass Index [BMI] (or) Quetelet index It is calculated from once height and weight. BMI is measure of body fat based on height and weight. It is a useful measure of  overweight  obesity 28/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan
  3. 3. BMI is an estimate of body fat a good gauge of once risk for diseases that can occur with more body fat 38/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan
  4. 4. Adolphe Quetelet Belgian Astronomer Mathematician Statistician Sociologist Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quetelet (22.02.1796 – 17.02.1874) BMI initially devised by Adolphe Quetelet & he called it as “Social Physics”(1830-1850). 48/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan
  5. 5. Ancel Keys American scientist Diet and Health Coined the term “Body mass index” in his paper Published in ‘Journal of Chronic Diseases’- July 1972 Ancel Benjamin Keys (26.01.1904 – 20.11.2004) 58/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan
  6. 6. 8/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan 6 Legislation In France, Israel, Italy and Spain, legislation has been introduced banning usage of fashion show models having a BMI below 18. In Israel, a BMI below 18.5 is banned. This is done in order to fight anorexia among models and people interested in fashion.
  7. 7. The BMI is an attempt to quantify the amount of tissue mass (muscle, fat, and bone) in an individual, and then categorize that person as underweight normal weight overweight or obese based on that value. 78/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan
  8. 8. 88/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan
  9. 9. The BMI is universally expressed in kg/m2, resulting from mass in kilograms and height in metres. If pounds and inches are used, a conversion factor of 703 (kg/m2)/(lb/in2) must be applied. 98/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan
  10. 10. When the term BMI is used informally, the units are usually omitted. 108/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan
  11. 11. 8/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan 11
  12. 12. BMI Categories Underweight = <18.5 Normal weight = 18.5–24.9 Overweight = 25–29.9 Obesity = BMI of 30 or greater 128/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan
  13. 13. These ranges of BMI values are valid only as statistical categories. Category BMI (kg/m2) BMI Prime from to from to Very severely underweight 15.0 0.60 Severely underweight 15 16 0.60 0.64 Underweight 16 18.5 0.64 0.74 Normal (healthy weight) 18.5 25 0.74 1.0 Overweight 25 30 1.0 1.2 Obese Class I (Moderately obese) 30 35 1.2 1.4 Obese Class II (Severely obese) 35 40 1.4 1.6 Obese Class III (Very severely obese) 40 1.6 138/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan
  14. 14. BMI Categories 148/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan
  15. 15. 158/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan
  16. 16. Limitations Although BMI can be used for most men and women, it does have some limits: •It may overestimate body fat in athletes and others who have a muscular build. •It may underestimate body fat in older persons and others who have lost muscle. •Above calculation shouldn’t be used for pregnant women or children. 168/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan
  17. 17. 8/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan 17 BMI is a useful measurement for most people over 18 years old. The BMI adds roughly 10% for a large (or tall) frame and subtracts roughly 10% for a smaller frame (short stature). But it is only an estimate and it doesn’t take into account gender age ethnicity body composition
  18. 18. 8/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan 18 Alternative methods Body composition for athletes is often better calculated using measures of body fat, as determined by such techniques as Skinfold measurements Underwater weighing the limitations of manual measurement have also led to new, alternative methods to measure obesity, such as the body volume index. Corpulence index for Sports person
  19. 19. 198/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan
  20. 20. Category BMI (kg/m2) From To Low 18.5 Normal 18.5 25 Obese (Level 1) 25 30 Obese (Level 2) 30 35 Obese (Level 3) 35 40 Obese (Level 4) 40 Japan Japan Society for the Study of Obesity (2000) 208/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan
  21. 21. Category BMI (kg/m2) from to Underweight 18.5 Normal Range 18.5 23 Overweight—At Risk 23 25 Overweight—Moderately Obese 25 30 Overweight—Severely Obese 30 Hong Kong The Hospital Authority of Hong Kong recommends - BMI ranges 218/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan
  22. 22. 228/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan
  23. 23. 238/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan
  24. 24. Underweight (BMI of less than 18.5) •Malnutrition •Eating disorder •Other health problems 248/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan
  25. 25. The higher the BMI, the greater the risk of certain diseases, including Hypertension (high blood pressure) Coronary heart disease Gallbladder disease Breathing problems Dyslipidemia Stroke Osteoarthritis Certain cancers–breast, colon & so on Type 2 diabetes 258/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan
  26. 26. 8/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan 26 Category BMI Prime Underweight Below 0.74 Normal (healthy weight) 0.74 to 1.00 Overweight 1.00 & above BMI Prime A modification of the BMI system, is the ratio of actual BMI to upper limit optimal BMI (currently defined at 25 kg/m2). For instance, a person with BMI 34 kg/m2 has a BMI Prime of 34/25 = 1.36, and is 36% over their upper mass limit. Upper limit optimal BMI values varies region to region.
