EDUC6751 Knowledge and Communication Technologies
Teaching Media Literacy   LECTURE SEVEN Robert J Parkes, PhD
The Media Saturated Society <ul><li>Mark Poster’s (1995) ‘Second Media Age’. </li></ul><ul><li>Rosenstone’s (2001) ‘post-l...
An Observation <ul><li>Media Studies is frequently absent as a curriculum space in schools and teacher education. </li></u...
Technological Proficiency vs  Media Literacy <ul><li>Examination of the recently developed Professional Teaching Standards...
What do the standards ask for?
What do the standards ask for?
As a Mandatory Program Requirement?
What is Media Literacy? <ul><li>All messages are constructed; </li></ul><ul><li>Media messages are constructed using a cre...
A Proposal <ul><li>The media literacy demands of subjects across the curriculum demonstrate the need for all pre-service t...
The Situation <ul><li>Like most Australian states, New South Wales does not have a discrete media studies curriculum space...
Media Studies as School Subject <ul><li>Media Studies is an unusual subject in the Australian school curriculum, in that i...
Media Studies as School Subject <ul><li>In England visual media were thought to be “the tools of capitalist seduction” (Go...
Media Studies as Media Production <ul><li>Quin (2003) argues that Media Studies as a practical subject focusing on media p...
Media Studies on the International Scene <ul><li>Media Studies as inoculation against “the dangers of media manipulation a...
20 Important Reasons to Study the Media <ul><li>By Chris Worsnop </li></ul><ul><li>Like history, because the media interpr...
20 Important Reasons to Study the Media <ul><li>By Chris Worsnop </li></ul><ul><li>Like philosophy, because the media inte...
Basic Media Literacy Concepts <ul><li>1. Media construct our culture.   </li></ul><ul><li>2. Media messages affect our tho...
Intermediate Media Literacy Concepts <ul><li>11. The human brain processes images differently than words.   </li></ul><ul>...
Advanced Media Literacy Concepts <ul><li>19. Our media system reflects the power dynamics in our society.   </li></ul><ul>...
Media Studies Across the Curriculum <ul><li>ENGLISH & LANGUAGES: Analysing and producing Television Commercials, Short Sto...
What Can Aristotle Tell Us? <ul><li>Rhetorical Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Ethos – Appeal to Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Lo...
Persuasive Techniques <ul><li>Association </li></ul><ul><li>Bandwagon </li></ul><ul><li>Beautiful People </li></ul><ul><li...
Culture Jamming <ul><li>Becoming a Media Activist </li></ul><ul><li>Creating Your Own Counter Adverts </li></ul>
The Problem <ul><li>Attention to the requirements for accreditation as a teacher in NSW neglects any mention of media lite...
The Promise of the Digital Revolution <ul><li>Goldfarb (2002).notes:  When digital technology emerged at the center of the...
The Promise of the Digital Revolution <ul><li>The promise of new media technologies is lost when they are reduced to a set...
What’s On Next? <ul><li>Coming Up: Teaching Information Literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Grafstein, A. (2002). A discipline-base...
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  1. 1. EDUC6751 Knowledge and Communication Technologies
  2. 2. Teaching Media Literacy LECTURE SEVEN Robert J Parkes, PhD
  3. 3. The Media Saturated Society <ul><li>Mark Poster’s (1995) ‘Second Media Age’. </li></ul><ul><li>Rosenstone’s (2001) ‘post-literate age’. </li></ul><ul><li>Norman Denzin’s (1995) ‘cinematic society’. </li></ul>
  4. 4. An Observation <ul><li>Media Studies is frequently absent as a curriculum space in schools and teacher education. </li></ul><ul><li>This neglect of Media Studies is mirrored at the policy level. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Technological Proficiency vs Media Literacy <ul><li>Examination of the recently developed Professional Teaching Standards of the NSW Institute of Teachers repeats the technological proficiency mantra at the cost of any compulsory attention to media production, representation, and reception (in other words, media literacy). </li></ul>
  6. 6. What do the standards ask for?
  7. 7. What do the standards ask for?
  8. 8. As a Mandatory Program Requirement?
