ModulesFM1: coursework (50%) FM2: examined (50%)1. Micro analysis 1. Producers/Audiences2. Photographed 2. UK Film Storyboard 3. USA Comparisons 2
FM2: British and American FilmExam. Three 50 minute questions, one from each section.Section A: Producers and AudiencesSection B: British Film TopicsSection C: US Film Comparative StudyFM2 Focus …• Producers, audiences and their interrelationship• National cinema: UK and USA• Personal response via study and contexts 3
Section A:Producers & AudiencesFocus …1. The Film Industry2. The Film Audience3. Their interrelationship: case studies 4
The Film Industry The Film AudienceFocus … Focus …1. Contemporary Hollywood: finance 1. UK/USA: supply and demand and organisation2. UK Film: 2. Film consumption: cinema and new independence, distinctiveness and technologies profitability.3. Production 3. Importance of stars and genres4. Distribution5. Exhibition 5
Interrelationship: Case Studies It is recommended that case studies are used as the basis for study in this unit. (WJEC Spec: 2009 -2010)Media convergence: phones, games, internet Marketing: posters, trailers, web sites Film Reviews: forums and criticsFilm experience : access and social practice Stars: star system and fandom 6
Audiences Audience Exhibition Exhibition Exhibition Exhibition FILM Production Producers DistributionA diagram illustrating the complex relationships explored in FM2 7
Back to Basics How do films reach audiences?What films are coming out? 9
UK LeisureWe buy/rent 350 million films at £3 billion p.a. The value of cinema ticket sales is £1 billion. The UK computer games industry clocks up annual software sales of £2 billion.(FDA micro site: approximate figures) 10
The 3 Faces of the Film IndustryProduction Distribution Exhibition 11
UK ProductionWorking Title (Universal) BBC Film Film 4 Ealing EMG (Hammer) Celador Vertigo Warp Films 12
Exhibition UK 66% of cinema visits Fri-Sun 30% total BO from opening weekend3rd most profitable BO behind USA and Japan Ancillary market 2nd behind USAExhibitors: 650 cinemas with 3,400 screens 13
DISTRIBUTION Distribution is the process by which a film reaches its public. It lies at the heart of modern commercial film making.Production Exhibition DISTRIBUTION 14
Distribution is about releasing and sustaining films in the marketplace. In the practice of Hollywood and other forms of industrialcinema, the phases of production, distribution and exhibition operatemost effectively when vertically integrated, where the three stagesare seen as part of the same larger process, under the control of onecompany. In the UK, distribution is very much focused on marketingand sustaining a global product in local markets.In the independent film sector, vertical integration does not operate socommonly. Producers tend not to have long-term economic links withdistributors, who likewise have no formal connections with exhibitors.Here, as the pig-in-the-middle, distribution is necessarily acollaborative process, requiring the materials and rights of theproducer and the cooperation of the exhibitor to promote and showthe film in the best way possible. In this sector, distribution can bedivided into three stages - licensing, marketing and logistics. 15
www.launchingfilms.comUK trade body c1915500 titles + p.a.250,000 poster sites50 London premieres p.a.£300 million distribution spend p.a. 16
Major Distributors in UKDistributor share of box office, UK and Republic of Ireland, Jan 2007 to Jan 2008Distributor Market share (%) Films on release 2007 Box office gross (£ million)Warner Bros 15.6 32 141.5Paramount 14.7 31 133.720th Century Fox 13.9 27 126.3Universal Pictures 13.9 24 126.3Walt Disney 10.7 23 97.3Entertainment 9.5 25 86.7Sony Pictures 8.2 28 74.4Momentum 3.4 18 30.9Icon 2.3 13 21.1Lionsgate 2.3 22 20.9Sub-total: 94.47%Others (63 distributors) 5.53%Total100% Source: Nielsen EDI.Source: UK Film Council web site: 2009
