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Structured Data: It's All About the Graph!

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Presentation to the Benchmark Conference
Manchester 11th September 2019

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Structured Data: It's All About the Graph!

  1. 1. Structured Data: It’s All About The Graph! 1 Benchmark Search & Digital Conference Manchester 11th September 2019 Richard Wallis Evangelist and Founder Data Liberate richard.wallis@dataliberate.com @rjw
  2. 2. Independent Consultant, Evangelist & Founder W3C Community Groups: • Bibframe2Schema (Chair) – Standardised conversion path(s) • Schema Bib Extend (Chair) - Bibliographic data • Schema Architypes (Chair) - Archives • Financial Industry Business Ontology – Financial schema.org • Tourism Structured Web Data (Co-Chair) • Schema Course Extension • Schema IoT Community • Educational & Occupational Credentials in Schema.org richard.wallis@dataliberate.com — @rjw 40+ Years - Computing 29+ Years – Cultural Heritage technology 18+ Years – Semantic Web & Linked Data Works With: • Google – Schema.org vocabulary, site, extensions. documentation and community • OCLC – Global library cooperative • FIBO – Financial Industry Business Ontology Group • Various Clients – Implementing/understanding Schema.org: British Library — Stanford University — Europeana — NLB Singapore
  3. 3. It’s All About The Graph! Structured Data Wots a Graph?!
  4. 4. It’s All About The Graph! Structured Data Wots a Graph?! Graph picture: metaphactory
  5. 5. It’s All About The Graph! Structured Data Wots a Graph?! Graph picture: metaphactory Semantic Graph
  6. 6. Knowledge Graph
  7. 7. Knowledge Graph Things, not Strings The Knowledge Graph enables you to search for things, people or places that Google knows about—landmarks, celebrities, cities, sports teams, buildings, geographical features, movies, celestial objects, works of art and more—and instantly get information that’s relevant to your query.
  8. 8. Knowledge Graph
  9. 9. Knowledge Graph
  10. 10. Knowledge Graph
  11. 11. Knowledge Graph
  12. 12. Knowledge Graph
  13. 13. Knowledge Graph
  14. 14. Knowledge GraphSearch Index • An Index of Strings • Referenced to pages they come from • Pages ranked • Ordered search result pages • Provides choices for the user to follow
  15. 15. Knowledge GraphSearch Index • A dataset of things [entities] • Description of entities • Attributes of entities • Relationships between entities • Authoritative relationships • Entity Context • Powers Rich Content • Drives context relevant answers: Who / Where / When / How / What • An Index of Strings • Referenced to pages they come from • Pages ranked • Ordered search result pages • Provides choices for the user to follow
  16. 16. Knowledge GraphSearch Index • A dataset of things [entities] • Description of entities • Attributes of entities • Relationships between entities • Authoritative relationships • Entity Context • Powers Rich Content • Drives context relevant answers: Who / Where / When / How / What • An Index of Strings • Referenced to pages they come from • Pages ranked • Ordered search result pages • Provides choices for the user to follow Both populated by Googlebot Semantic Graph
  17. 17. Knowledge Graph How do I get my stuff into it? Step 1 (SEO) • Get your pages crawled and indexed • If Googlebot doesn’t find your pages useful it’s unlikely data will be loaded Step 2 (Structured Data) • Describe the things the pages are about – as against the pages themselves • Use Schema.org • Relate them to other things – the author is a Person that needs describing - Don’t just provide a name and hope Google works out who it is! • Markup all your entities including your Organization – and link them together • Don’t worry about lists – marking up the individual things is more important • Preferably use JSON-LD – validate with tools + Google & Schema.org docs
  18. 18. Paris Weekends in Paris MyTourist.org Bob the Expert A very simple example site …… { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "TravelAgency", "name": "MyTourist.org", "url": "http://mytourist.org" }
  19. 19. Paris Weekends in Paris MyTourist.org Bob the Expert A very simple example site …… { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "TravelAgency", "name": "MyTourist.org", "url": "http://mytourist.org" }