  9. 9. What is Media Literacy? <ul><li>All messages are constructed; </li></ul><ul><li>Media messages are constructed using a creative language with its own rules; </li></ul><ul><li>Different people experience the same media message differently; </li></ul><ul><li>Media have embedded values and points of view; </li></ul><ul><li>Media are organised to gain profit and/or power. (Kellner & Share, 2005; 2007). </li></ul>
  10. 10. A Proposal <ul><li>The media literacy demands of subjects across the curriculum demonstrate the need for all pre-service teachers to be inducted into some form of media literacy education. </li></ul><ul><li>This extends beyond ‘technological competency’. </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Situation <ul><li>Like most Australian states, New South Wales does not have a discrete media studies curriculum space in schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Media production may be found explicitly embedded within a range of school subjects, including Technology and Applied Studies, English, and Visual Arts; and media criticism and analysis within only the later two. </li></ul><ul><li>Coupled with a public suspicion of the study of ‘popular texts and media’ exacerbated by a decade of conservative federal government, media studies rarely seems to find a place in initial teacher education programs. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Media Studies as School Subject <ul><li>Media Studies is an unusual subject in the Australian school curriculum, in that it often does not have its own ‘curriculum space’, but is addressed in some form within a range of school subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>The absence of Media Studies among the eight Key Learning Areas first announced in the Hobart Declaration of 1989, and its continued marginalisation in curriculum policy in favour of ‘technological competency’, makes it seem unlikely that it will register as a named subject in any National Curriculum of the near future. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Media Studies as School Subject <ul><li>In England visual media were thought to be “the tools of capitalist seduction” (Goldfarb, 2002, p. 6), and media education was believed to be an essential and critical pedagogical intervention that could challenge the detrimental influence of the media upon the young. </li></ul><ul><li>Quin (2003) argues that Media Studies arose within Australian curriculum “in response to a specific need, which was to find new subjects that would cater to the wide range of ability levels of students” who were being retained by schools at ages when once many would have left school to enter employment (p. 455). </li></ul>
  14. 14. Media Studies as Media Production <ul><li>Quin (2003) argues that Media Studies as a practical subject focusing on media production, whose practitioners have often rejected media theory and media criticism, failed to gain the status that is attained by those subjects that are constructed around arcane and abstract technical languages. </li></ul><ul><li>Media criticism and media production broke camps, and ended up in different curriculum locations. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Media Studies on the International Scene <ul><li>Media Studies as inoculation against “the dangers of media manipulation and addiction” (Kellner & Share, 2007, p. 60). </li></ul><ul><li>Media Studies as “self-expression through creating art and media” (Kellner & Share, 2007, p. 60). </li></ul><ul><li>Media Studies as an expanded notion of literacy to include engagement with popular texts, but which may or may not include media production. </li></ul>
  16. 16. 20 Important Reasons to Study the Media <ul><li>By Chris Worsnop </li></ul><ul><li>Like history, because the media interpret the past to us show us what has gone into making us the way we are.. </li></ul><ul><li>Like geography, because the media define for us our own place in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Like civics, because the media help us to understand the workings of our immediate world, and our individual places in it. </li></ul><ul><li>Like literature, because the media are major sources of modern culture and entertainment. </li></ul><ul><li>Like literature, because the media require us to learn and use critical thinking skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Like business, because the media are major industries and are inextricably involved in commerce. </li></ul><ul><li>Like language, because the media help define how we communicate with each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Like science and technology, because the media help us to learn technology by adopting the leading edge of modern technological innovation. </li></ul><ul><li>Like family studies, because the media determine much of our cultural diet and weave part of the fabric of our lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Like environmental studies, because the media are as big a part of our everyday environment as are trees, mountains, rivers, cities and oceans. </li></ul>
  17. 17. 20 Important Reasons to Study the Media <ul><li>By Chris Worsnop </li></ul><ul><li>Like philosophy, because the media interpret our world, its values and ideas to us. </li></ul><ul><li>Like psychology, because the media helps us (mis)understand ourselves and others. </li></ul><ul><li>Like science, because the media explain to us how things work. </li></ul><ul><li>Like industrial arts, because the media are carefully planned, designed and constructed products. </li></ul><ul><li>Like the arts, because through the media we experience all the arts as no other age has ever done. </li></ul><ul><li>Like politics, because the media bring us political and ideological messages all the time - yes - all the time. </li></ul><ul><li>Like rhetoric, because the media use special codes and conventions of their own languages that we need to understand. </li></ul><ul><li>Like drama, because the media help us understand life by presenting it as larger-than-life, and compel us to think in terms of the audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Like Everest, because they are there. </li></ul><ul><li>BECAUSE THE MEDIA GO TO GREAT LENGTHS TO STUDY YOU! </li></ul>