  27. 27. 8/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan 27 Modified body mass index (mBMI) The mBMI can be obtained by multiplying the BMI by serum albumin, in grams per litre.
  28. 28. 8/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan 28 OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY - MANAGEMENT Lifestyle change Exercise to burn fat Exercise for overweight or obesity Yoga
  29. 29. 298/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan
  30. 30. 308/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan Waist Circumference Helps - screen for possible health risks that come with overweight and obesity. This risk goes up with a waist size that is greater than 35 inches for women or greater than 40 inches for men. Higher risk for heart disease and type 2 diabetes
  31. 31. 318/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan
  32. 32. Risk factors for diseases and conditions associated with obesity •High blood pressure (hypertension) •High LDL cholesterol ("bad" cholesterol) •Low HDL cholesterol ("good" cholesterol) •High triglycerides •High blood glucose (sugar) •Family history of premature heart disease •Physical inactivity •Cigarette smoking 328/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan
  33. 33. 338/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan ?
  34. 34. 348/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan Fitness strength condition suitability adaptability Fitness level varies individual to individual. Fitness has become a national concern. Exercises or physical activity are basically cost effective medicine.
  35. 35. 358/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan Fitness – Benefits Efficiency in work and performance Resistance to Disease Efficient functional of various systems of the body Aging process and longevity Proportionate development of body Mental Health & Alertness Preparedness for emergency Success in Games and Sports Fitness is one’s richest passion. It cannot be purchased, but it is to be earned through daily routine of Physical exercise.
  36. 36. 368/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan Exercise ‘exercise’ - as an orderly or systematic movement of body part/s with or without equipments with an objective of better performance Generally exercises are focused on improving the motor qualities; rhythm etc and most of the exercises are repeated to get perfection.
  37. 37. 8/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan 37 Sport (or sports) - competitive activity 8,000 Sport disciplines* *World Sports Encyclopedia (2003)
  38. 38. 388/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan To develop sports culture among our people. Mass participation in sports and games is to be encouraged. Sports Infrastructure is to be developed in all school, college, universities, district, taluks, municipalities and panchayats.
  39. 39. 8/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan 39
  40. 40. 8/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan 40 Anthropology Human Biology Anthropometry Kinanthropometry Kinanthropometry is a specialized science which link human structure and function measuring body dimensions such as height, weight, body composition, shape and proportion. Sports Anthropometry
  41. 41. 8/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan 41 The International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) was formed in 1986. ISAK has developed international standards for anthropometric assessment and an International anthropometry accreditation scheme. The accreditation scheme is based on the concept of a four level hierarchy Level I, II, III & IV which has value for four years. So far more over 3000 anthropometrists from over 49 countries have been accredited in anthropometric measurement techniques under this scheme.
  42. 42. 8/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan 42
  43. 43. 8/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan 43 ANTHROPOMETRIC PROFILING Presently, the following 39 measurements shall constitute full anthropometric profiling. The measurements are divided into five broad categories: Basic, Skinfolds, Girths, Lengths and Breadths. Basic Skinfolds Girths Lengths Breadths Mass Stature Sitting height Triceps Sub scapular Biceps Iliac Crest Supraspinale Abdominal Front thigh Medial calf Head Neck Arm (relax) Arm (flexed and tensed) Forearm (maximum) Wrist (distal styloids) Chest (mesosternale) Waist (minimum) Gluteal (hips) Thigh (1 cm gluteal) Thigh (mid-troch-tib. Lat.) Calf (maximum) Ankle (minimum) Acromiale-radiale Radiale-stylion Midstylion-dactylion Iliospinale height Trochanterion height Trochanterion-tibiale laterale Tibiale laterale height Tibiale mediale-sphyrion tibiale Biacromial Biiliocristal Foot length Transverse chest A-P chest depth Humerus Femur In future the number of measurement may likely to increase.
  44. 44. 448/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan
  45. 45. 8/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan 45 BMI cut-offs as per new recommendations BMI of 23 kg/m2 will now be considered overweight (compared to the earlier level of 25). BMI of 25 will be considered clinically obese (compared to the earlier level of 30). The waist circumference considered unhealthy for Indian men is now 90cm or 35.4” (it is 102cm/40.1” globally) and 80cm or 31.5” for Indian women (as opposed to 88cm/34.6”).
  46. 46. 8/5/2017 BMI - Kalidasan 46