  20. 20. Paris Weekends in Paris MyTourist.org Bob the Expert A very simple example site …… { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "TravelAgency", "name": "MyTourist.org", "url": "http://mytourist.org" } { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": ”Person", "name": "Robert Jones", "alternateName": "Bob the Expert", "url": "http://mytourist.org/bob" } { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "Article", "name": "Weekends in Paris", "author": "Bob the Expert", "about": "Paris", "url": "http://mytourist.org/A1" } { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": ["City","TouristDestination"], "name": "Paris", "url": "http://mytourist.org/Paris" }
  21. 21. Paris Weekends in Paris MyTourist.org Bob the Expert An example site …… { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "TravelAgency", "name": "MyTourist.org", "url": "http://mytourist.org" } { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": ”Person", "name": "Robert Jones", "alternateName": "Bob the Expert", "url": "http://mytourist.org/bob" } { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "Article", "name": "Weekends in Paris", "author": "Bob the Expert", "about": "Paris", "url": "http://mytourist.org/A1" } { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": ["City","TouristDestination"], "name": "Paris", "url": "http://mytourist.org/Paris" } A site of unconnected entities
  22. 22. Paris Weekends in Paris Bob the ExpertMyTourist.org { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "TravelAgency", "name": "MyTourist.org", "url": "http://mytourist.org" } { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": ”Person", "name": "Robert Jones", "alternateName": "Bob the Expert", "url": "http://mytourist.org/bob" } { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "Article", "name": "Weekends in Paris", "author": "Bob the Expert", "about": "Paris", "url": "http://mytourist.org/A1" } { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": ["City","TouristDestination"], "name": "Paris", "url": "http://mytourist.org/Paris" } { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "TravelAgency", "name": "MyTourist.org", "employee": "http://mytourist.org/bob", "url": "http://mytourist.org" }
  23. 23. MyTourist.org Bob the Expert Weekends in ParisParis { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "TravelAgency", "name": "MyTourist.org", "url": "http://mytourist.org" } { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": ”Person", "name": "Robert Jones", "alternateName": "Bob the Expert", "url": "http://mytourist.org/bob" } { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "Article", "name": "Weekends in Paris", "author": "Bob the Expert", "about": "Paris", "url": "http://mytourist.org/A1" } { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": ["City","TouristDestination"], "name": "Paris", "url": "http://mytourist.org/Paris" } { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "TravelAgency", "name": "MyTourist.org", "employee": "http://mytourist.org/bob", "url": "http://mytourist.org" } { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": ”Person", "name": "Robert Jones", "alternateName": "Bob the Expert", "worksFor": "http://mytourist.org", "url": "http://mytourist.org/bob" } { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "Article", "name": "Weekends in Paris", "author": "http://mytourist.org/bob", "about": "http://mytourist.org/Paris", "publisher": "http://mytourist.org", "url": "http://mytourist.org/A1" } { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": ["City","TouristDestination"], "name": "Paris", "subjectOf": "http://mytourist.org/A1", "url": "http://mytourist.org/Paris" }
  24. 24. MyTourist.org Bob the Expert Weekends in ParisParis { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "TravelAgency", "name": "MyTourist.org", "employee": "http://mytourist.org/bob", "url": "http://mytourist.org" } { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": ”Person", "name": "Robert Jones", "alternateName": "Bob the Expert", "worksFor": "http://mytourist.org ", "url": "http://mytourist.org/bob" } { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "Article", "name": "Weekends in Paris", "author": "http://mytourist.org/bob", "about": "http://mytourist.org/Paris", "publisher": "http://mytourist.org", "url": "http://mytourist.org/A1" } { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": ["City","TouristDestination"], "name": "Paris", "subjectOf": "http://mytourist.org/A1", "url": "http://mytourist.org/Paris" } A basic graph of entities
  25. 25. MyTourist.org Bob the Expert Weekends in ParisParis Knowledge Graph? A basic graph of entities Possibly could be included – KG: what are these entities? How do I get my stuff into it?