  18. 18. Basic Media Literacy Concepts <ul><li>1. Media construct our culture. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Media messages affect our thoughts, attitudes and actions. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Media use “the language of persuasion.” </li></ul><ul><li>4. Media construct fantasy worlds. </li></ul><ul><li>5. No one tells the whole story. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Media messages contain “texts” and “subtexts.” </li></ul><ul><li>7. Media messages reflect the values and viewpoints of media makers. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Individuals construct their own meanings from media. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Media messages can be decoded.   </li></ul><ul><li>10. Media literate youth and adults are active consumers of media. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Intermediate Media Literacy Concepts <ul><li>11. The human brain processes images differently than words. </li></ul><ul><li>12. We process time-based media differently than static media.   </li></ul><ul><li>13. Media are most powerful when they operate on an emotional level. </li></ul><ul><li>14. Media messages can be manipulated to enhance emotional impact. </li></ul><ul><li>15. Media effects are subtle. </li></ul><ul><li>16. Media effects are complex. </li></ul><ul><li>17. Media convey ideological and value messages. </li></ul><ul><li>18. We all create media. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Advanced Media Literacy Concepts <ul><li>19. Our media system reflects the power dynamics in our society. </li></ul><ul><li>20. Most media are controlled by commercial interests. </li></ul><ul><li>21. Media monopolies reduce opportunities to participate in decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>22. Changing the media system is a justice issue. </li></ul><ul><li>23. We can change our media system. </li></ul><ul><li>24. Media literate youth and adults are media activists. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Media Studies Across the Curriculum <ul><li>ENGLISH & LANGUAGES: Analysing and producing Television Commercials, Short Stories & Films, News Reports, and Reality TV </li></ul><ul><li>HISTORY & SOCIAL SCIENCES: (DaVinci Code Phenomenon) Analysing and producing Documentaries, Historical Novels, and Television News </li></ul><ul><li>MATHS: Reading statistics critically </li></ul><ul><li>MUSIC: Examining the persuasive and mood-altering effects of soundtracks (films, TV adverts, TV shows, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>SCIENCE: Analysing and producing documentaries and research reports </li></ul><ul><li>TECHNOLOGY: Analysing and producing websites, desktop published feature articles, short films, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>VISUAL ARTS: Analysing and producing advertisements, posters, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>HEALTH & PHYSICAL EDUCATION: Analysing and producing health promotion posters and adverts, and television info-mercials. </li></ul>
  22. 22. What Can Aristotle Tell Us? <ul><li>Rhetorical Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Ethos – Appeal to Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Logos – Appeal to Facts and Figures </li></ul><ul><li>Pathos – Appeal to Emotions </li></ul>
  23. 23. Persuasive Techniques <ul><li>Association </li></ul><ul><li>Bandwagon </li></ul><ul><li>Beautiful People </li></ul><ul><li>Bribes </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrities </li></ul><ul><li>Experts </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit Claims </li></ul><ul><li>Fear </li></ul><ul><li>Humor </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Weasel Words </li></ul><ul><li>Testimonials </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Straw Man </li></ul>
  24. 24. Culture Jamming <ul><li>Becoming a Media Activist </li></ul><ul><li>Creating Your Own Counter Adverts </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Problem <ul><li>Attention to the requirements for accreditation as a teacher in NSW neglects any mention of media literacy or production, in favour of a more narrowly defined ‘technological competency’ prescription. This seriously devalues the pedagogical potential of critical and aesthetic engagement with new media technologies, and underestimates what is required for a teacher to incorporate such technologies in their everyday practice. </li></ul><ul><li>The construction of technology as a set of competencies divorces it from the historical, social, and cultural contexts in which it is deployed, and within which it operates as a tool for meaning-making. </li></ul><ul><li>It is only by approaching technology through a media studies lens that we can even begin to move it from a limited ‘technical’ capacity to a ‘critical’ pedagogical tool. </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Promise of the Digital Revolution <ul><li>Goldfarb (2002).notes: When digital technology emerged at the center of the national culture and economy in the 1990s, it was almost unquestioned that digital media would be central to pedagogy, and that pedagogy would be the key to the potential of a new democratic media form that would go beyond education proper. (p. 7) </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Promise of the Digital Revolution <ul><li>The promise of new media technologies is lost when they are reduced to a set of technological competencies. </li></ul>
  28. 28. What’s On Next? <ul><li>Coming Up: Teaching Information Literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Grafstein, A. (2002). A discipline-based approach to information literacy. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 28 (4), 197-204. </li></ul>

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