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Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical Students – A Guide in Scoring and Grading (Part3)

Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical Students – A Guide in Scoring and Grading (Part3)

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ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education
OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive
Learning
Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes
of Medical Students
Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical
Students – A Guide in Scoring and Grading (Part 3)
Subtitle: Tools in Measuring Knowledge, Skill and Attitude of Medical
Students - A Guide in Scoring and Grading (Part 3)
ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education
OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive
Learning
Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of
Medical Students
Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical
Students – A Guide in Designing a Master Blueprint (Part 1)
Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical
Students – A Guide in Designing the Tools (Part 2)
Recommended Prior Study:
• Assessment and Evaluation of Medical Students – ROJoson TPORs
• Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical Students – A
Guide in Designing a Master Blueprint (Part 1); A Guide in Designing the Tools
(Part 2)
ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education
OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive
Learning
Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical
Students – A Guide in Scoring and Grading (Part 3)
Learning objectives:
At the end of the session, the student must be able to:
• Define scoring.
• Define grading.
• Define points.
• Define raw scores.
• Give examples of translated scores from raw scores.
ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education
OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive
Learning
Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical
Students – A Guide in Scoring and Grading (Part 3)
Learning objectives:
At the end of the session, the student must be able to:
• Differentiate norm-referenced and criterion-referenced systems of
grading.
• Discuss the different methods on how to determine the pass or cut
score.
ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education
OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive
Learning
Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical
Students – A Guide in Scoring and Grading (Part 3)
Learning objectives:
At the end of the session, the student must be able to:
• Explain why medical schools should go for a criterion-referenced
system of scoring and grading.
• Discuss the limitations of scoring and grading systems in medical
schools.
• Discuss the usefulness of item analysis.
ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education
OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive
Learning
Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical
Students – A Guide in Designing a Master Blueprint (Part 1)
ROJoson recommended framework
for the design and development of tools to measure the global
accomplishment of the student learning and performance
Elements to
Measure
Tools to Use
to Measure
Performance
Indicators
Assessment
and
Evaluation
Program Educational
Objectives
Program Outcomes
Course-level Learning
Outcomes
Session-level Learning
Objectives
Ad

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Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical Students – A Guide in Scoring and Grading (Part3)

  • 1. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical Students Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical Students – A Guide in Scoring and Grading (Part 3) Subtitle: Tools in Measuring Knowledge, Skill and Attitude of Medical Students - A Guide in Scoring and Grading (Part 3)
  • 2. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical Students Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical Students – A Guide in Designing a Master Blueprint (Part 1) Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical Students – A Guide in Designing the Tools (Part 2) Recommended Prior Study: • Assessment and Evaluation of Medical Students – ROJoson TPORs • Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical Students – A Guide in Designing a Master Blueprint (Part 1); A Guide in Designing the Tools (Part 2)
  • 3. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical Students – A Guide in Scoring and Grading (Part 3) Learning objectives: At the end of the session, the student must be able to: • Define scoring. • Define grading. • Define points. • Define raw scores. • Give examples of translated scores from raw scores.
  • 4. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical Students – A Guide in Scoring and Grading (Part 3) Learning objectives: At the end of the session, the student must be able to: • Differentiate norm-referenced and criterion-referenced systems of grading. • Discuss the different methods on how to determine the pass or cut score.
  • 5. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical Students – A Guide in Scoring and Grading (Part 3) Learning objectives: At the end of the session, the student must be able to: • Explain why medical schools should go for a criterion-referenced system of scoring and grading. • Discuss the limitations of scoring and grading systems in medical schools. • Discuss the usefulness of item analysis.