  26. 26. { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": ["City","TouristDestination"], "name": "Paris", "subjectOf": "http://mytourist.org/A1", "url": "http://mytourist.org/Paris" } { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": ["City","TouristDestination"], "@id": "http://mytourist.org/Paris", "name": "Paris", "subjectOf": "http://mytourist.org/A1", "sameAs": "https://www.geonames.org/2988507", "sameAs": "http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q90", "url": "http://mytourist.org/Paris" } MyTourist.org Bob the Expert Weekends in ParisParis Bob the Expert { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "TravelAgency", "name": "MyTourist.org", "employee": "http://mytourist.org/bob", "url": "http://mytourist.org" } { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": ”Person", "name": "Robert Jones", "alternateName": "Bob the Expert", "worksFor": "http://mytourist.org ", "url": "http://mytourist.org/bob" } { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "Article", "name": "Weekends in Paris", "author": "http://mytourist.org/bob", "about": "http://mytourist.org/Paris", "publisher": "http://mytourist.org", "url": "http://mytourist.org/A1" } { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "TravelAgency", "@id": "http://mytourist.org”, "name": "MyTourist.org", "employee": "http://mytourist.org/bob", "parentOrganization": "http://tminc.org", "url": "http://mytourist.org" }
  27. 27. { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": ["City","TouristDestination"], "name": "Paris", "subjectOf": "http://mytourist.org/A1", "url": "http://mytourist.org/Paris" } { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": ["City","TouristDestination"], "@id": "http://mytourist.org/Paris", "name": "Paris", "subjectOf": "http://mytourist.org/A1", "sameAs": "https://www.geonames.org/2988507", "sameAs": "http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q90", "url": "http://mytourist.org/Paris" } MyTourist.org Bob the Expert Weekends in ParisParis Bob the Expert Weekends in ParisParis { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "TravelAgency", "name": "MyTourist.org", "employee": "http://mytourist.org/bob", "url": "http://mytourist.org" } { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": ”Person", "name": "Robert Jones", "alternateName": "Bob the Expert", "worksFor": "http://mytourist.org ", "url": "http://mytourist.org/bob" } { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "Article", "name": "Weekends in Paris", "author": "http://mytourist.org/bob", "about": "http://mytourist.org/Paris", "publisher": "http://mytourist.org", "url": "http://mytourist.org/A1" } { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "TravelAgency", "@id": "http://mytourist.org”, "name": "MyTourist.org", "employee": "http://mytourist.org/bob", "parentOrganization": "http://tminc.org", "url": "http://mytourist.org" } { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": ”Person", "@id": "http://mytourist.org/bob”, "name": "Robert Jones", "alternateName": "Bob the Expert", "worksFor": "http://mytourist.org ", "sameAs": "https://linkedin.com/R.Jones" "url": "http://mytourist.org/bob" } { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "Article", "@id": "http://mytourist.org/A1”, "name": "Weekends in Paris", "author": "http://mytourist.org/bob", "about": "http://mytourist.org/Paris", "publisher": "http://mytourist.org", "isPartOf": "http://touristjournal.org/i "url": "http://mytourist.org/A1" } MyTourist.org
  28. 28. MyTourist.org Bob the Expert Paris Weekends in Paris Knowledge Graph Potentially these recognizable entities could be included in KG
  29. 29. Knowledge Graph Hey Google! Where can I get me a Chicken Chow Mein take out? - Why?
  30. 30. Knowledge Graph Hey Google! Where can I get me a Chicken Chow Mein take out? - Why? Query Analysis Where: location / offeror Chicken Chow Mein: Thing Take out: Service type Date, Time, location of query
  31. 31. Knowledge Graph Hey Google! Where can I get me a Chicken Chow Mein take out? Potential Answer Analysis Offers for Things: • Chicken Chow Mein • An authoritative description? • Good Reviews? Offered by Businesses : • Located nearby • Authoritative brand • Provide take out service • Are open • Good reviews? - Why? Query Analysis Where: location / offeror Chicken Chow Mein: Thing Take out: Service type Date, Time, location of query
  32. 32. Knowledge Graph Hey Google! Where can I get me a Chicken Chow Mein take out? Potential Answer Analysis Offers for Things: • Chicken Chow Mein • An authoritative description? • Good Reviews? Offered by Businesses : • Located nearby • Authoritative brand • Provide take out service • Are open • Good reviews? - Why? Query Analysis Where: location / offeror Chicken Chow Mein: Thing Take out: Service type Date, Time, location of query Answer: best match of query context to the contexts of KG entities
  33. 33. • The [structured] descriptions of the things in your site [can] form a semantic graph - Use links not strings as references • The Knowledge Graph wants to include the entities from your graph - But ideally wants them in context with the rest — Use external links • Use Schema.org and preferably JSON-LD • Use the checking tools – Structured Data & Rich Results Test Tools • Don’t worry too much about page/site descriptions - or lists of things • Googlebot [should] crawl all your structured data • Direct linking from answers [may] influence traffic stats • Bing, Yahoo!, Apple, Amazon and many others also have Knowledge Graphs It’s All About The Graph! Structured Data
  34. 34. • The [structured] descriptions of the things in your site [can] form a semantic graph - Use links not strings as references • The Knowledge Graph wants to include the entities from your graph - But ideally wants them in context with the rest — Use external links • Use Schema.org and preferably JSON-LD • Use the checking tools – Structured Data & Rich Results Test Tools • Don’t worry too much about page/site descriptions - or lists of things • Googlebot [should] crawl all your structured data • Direct linking from answers [may] influence traffic stats • Bing, Yahoo!, Apple, Amazon and many others also have Knowledge Graphs • Schema.org is much more than fancy keywords • Structured Data powers far more than Rich Snippets • It’s not rocket science • But it needs a bit of thought, experience, and understanding It’s All About The Graph! Structured Data
  35. 35. Benchmark Search & Digital Conference Manchester 11th September 2019 Richard Wallis Evangelist and Founder Data Liberate richard.wallis@dataliberate.com @rjw It’s All About The Graph! Structured Data

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