The Effectiveness of Management Planning in Ontario's Provincial Parks: A Human Dimensions Perspective
The Effectiveness of Management Planning in Ontarios Provincial Parks: A Human Dimensions Perspective Ryan Garnett, Nicholina Youroukos and R.J. Payne, School of Outdoor Recreation, Parks & Tourism, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario Parks and Protected Areas Research Forum of Manitoba (PPARFM) Winnipeg, Manitoba January 20-21, 2011
Effectiveness of Management PlanningIntroduction Ontarios Provincial Parks and Conservation Reserves Act (2006) Ecological integrity Ecologically sustainable outdoor recreation Park Management Planning Manual Process modeled on timber management planning 18 guidelines to be scrutinized by the Environmental Commissioner of Ontario To be posted on the Environmental Registry website Can this process be effective in producing management plans to meet the requirements on the new legislation?
Effectiveness of Management PlanningManagement Effectiveness Process approach Hockings (2003) Planning: appropriateness Inputs: data, information and knowledge Human Dimensions People: numbers, expectations, activities, locations, impacts Planning and managing parks requires data, information and knowledge about people Our approach Two aspects of the process, both requiring data, information and knowledge Values and Zoning
Effectiveness of Management PlanningValues Values are “... specific attribute[s] or feature[s] (Aboriginal, cultural, ecological or recreational) within a protected area that may require additional/special consideration during the planning process and subsequent management.” (OMNR, 2009) These are agency values; are they peoples (Aboriginal or non-Aboriginal) values? Personal and cultural values reside with people Does Ontario Parks have access to such data or information? Perhaps: Ontario Parks Camper Survey provides data on who, what, why, where Every three years Electronic data collection Large sample size (~35,000 respondents) Adapt it to understand how and why people use parks
Effectiveness of Management PlanningZoning Zoning is meant to reconcile visitor use and protection Does Ontario Parks have data or information to assist with the human dimensions aspects of zoning? Perhaps, but analysis required, and geo-referencing to put users in park spaces How can human dimensions information help: an example using Quetico Provincial Park Wilderness Perception Mapping (WPM) is a technique to apply wilderness recreationalists values of features, land usage and management strategies to a geospatial context for park management planning Wilderness perception depends on visitors characteristics Three different views of wilderness zoning in Quetico depending on users
Effectiveness of Management Planning Perceptual LevelFeature to Buffer Non Purist Neutralist Moderate Purist PuristArtifactualismCampsites 1 km 2 kmMaintained tracks 1 kmHuts / shelters 1 kmLogging sites / roads 1 km 1 km 2 km 3 kmHydro-development 1 km 2 km 3 kmMining sites 1 km 1 km 2 km 3 kmRemotenessRoads:Sealed 1 km 1 km 2 km 3 kmMetaled 1 km 2 km 3 km4WD 1 km 2 kmFoot tracks 1 kmAirfields:Aerodromes 1 km 1 km 2 km 3 kmAirstrips 1 km 2 km 2 kmNaturalnessVegetation cover: 1 km 1 km 1 km 2 kmUrban/crop/pasture 1 km 1 km 2 kmExotic scrub 1 km 2 kmExotic forestSolitudeTracks with unacceptable use 1 km 1 km 1 kmHuts with unacceptable use 1 km 1 km 1 kmCampsites with unacceptable use 1 km 1 km 1 km
Effectiveness of Management PlanningWilderness Zoning for Wilderness Purist
Effectiveness of Management PlanningWilderness Zoning for Moderate Purist
Effectiveness of Management PlanningWilderness Zoning for Non-Purist
Effectiveness of Management PlanningConclusionsIs Ontario Parks Management Planning Process effective from a Human Dimensions point of view? No, it fails to incorporate peoples values into the process This, in spite of reasonable data on visitors, regularly collected No, it fails to incorporate visitor data and information in zoning No, the process itself, a timber management planning process, is not appropriate for park management planning Questions?