  • 6. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical Students – A Guide in Designing a Master Blueprint (Part 1) ROJoson recommended framework for the design and development of tools to measure the global accomplishment of the student learning and performance Elements to Measure Tools to Use to Measure Performance Indicators Assessment and Evaluation Program Educational Objectives Program Outcomes Course-level Learning Outcomes Session-level Learning Objectives
  • 7. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical Students – A Guide in Designing the Tools (Part 2) GENERAL FORMAT OF A BLUEPRINT FOR EDUCATIONAL MEASURING TOOLS WITH SEVERAL LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES Contents for Assessment Plans Time allotment (overall) Weight (relative importance of contents) Number of questions Types of questions Instructions and notes LO1 LO2 LO3 LO4 LO5 *LO – Learning Objectives / Outcomes
  • 8. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical Students – A Guide in Scoring and Grading (Part 3) Assumptions on activities that have been undertaken: • The tools have been formulated. These consist of 3 categories: TEST-BASED TOOL, OBSERVATION-BASED TOOL, and PROJECT- BASED TOOL (per ROJoson recommendation for medical schools). • What will be done now are: PLANS ON HOW TO SCORE and HOW TO GRADE.
  • 9. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning SCORING AND GRADING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 2 distinct but interrelated and should be integrated systems: Scoring Management System Grading Management System TEST-BASED TOOLS (e.g. Written/Oral) OBSERVATION- BASED TOOLS (e.g. OSCE) PROJECT- BASED TOOLS (e.g. Case Study) Scoring Mgt System Grading Mgt System
  • 10. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning SCORING AND GRADING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 2 distinct but interrelated and should be integrated systems: Scoring Management System Grading Management System TEST-BASED TOOLS (e.g. Written/Oral) OBSERVATION- BASED TOOLS (e.g. OSCE) PROJECT- BASED TOOLS (e.g. Case Study) Scoring Mgt System Grading Mgt System Scoring and grading systems will be dependent on the type of educational measuring tools to be used. They may differ.
  • 11. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning SCORING vs GRADING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Scoring Management System refers to a set of policies, processes and procedures on scoring of educational measuring tools. Scoring refers to the process of assigning numerical units to represent points that students will get and/or have gotten in educational measuring tools such as test-based, observation-based and project- based tools.
  • 12. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning SCORING vs GRADING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Grading Management System refers to a set of policies, processes and procedures on grading of educational measuring tools. Grading refers to the process of applying standardized measurements for varying levels of achievements in a learning activity or course of study using the scores the students will get and/or have gotten in educational measuring tools such as test-based, observation-based and project-based tools.
  • 13. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning SCORING vs GRADING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM In terms of implementation of actual processes, there is a proper sequence: • Scoring precedes grading. • Assign scores and get scores before giving grades. However, in the formulation of the plan for scoring and grading, there is already integration of the two processes – how to score and how to grade are already placed in the plan.
  • 14. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning POINTS, MARKS, SCORES, RATINGS, GRADES etc. Some words of clarifications on use of terms which can be used interchangeably and which oftentimes cause confusion POINTS = MARKS SCORES MAY BE THE SAME AS POINTS BUT NOT ALL THE TIME. TOTAL POINTS = SCORES RATINGS USED IN BROADER SENSE THAN GRADES. GRADES UTILIZE THE SCORES FOR DECISION-MAKING. SCORES ARE CONVERTED TO GRADES.
  • 15. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning POINTS Points are numeric units which represent relative value or weight of importance determined by a teacher on specific items in educational measuring tools such as tests, observation technique and project- based technique. The total point gotten by the students in each educational measuring tool is the sum of all points assigned to each item of assessment. The total point gotten by the students is the sum of all points on correct answers and sum of all numeric values in a rating scale.
