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  1. 1. Point of View / Perspective The Semantics of Film-Making: Part IIThe Semantics of Film-Making: Part II
  2. 2. Point of View  Angle of Shot establishes Point of View or Perspective.  Reading visual images in terms of both the vertical and horizontal angles establishes whether the viewer is being positioned to adopt a subjective or objective point of view.
  3. 3.  Subjective images are those in which everything is arranged for the viewers, positioning them to adopt a particular stance with an image. The vertical angle defines the nature of the power relations between the viewer and the image.  Such images tend to the naturalistic, as opposed to the symbolic.. Subjective Perspective
  4. 4. High & Low Angles Low AngleLow Angle Literally,Literally, “looking up to someone”,“looking up to someone”, gives the power to the person beinggives the power to the person being looked upon. They are bigger thanlooked upon. They are bigger than the person doing the looking.the person doing the looking. High AngleHigh Angle Literally,Literally, “looking down on“looking down on someonesomeone”, gives the power to the”, gives the power to the audience, the people doing the looking.audience, the people doing the looking.
  5. 5. Literally, the audienceLiterally, the audience isis “on the same“on the same level” as the personlevel” as the person being looked at, orbeing looked at, or seeing themseeing them ““eye to eye”.eye to eye”. It conveys we areIt conveys we are Part of the samePart of the same social world!!social world!! No Angle
  6. 6.  Horizontal anglesHorizontal angles encode theencode the “involvement” of the reader“involvement” of the reader with the image through frontal and oblique points of view.with the image through frontal and oblique points of view.  There is a shift from the moreThere is a shift from the more “naturalistic” to the“naturalistic” to the predominance ofpredominance of significationsignification..  A particularA particular ‘mood’ is also created depending on the‘mood’ is also created depending on the gaze of the subject being filmed.gaze of the subject being filmed. Objective Perspective
  7. 7.  If the participants in an imageIf the participants in an image are depicted on the horizontalare depicted on the horizontal angle from the front, facingangle from the front, facing the camera squarely, then athe camera squarely, then a connection is establishedconnection is established between the representedbetween the represented participants and the viewer.participants and the viewer. Such a representation invitesSuch a representation invites the involvement of the viewerthe involvement of the viewer with the image.with the image. Frontal Angle: Connecting with the Viewer
  8. 8. EDUC6751 Knowledge andEDUC6751 Knowledge and Communication TechnologiesCommunication Technologies  When someone in an imageWhen someone in an image looks directly at the viewer, herlooks directly at the viewer, her gaze establishing a directgaze establishing a direct connection between her, theconnection between her, the represented participant, and therepresented participant, and the viewer, an interactive participant.viewer, an interactive participant. This establishes aThis establishes a demanddemand, as it, as it explicitly acknowledges theexplicitly acknowledges the viewer: the producers of theviewer: the producers of the image wish to influence theimage wish to influence the viewer in some way to enter intoviewer in some way to enter into an imaginary relation with thean imaginary relation with the represented participant.represented participant. Making Eye Contact: Demanding Attention
  9. 9.  Conversely, if the participants inConversely, if the participants in an image are depicted on anan image are depicted on an oblique angleoblique angle (i.e. the angle is not(i.e. the angle is not straight on) the reader is beingstraight on) the reader is being positioned to adopt apositioned to adopt a detacheddetached point of view. The participants arepoint of view. The participants are not recognised as part of thenot recognised as part of the “world” of the viewer: they are“world” of the viewer: they are “them” rather than “us”.“them” rather than “us”. Oblique Angle: Viewer as Detached Outsider
  10. 10. EDUC6751 Knowledge andEDUC6751 Knowledge and Communication TechnologiesCommunication Technologies  When someone in anWhen someone in an image does not look at theimage does not look at the viewer, the viewerviewer, the viewer’s role is’s role is that of an invisible andthat of an invisible and detached onlooker. Thisdetached onlooker. This constitutes anconstitutes an offeroffer, as the, as the represented participantsrepresented participants are depicted impersonallyare depicted impersonally as items of information oras items of information or objects for the viewer’sobjects for the viewer’s contemplation.contemplation. Looking Inside the Frame: Contemplative Offer