Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Dr. Robert P. Jones, CEODaniel Cox, Director of ResearchPublicReligionResearchInstituteWHO COUNTS AS WHITEWORKING CLASS?A ...
Many Approaches to MeasuringWhite Working ClassHow to Define White Working Class:- Education: Having less than a 4-year co...
Why Not Income?Problems with Income:1. Missing Data: In many public opinion surveys 10-15% ofrespondents refuse to answer ...
Why Not Occupation?Problems with Occupation:1. Difficult to Collect: It is very time consuming and expensive tocollect occ...
Why Not Education?Problems with Education:1. Too inclusive: Close to half of the country identifies as whiteworking class ...
A New Education-Based Definition ofWhite Working ClassRequires a total of three questions, in addition to race and educati...
I. A PROFILE OF THEWHITE WORKING CLASSSizeEconomic CircumstancesPoliticsCultureA New Approach to Defining the White Workin...
Size of the White Working ClassA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 8
Household Income by Social ClassA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 9
Financial Shape by Social ClassA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 10
THE 2012 ELECTIONEconomic Issues Influencing Vote ChoiceThe 2012 VoteA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in...
Economic Issues in 2012 ElectionA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 1243191214643333517101Lack o...
2012 Vote by ClassA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 13503353486546All Americans White Working ...
CULTURE AND WORLDVIEWRaceGender RolesConsumer PreferencesA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 14
Traditional Gender RolesA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 15404928574767All Americans White Wo...
Target vs. WalmartA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 1648563040336012 11 11All Americans White ...
Government Assistance to MinorityGroupsA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 17405032574665All Ame...
II. COMPARING NEW DEFINITION TOSIMPLE EDUCATION DEFINITIONEconomic CircumstancesMarital StatusEconomic OptimismSocial Issu...
New Definition vs. Education OnlyDefinitionA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 19
Financial SituationA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 20335263664635010203040506070White Workin...
Self-reported Social ClassA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 21521 25385155412418163 1010203040...
Household IncomeA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 223316 112517131617191437 460102030405060708...
Employment StatusA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 2320362131074176711 3840 455901020304050607...
Economic OptimismA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 24475963473832010203040506070White Working ...
Economic OptimismA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 254655574636348 9 80102030405060White Worki...
Similarities on Social Issues: Abortion &Gay MarriageA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 2650 51...
Definition RequirementsRequires three questions in addition to standard education andrace/ethnicity questions.1. Employmen...
ConclusionA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 28Advantages:1. Cost: PRRI’s definition requires t...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