  • 16. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning POINTS on a test with a numeric value on each question or item Question or item Points assigned Student 1 Points gotten (correct answers) Student 2 Points gotten (correct answers) 1 3 3 3 2 2 2 0 3 2 2 0 4 3 3 3 5 5 5 0 Total Points = 15 Total = 15 (100%) Total = 6 (40%) Total points = Score (which may be the GRADE or not, if score will be standardized)
  • 17. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning POINTS on an assessment tool with rating scale with assigned values on each item (given an example of a student performance) LP1 LP2 LP3 LP4 LP5 Items / Criteria 1 2 3 4 5 1 ❸ 2 ❹ 3 ❺ Total points gotten by student = 12 Key: 1 – Very poor 2 – Poor 3 – Average 4 – Good 5 – Excellent There is an accompanying descriptor of criteria of level of performance. LP – Level of Performance with Descriptor Assigned points
  • 18. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning SCORES SCORES are numeric units which represent the total number of points that students will get and/or have gotten in educational measuring tools such as tests, observation technique and project-based technique. SCORES = TOTAL POINTS POINTS in specific or groups of items or questions – “scores” not usually used, but “points.”
  • 19. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning POINTS on a test with a numeric value on each question or item Question or item Points assigned Student 1 Points gotten (correct answers) Student 2 Points gotten (correct answers) 1 3 3 3 2 2 2 0 3 2 2 0 4 3 3 3 5 5 5 0 Total = 15 Total = 15 (100%) Total = 6 (40%) If above is the whole test, the total point of 15 of Student 1 is also the score; total points of 6 of Student 2 is the score. NOT SCORE but individual points for each item
  • 20. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning SCORES RAW SCORES – scores without any sort of adjustment or transformation such as simple number of questions answered correctly TRANSLATED SCORES – the result of some transformation(s) applied to the raw scores – adjusted and converted to a standardized grading system The score at which a student passes or fails is called the pass or cut score.
  • 21. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Translated Scores – Example Raw Scores (examples) Range of Scores Grade Point System Letter Grade System 96 95-100 1 A 92 90 -94 1.5 B 86 85-89 2 C 83 80-84 2.5 D 76 75-79 3 E 70 70-74 4 R 60 Below 70 5 F
  • 22. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Translated Scores – Example Raw Scores (examples) Norm- referenced scores Range of Scores Grade Point System Letter Grade System 96 Raw scores adjusted to the mean – 0.5 to 1 SD as the pass score based on norm- reference system 95-100 1 A 92 90 -94 1.5 B 86 85-89 2 C 83 80-84 2.5 D 76 75-79 3 E 70 70-74 4 R 60 Below 70 5 F
  • 23. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Translated Scores – Example Raw Scores (examples) Criterion- reference scores Range of Scores Grade Point System Letter Grade System 96 Raw scores adjusted to criterion- referenced system 95-100 1 A 92 90 -94 1.5 B 86 85-89 2 C 83 80-84 2.5 D 76 75-79 3 E 70 70-74 4 R 60 Below 70 5 F
  • 24. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning GRADES Grades can be assigned as letters (usually A through F), as a range (for example, 1 to 5), as a percentage, or as a number out of a possible total (often out of 100). Grades in medical schools are usually in numeric units. May be using raw scores or translated scores. May be using norm-referenced or criterion-referenced systems for the passing grades.
  • 25. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning GRADES GRADES CAN BE BASED ON RAW SCORES. For example, if 100 points is the total score, and a student got 100 points or total score, the student gets a grade of 100%. Another student got 90 points or total score, then this student gets a grade of 90%.
  • 26. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning GRADES GRADES can be based on TRANSLATED SCORES. If scores within 95 -100 points or score = Grade of 1 90 – 94 points or score = Grade of 1.5 85 – 89 points or score = Grade of 2 For example, a student got 93 total points or score, the student gets a grade of 1.5. Another student got 89 points or total score, then this student gets a grade of 2.
  • 27. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning GRADES GRADES CAN BE BASED ON: Norm-referenced vs Criterion-referenced Systems Norm-referenced means referencing how the score of a student compares to other students. (grading on a curve using mean and standard deviations) Criterion-referenced means referencing how the score compares to a criterion such as a cut score or a body of knowledge. (grading using a set of defined standards)
  • 28. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Determining the Pass or Cut Scores After constructing the educational measuring tools (test-based tools, observation-based tools, and project-based tools), the next step is to determine how to grade and most importantly, how to determine the pass or cut scores. Let us now FOCUS on how to determine the pass or cut scores. The score at which a student passes or fails is called the cut score or pass score or passing score. Minimum Pass Level (MPL) is another common term.
  • 29. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Determining the Pass or Cut Scores ROJoson’s Recommended Ways: Some Preliminaries • ROJoson’s categorization of educational measuring tools for medical students consist of TEST-BASED, OBSERVATION-BASED, AND PROJECT-BASED TOOLS. • TEST-BASED Tools consist of SELECTIVE OBJECTIVE TESTS and ORAL / ESSAY TESTS.
  • 30. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Determining the Pass or Cut Scores ROJoson’s Recommended Ways: Some Preliminaries • Scoring and grading systems will be dependent on the types of educational measuring tools. • The SELECTIVE OBJECTIVE TESTS will be managed differently from the ORAL / ESSAY TESTS, OBSERVATION-BASED and PROJECT-BASED Tools. • The ORAL / ESSAY Tools, OBSERVATION-BASED and PROJECT-BASED Tools will be managed similarly.
  • 31. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Determining the Pass or Cut Scores ROJoson’s Recommended Ways: Some Preliminaries Policies and Procedures on Scoring and Grading System • The medical school should come out with policies and procedures on its scoring and grading systems. • The students should be informed of these policies and procedures so that there will be NO misunderstanding.
  • 32. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Determining the Pass or Cut Scores ROJoson’s Recommended Ways: • The passing score for an educational measuring tool should be set in accordance with the purpose of the exam (formative, summative, knowledge, skills, attitude, etc.) • The passing score set for an educational measuring tool must be defensible, acceptable, and credible (not arbitrary).
  • 33. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Determining the Pass or Cut Scores ROJoson’s Recommended Ways: • The process of determining an effective and valid cut score for an educational measuring tool is referred to as standard setting. • This requires a properly selected panel of expert judges and a suitable standard setting method, which best fits the purpose of the educational measuring tool.
  • 34. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Determining the Pass or Cut Scores ROJoson’s Recommended Ways: There are a number of methods for determining the pass or cut scores, some of which are mentioned below: • Using norm-referenced system (or grading on a curve): the teacher computes for the mean and standard deviations and then decides whether the pass or cut score (or minimum pass level) is 0.5 or 1 deviations below the mean. Some would just use the mean as the pass or cut score. Critique: Designed to only pass the “best of the best”; relative standard as students of medicine need to be judged on their mastery of their professional content.
  • 35. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Determining the Pass or Cut Scores ROJoson’s Recommended Ways: There are a number of methods for determining the pass or cut scores, some of which are mentioned below: • Standard setting using criterion-referenced system: process of evaluating (and grading) the learning of students against a set of pre-specified qualities or criteria, without reference to the achievement of others. The pre-specified qualities or criteria are what students have to do during assessment in order to demonstrate that they have achieved the learning outcomes.
  • 36. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Determining the Pass or Cut Scores ROJoson’s Recommended Ways: There are a number of methods for standard setting using criterion- referenced system. • Institution’s policy on absolute pass score: commonly, 70% or 75% (just make sure that the tools are properly constructed and valid with clear criteria)
  • 37. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Determining the Pass or Cut Scores ROJoson’s Recommended Ways: There are a number of methods for standard setting, some of which are mentioned below: • Institution’s policy on absolute pass score: commonly, 70% or 75% • If flexibility is allowed, the teacher or panel of teachers can decide on the pass or cut score based on importance of content, level of expectations on the students’ learning and difficulty or ease of exam. Thus, some tests may have a pass or cut score of 65%; some, even 80%. This arrangement on flexibility will be defensible, acceptable, and credible.
  • 38. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Determining the Pass or Cut Scores ROJoson’s Recommended Ways: There are a number of methods for standard setting, some of which are mentioned below: FOR OBJECTIVE WRITTEN TESTS (MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS): • Nedelsky Method • Angoff Method • Ebel Method *Among the three, Angoff Method is most commonly used (and will be described below).