AAPOR Conference 2013

575 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

AAPOR Conference 2013

  1. 1. Dr. Robert P. Jones, CEODaniel Cox, Director of ResearchPublicReligionResearchInstituteWHO COUNTS AS WHITEWORKING CLASS?A Proposal for a New ApproachAnalysis by
  2. 2. Many Approaches to MeasuringWhite Working ClassHow to Define White Working Class:- Education: Having less than a 4-year college education (Frank 2004;Brooks 2005)- Income: Lower third of the income distribution (Bartels 2008, McCartyPoole and Rosenthal 2008); household income under $30,000 (Texeiraand Abramowitz 2008)- Occupation: Traditionally blue collar occupation categories (i.e. serviceindustry, construction, transportation) (Manza and Brooks 1999)- Self-Identity: Subjective assessment of social classA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America
  3. 3. Why Not Income?Problems with Income:1. Missing Data: In many public opinion surveys 10-15% ofrespondents refuse to answer income question.2. Geographically and Temporally Biased: Does not capture variationin living costs between different regions or community types (i.e.Chicago, IL vs. Jackson, MS) and at different life stages.3. Household Size: Many income measures are based on overallhousehold estimates, do not capture variation in household size.4. Retirees, Unemployed: Does not account for retirees or theunemployed often on modest fixed incomes, may not reflect theirlevels of educational attainment or past occupational prestige.5. Occupational Prestige: Does not take into account differences inoccupational prestige and earning potential between occupations (i.e.adjunct professors, professional tradesmen).A New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America
  4. 4. Why Not Occupation?Problems with Occupation:1. Difficult to Collect: It is very time consuming and expensive tocollect occupational data; very few datasets include occupationalquestions.2. No Standard Measure: Unlike education and income, which bothhave fairly standardized categories, there is little agreement aboutwhich occupational categories should be included or how they shouldbe grouped.3. Retirees, Students, Disabled, Homemakers: Similar to income,occupation is dependent on being employed. These groups are notcurrently employed in an occupation, yet account for a significant, andin the case of students, a growing part of the American adultpopulation.A New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America
  5. 5. Why Not Education?Problems with Education:1. Too inclusive: Close to half of the country identifies as whiteworking class based on this definition.2. Generationally Biased: Rising levels of education means that olderrespondents are far more likely to be categorized as working class,even if in many respects (income, occupation prestige) they do not fit.3. Some-College Problem: Many education measures include a “somecollege” education category that includes current 4-year students,college dropouts and people with 2-year associate degrees.A New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America
  6. 6. A New Education-Based Definition ofWhite Working ClassRequires a total of three questions, in addition to race and education.- Basic Requirements:- 1) white, non-Hispanic- 2) No 4-year college education- Supplemental Requirements:Employment Status Additional RequirementEmployed Have a non-salaried positionUnemployed/Retired Had a non-salaried positionHomemaker/Disabled NoneStudent Identify as working or lower classA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America
  7. 7. I. A PROFILE OF THEWHITE WORKING CLASSSizeEconomic CircumstancesPoliticsCultureA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 7
  8. 8. Size of the White Working ClassA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 8
  9. 9. Household Income by Social ClassA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 9
  10. 10. Financial Shape by Social ClassA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 10
  11. 11. THE 2012 ELECTIONEconomic Issues Influencing Vote ChoiceThe 2012 VoteA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 11
  12. 12. Economic Issues in 2012 ElectionA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 1243191214643333517101Lack of jobsThe budget deficitSocial SecurityThe gap between rich and poorTaxesWelfareNote: Among those who said economy was most important issue to their voteSource: 2012 American Values Survey, October 2012Economic Issue Most Important to Your Vote (2012)White Working Class White college educated
  13. 13. 2012 Vote by ClassA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 13503353486546All Americans White Working Class White college educatedSource: 2012 Post-election American Values Survey, November 2012The 2012 Vote Preference(Among Voters)Barack Obama Mitt Romney
  14. 14. CULTURE AND WORLDVIEWRaceGender RolesConsumer PreferencesA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 14
  15. 15. Traditional Gender RolesA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 15404928574767All Americans White Working Class White college educatedSource: Race, Class and Religion Survey, 2012Family life suffers when the woman has a full-time jobAgree Disagree
  16. 16. Target vs. WalmartA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 1648563040336012 11 11All Americans White Working Class White college educatedSource: Race, Class and Religion Survey, 2012Prefer to Shop at Walmart or Target?Walmart Target Both/Neither/DK
  17. 17. Government Assistance to MinorityGroupsA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 17405032574665All Americans White Working Class White college educatedSource: Race, Class and Religion Survey, 2012Government has paid too much attention to the problems ofblacks and other minoritiesAgree Disagree
  18. 18. II. COMPARING NEW DEFINITION TOSIMPLE EDUCATION DEFINITIONEconomic CircumstancesMarital StatusEconomic OptimismSocial IssuesA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 18
  19. 19. New Definition vs. Education OnlyDefinitionA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 19
  20. 20. Financial SituationA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 20335263664635010203040506070White Working Class Misidentified respondents White college educatedCurrent Personal Financial SituationExcellent/Good Fair/Poor
  21. 21. Self-reported Social ClassA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 21521 25385155412418163 10102030405060708090100White Working Class Misidentified respondents White college educatedSelf Reported Social ClassUpper/Upper middle class Middle class Working class Lower class
  22. 22. Household IncomeA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 223316 112517131617191437 460102030405060708090100White Working Class Misidentified respondents White college educatedHousehold IncomeLess than $30,000 $30K - $50 $50-$75K More than $75K
  23. 23. Employment StatusA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 2320362131074176711 3840 45590102030405060708090100White Working Class Misidentified respondents White college educatedEmployment StatusRetired Student Homemaker Unemployed/Disabled Part-time Full-time
  24. 24. Economic OptimismA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 24475963473832010203040506070White Working Class Misidentified respondents White college educatedViews About the American DreamStill holds true Once held true, but not anymore
  25. 25. Economic OptimismA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 254655574636348 9 80102030405060White Working Class Misidentified respondents White college educatedAmericas Best Days are...Ahead of us Behind us Depends/DK
  26. 26. Similarities on Social Issues: Abortion &Gay MarriageA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 2650 516343 4258010203040506070White Working Class Misidentified respondents White college educatedSocial IssuesAbortion should be legal in all or most cases Favor allowing gay and lesbian couples to marry
  27. 27. Definition RequirementsRequires three questions in addition to standard education andrace/ethnicity questions.1. Employment: Which of the following best describes your currentemployment situation – employed full-time, employed part-time,retired, a homemaker, a student, unemployed but looking for work, orunemployed and not looking for work?2. Job Payment Type: Which of the following best describes how you[IF RETIRED OR UNEMPLOYED, ASK: “got”] get paid at work?Are [“Were”] you paid an hourly rate, paid a salary or paid by the job?3. Social Class: If you were asked to use one of these five names foryour social class, which would you say you belong in? Upper-class,Upper-middle class, Middle class, Working class, or Lower class?A New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America
  28. 28. ConclusionA New Approach to Defining the White Working Class in America 28Advantages:1. Cost: PRRI’s definition requires the inclusion of only three relativelyshort questions.2. Validity: PRRI’s definition produces a group that has uniqueeconomic experiences and a distinct cultural worldview3. Reliability: PRRI’s definition produces extremely consistent resultsboth in terms of group size, demographics and attitudes.4. Comprehensive: Despite the use only a few questions, the definitionis able to include the entire adult population. Does not exclude anyonebased on employment status.5. Parsimonious: The definition includes as few measures as possiblewhile retaining significant leverage over an education only definition.

×