  • 39. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Determining the Pass or Cut Scores ROJoson’s Recommended Ways: The Angoff method relies on subject-matter experts (SMEs) who examine the content of each test question (item) and then predict how many minimally-qualified candidates would answer the item correctly. The average of the judges’ predictions for a test question becomes its predicted difficulty. The sum of the predicted difficulty values for each item averaged across the judges and items on a test is the recommended Angoff cut score (or minimum pass level – MPL). MPL = Sum of MPL of all items /no. of items x 100
  • 40. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Determining the Pass or Cut Scores ROJoson’s Recommended Ways: The Angoff method The experts assess each question and determine the percentage of 100 minimally competent students who will be able to answer the item correctly. The MPL of the test is computed as follows: MPL = Sum of MPL of all items /no. of items x 100
  • 41. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Determining the Pass or Cut Scores ROJoson’s Recommended Ways: The Angoff method Questions Points (one point each) MPL by experts (% will answer correctly) 1 1 0.6 2 1 0.7 3 1 0.9 ↓ 1 1.0 100 1 0.8 100 Points Sum (example = 65.5) MPL for whole test = (65.5 / 100) x 100 = 65.5
  • 42. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Determining the Pass or Cut Scores ROJoson’s Recommended Ways: Criterion-referenced System - Rubrics for ORAL / ESSAY TESTS Oral / Essay Questions No correct answers whatsoever (0 point) With correct answers but less than 50% complete (1 point) With correct answers more than 50% but less than 100% complete (2 points) With 100% complete correct answers (3 points) Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5
  • 43. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Determining the Pass or Cut Scores ROJoson’s Recommended Ways: Items / Criteria Level of performance with DESCRIPTOR and Points or Score Assigned Level of performance with DESCRIPTOR and Points or Score Assigned Level of performance with DESCRIPTOR and Points or Score Assigned Level of performance with DESCRIPTOR and Points or Score Assigned Level of performance with DESCRIPTOR and Points or Score Assigned 1 2 3 4 5 Criterion-referenced System – Rubrics for OBSERVATION and PROJECT-BASED TOOLS
  • 44. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Examples of Scoring and Grading Sheets being used by different institutions
  • 45. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning a Grade Point Equivalence Letter Grade Equivalence % Equivalence 4.0 A 92–100% 3.5 B+ 87–91% 3.0 B 83–86% 2.5 C+ 79–82% 2.0 C 75–78% 1.0 D 70–74% 0.0 F below 70% Letter Grade System
  • 46. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Grade Point Equivalence Equivalence Description 1.00 96–100% Excellent 1.25 94–95% Very Good 1.50 92–93% Very Good 1.75 89–91% Good 2.00 87–88% Good 2.25 84–86% Good 2.50 82–83% Fair 2.75 79–81% Fair 3.00 75–78% Pass 5.00 Below 75% Failure INC Incomplete Grade Point System
  • 47. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Weighted Average Grade An average grade resulting from the multiplication of each measuring tool grade by a factor reflecting its importance or weight. Each tool grade is multiplied by the assigned weight, which is then summed up to get the weighted average grade. Measuring Tools Assigned Weights Grade Weighted Grade TEST-BASED TOOLS 50% (0.5) 90% 45 (90 x 0.5) OBSERATION-BASED TOOLS 30% (0.3) 85% 25.5 (85 x 0.3) PROJECT-BASED TOOLS 20% (0.2) 80% 16 (80 x 0.2) 100% 86.5 = 86.5% Weighted average grade = 86.5%
  • 48. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Latin Honors Grade Point Equivalence Range Equivalence Summa Cum Laude 1.00–1.50 92% and above Magna Cum Laude 1.51–1.85 88.5% to 91.9% Cum Laude 1.86–2.10 86% to 88.4% Latin Honors Grade Point Equivalence Range Summa Cum Laude 3.87–4.00 Magna Cum Laude 3.70–3.86 Cum Laude 3.50–3.69
  • 49. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Subjects Ratings 1 Biochemistry 84 2 Anatomy and Histology 86 3 Microbiology 85 4 Physiology 89 5 Legal Medicine, Ethics, and Medical Jurisprudence 88 6 Pathology 81 7 Pharmacology and Therapeutics 82 8 Surgery and Ophthalmology, Otorhinolaryngology and Rhinology 85 9 Medicine 82 10 Obstetrics and Gynecology 82 11 Pediatrics and Nutrition 93 12 Preventive Medicine and Public Health 81 GENERAL AVERAGE RATING 84.83 (Ʃ/12) REMARKS PASSED Philippine Physician Licensure Examination – Sample Complete Examination Report To pass the examination, an examinee must obtain a general average rating of seventy five percent (75%) without a grade lower than fifty percent (50%) in any subject.
  • 50. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Subjects Ratings 1 Biochemistry 84 2 Anatomy and Histology 86 3 Microbiology 85 4 Physiology 89 5 Legal Medicine, Ethics, and Medical Jurisprudence 88 6 Pathology 81 7 Pharmacology and Therapeutics 82 8 Surgery and Ophthalmology, Otorhinolaryngology and Rhinology 85 9 Medicine 82 10 Obstetrics and Gynecology 82 11 Pediatrics and Nutrition 93 12 Preventive Medicine and Public Health 81 GENERAL AVERAGE RATING 84.83 (Ʃ/12) REMARKS PASSED Philippine Physician Licensure Examination – Sample Complete Examination Report To pass the examination, an examinee must obtain a general average rating of seventy five percent (75%) without a grade lower than fifty percent (50%) in any subject. Note the use of the word “rating,“ same as “grade”. General average rating = general average grade
  • 51. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Educational Measuring Tools for Medical Students’ Learning and Performance - Scoring and Grading ROJoson Thoughts, Perceptions, Opinions and Recommendations There is a need to measure the learning and performance of medical students after the course of study and thereafter, to decide whether or not to certify them as graduates who are qualified to practice medicine in the Philippines (that is, after passing the Philippines Physician Licensure Exam). Certifying the students to graduate means they have acquired the needed competencies to practice as basic-generalist physicians in the Philippines.
  • 52. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Educational Measuring Tools for Medical Students’ Learning and Performance - Scoring and Grading ROJoson Thoughts, Perceptions, Opinions and Recommendations Certifying the students to have acquired the needed competencies to practice as basic-generalist physicians in the Philippines means they have mastered the professional contents of the medical curriculum. Professional contents cover the cognitive knowledge, skills and attitude domains required of basic-generalist physicians, not just passing written tests.
  • 53. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Educational Measuring Tools for Medical Students’ Learning and Performance - Scoring and Grading ROJoson Thoughts, Perceptions, Opinions and Recommendations The educational measuring tools for medical students’ learning and performance are not perfect and probably will never be perfect, whatever they are. Despite this imperfection, they should still be administered because there is a need to measure, to evaluate and to determine who are eligible to be basic-generalist physicians.
  • 54. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Educational Measuring Tools for Medical Students’ Learning and Performance - Scoring and Grading ROJoson Thoughts, Perceptions, Opinions and Recommendations However, the tools should be CREDIBLE and VALID. They should not ARBITRARY and not using the norm-referenced scoring and grading (using mean or average as a passing score, so called grade on a curve). Criterion-referenced scoring and grading must be used.
  • 55. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Educational Measuring Tools for Medical Students’ Learning and Performance - Scoring and Grading ROJoson Thoughts, Perceptions, Opinions and Recommendations Even the criterion-referenced scoring and grading are not perfect. But at least, students are assessed and evaluated against a set of criteria or standards on mastery of the professional contents of the medical curriculum.
  • 56. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Educational Measuring Tools for Medical Students’ Learning and Performance - Scoring and Grading ROJoson Thoughts, Perceptions, Opinions and Recommendations The standard setting processes utilized for such purposes generate absolute standards, in contrast to relative standards where students are judged against each other as is being done in norm-referenced system. These standards are considered absolute, because they are expressed in terms of how much content the students need to know.
  • 57. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Educational Measuring Tools for Medical Students’ Learning and Performance - Scoring and Grading ROJoson Thoughts, Perceptions, Opinions and Recommendations However, to repeat, there is no “gold standard” for setting passing scores, in the standard setting in the criterion-referenced system. Usually the choice of the standard setting method is based on the available resources and the practical realities of the educational environment. As such, it is critical to document all procedures used in establishing the passing standard, especially in a language the school is willing to make public.
  • 58. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Educational Measuring Tools for Medical Students’ Learning and Performance - Scoring and Grading ROJoson Thoughts, Perceptions, Opinions and Recommendations Every effort should be exerted to use one of the standard setting approaches described in the literature so as to make the passing scores defensible and meaningful. Also important is the continual improvement of the scoring and grading systems. There should be evaluation and review of the systems at planned intervals.
  • 59. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Educational Measuring Tools for Medical Students’ Learning and Performance - Scoring and Grading ROJoson Thoughts, Perceptions, Opinions and Recommendations One specific activity recommended in the continual evaluation and review of the scoring and grading systems is the so-called ITEM ANALYSIS. Item analysis is a process which examines student responses to individual test items (questions) in order to assess the quality of those items and of the test as a whole.
  • 60. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Educational Measuring Tools for Medical Students’ Learning and Performance - Scoring and Grading ROJoson Thoughts, Perceptions, Opinions and Recommendations Item analysis typically focuses on four major pieces of information: item difficulty, item discrimination, item distractors and response frequency.
  • 61. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Educational Measuring Tools for Medical Students’ Learning and Performance - Scoring and Grading ROJoson Thoughts, Perceptions, Opinions and Recommendations Item analysis is especially valuable in improving items which will be used again in later tests, but it can also be used to eliminate ambiguous or misleading items in a single test administration. In addition, item analysis is valuable for increasing instructors’ skills in test construction and identifying specific areas of course content which need greater emphasis or clarity.
  • 62. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Educational Measuring Tools for Medical Students’ Learning and Performance - Scoring and Grading ROJoson Thoughts, Perceptions, Opinions and Recommendations Last words: An exam standard is ultimately just a recommendation. The final evaluation of a student’s performance lies with educators and educational institutions. No exam is perfect: an educator will always know more about a student than any exam ever could. When considering a student’s performance on a summative exam, educators should take into account the body of evidence that student has built up during the duration of the academic career.
  • 63. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical Students – A Guide in Scoring and Grading (Part 3) Learning objectives: At the end of the session, the student must be able to: • Define scoring. • Define grading. • Define points. • Define raw scores. • Give examples of translated scores from raw scores.
  • 64. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical Students – A Guide in Scoring and Grading (Part 3) Learning objectives: At the end of the session, the student must be able to: • Differentiate norm-referenced and criterion-referenced systems of grading. • Discuss the different methods on how to determine the pass or cut score.
  • 65. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical Students – A Guide in Scoring and Grading (Part 3) Learning objectives: At the end of the session, the student must be able to: • Explain why medical schools should go for a criterion-referenced system of scoring and grading. • Discuss the limitations of scoring and grading systems in medical schools. • Discuss the usefulness of item analysis.
  • 66. ROJoson OCIL on Medical Education OCIL = Online Collaborative and Interactive Learning Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical Students Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical Students – A Guide in Scoring and Grading (Part 3) Subtitle: Tools in Measuring Knowledge, Skill and Attitude of Medical Students - A Guide in Scoring and Grading (Part 3)

Editor's Notes

  1. This talk is entitled Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical Students – A Guide in Scoring and Grading. This will be Part 3 of the Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes. The subtitle of this talk is Tools in Measuring Knowledge, Skills and Attitude of Medical Students – A Guide in Scoring and Grading.
  2. Part 1 was on Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical Students – A Guide in Designing a Master Blueprint. Part 2 was on Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical Students – A Guide in Designing theTools. Recommended prior study are: Assessment and Evaluation of Medical Students – ROJoson TPORs. Tools in Measuring Program and Learning Outcomes of Medical Students – A Guide in Designing a Master Blueprint (Part 1) and A Guide in Designing the Tools (Part 2).
  3. Learning Objectives
  4. Learning Objectives
  5. Learning Objectives
  6. As a review, in Part 1, a guide in designing a master blueprint of tools in measuring program and learning outcomes, I recommended this framework to measure the global accomplishment of student learning and performance, which cover the program educational objectives, program outcomes, course-level learning outcomes, and session-level learning objectives. In this framework, the elements in the program and learning outcomes that need to be measured are identified first, then based on these elements, tools are selected and their corresponding performance indicators. There must be a note whether the measurement is for assessment or evaluation or whether formative or summative assessment.
  7. in Part 2, a guide in designing the tools in measuring program and learning outcomes, I recommended this format of a blueprint – contents of assessment in terms of learning objectives or outcomes in the first column; then time allotment; weight or relative importance of the contents; number of questions to be made or administered; types of questions; and then instructions and notes of the teacher on the last column.
  8. In part 3, I will be giving you a guide in scoring and grading. Here are some assumptions on the topic: 1) The tools have been formulated. These consist of 3 categories (per ROJoson Recommendation for medical schools): TEST-BASED TOOL, OBSERVATION-BASED TOOL, and PROJECT-BASED TOOL. What will be done now are: PLANS ON HOW TO SCORE and HOW TO GRADE.
  9. SCORING AND GRADING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS are 2 distinct but interrelated and should be integrated systems. They should be implemented in all types of tools, such as in test-based, observation-based, and project-based tools.
  10. Scoring and grading systems will be dependent on the type of educational measuring tools to be used. They may differ.
  11. Scoring Management System refers to a set of policies, processes and procedures on scoring of educational measuring tools. Scoring refers to the process of assigning numerical units to represent points that students will get and/or have gotten in educational measuring tools such as test-based, observation-based and project-based tools.
  12. Grading Management System refers to a set of policies, processes and procedures on grading of educational measuring tools. Grading refers to the process of applying standardized measurements for varying levels of achievements in a learning activity or course of study using the scores the students will get and/or have gotten in educational measuring tools such as test-based, observation-based and project-based tools.
  13. In terms of implementation of actual processes, there is a proper sequence: Scoring precedes grading. Assign scores and get scores before giving grades. However, in the formulation of the plan for scoring and grading, there is already integration of the two processes – how to score and how to grade are already placed in the plan.
  14. Some words of clarifications on use of terms which can be used interchangeably and which oftentimes cause confusion POINTS = MARKS SCORES MAY BE THE SAME AS POINTS BUT NOT ALL THE TIME. TOTAL POINTS = SCORES RATINGS USED IN BROADER SENSE THAN GRADES. GRADES UTILIZE THE SCORES FOR DECISION-MAKING. SCORES ARE CONVERTED TO GRADES.
  15. Points are numeric units which represent relative value or weight of importance determined by a teacher on specific items in educational measuring tools such as tests, observation technique and project-based technique. The total point gotten by the students in each educational measuring tool is the sum of all points assigned to each item of assessment. The total point gotten by the students is the sum of all points on correct answers and sum of all numeric values in a rating scale.
  16. POINTS on a test. Example – an ESSAY TEST, with a numeric value on each question or item
  17. POINTS on an assessment tool with rating scale with assigned values on each item (given an example of a student performance)
  18. Some preliminaries on my recommended ways:
  19. Learning Objectives
  20. Learning Objectives
  21. Learning Objectives