The Distribution Pathway Development and/or Acquisition Planning a release Marketing Licensing 18
The Bond Franchise• Pre-sold product: stories of Ian Fleming• First Film: 1962 Dr No. Currently 22.• Genre: spy, action, thriller• Rights: EON 1961. Danjaq 1962.• Mainstream and iconic• Loyal fan base• 2nd most profitable film franchise• Sixth Bond 25
PUB QUIZName all 22 „official‟ Bond Movies Invent your own Bond title Chose the 7th Bond 26
The Bond FilmographyDr. No (1962) A View to a Kill (1985)From Russia with Love (1963) The Living Daylights (1987)Goldfinger (1964) Licence to Kill (1989)Thunderball (1965) Golden Eye (1995)You Only Live Twice (1967) Tomorrow Never Dies (1997)On Her Majestys Secret Service (1969) The World Is Not Enough (1999)Diamonds Are Forever (1971) Die Another Day (2002)Live and Let Die (1973) Casino Royale (2006)The Man with the Golden Gun (1974) Quantum of Solace (2008)The Spy Who Loved Me (1977)Moonraker (1979)For Your Eyes Only (1981) Bond 23 (2011)Octopussy (1983) 27
“Bond, James Bond.”Bond‟s various incarnations ranging from the cool, sexual predator (Connery) to the muscular, man of action (Craig). 28
The Bond Format Cars Great Escapes Super-VillainsJohn Barry‟s Theme The Film Song Exotic locations Beautiful Women Hi-Tech Gadgets M, Felix, Q Weapons
2nd „Blond Bond‟ and „Bourne Bond‟ $200 million plus budget Released UK 31st October Released USA 14th November Best ever UK opening weekend Action/Thriller market 2nd in UK 30
EONHarry Saltzman 1961 „Cubby‟ BroccoliCanadian born: US born: 1909 - 19961915 – 1994 Assistant Director atTheatrical producer Fox 1930sand talent agent Moved to UK 1951Settled in UKmid-50s Warwick PicturesWoodfall Productions Daughter and step-son, BarbaraSells EON shares Broccoli and Michaelto United Artists - 1975 Wilson now produce Bond (L to R) Saltzman, Fleming and Broccoli 31
EON‟s Partners Producers of QoS Distributors of QoS MGM/ United Artists: Global Theatrical – Sonypart owned by Sony and UK DVD – FoxColumbia - a subsidiary USA DVD - Sony of the Sony Group and part of Sony Pictures Entertainment
MGM Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer is a motion picture, television, home video, and theatrical production and distribution company. MGM owns the worlds largest library of modern films, comprising approximately 4,000 titles, and over 10,400 episodes of television programming. MGM is owned by an investor consortium comprised of Providence Equity Partners, Sony Corporation of America, Comcast Corporation and DLJ Merchant Banking Partners Quadrangle Group. Its film library has 205 Oscars and includes numerous successful film franchises including James Bond.(Source. MGM website) 33
MGM: HistoricalFormed 1924. MGM had the greatest output of all of the studios:at its height, releasing a film week.In the 50s and 60s it lost its theatre chain.In 1956 MGM sold the television rights for The Wizard of Oz to CBS:the first theatrical film to be shown complete in one eveningon prime time television over a major American commercial network.Downsizes in 1970s yet buys United Artists in 1981. 2004 Sony buy MGM. 34
Bourne 2002 2004 A Universal franchise. “James Bond take notice. The Bourne Identity is my new standard for contemporary spy thrillers.” (IMDB fan forum 2002)2007 35
Bond V Bourne Box Office Mojo SummaryGenre Action Action Thriller Action Action Thriller Action Action ThrillerStudio Sony / Columbia Universal Sony / Columbia Universal MGM UniversalRelease Date November 14, 2008 August 3, 2007 November 17, 2006 July 23, 2004 November 22, 2002 June 14, 2002Domestic Gross $168,368,427 $227,471,070 $167,445,960 $176,241,941 $160,942,139 $121,661,683(USA)Production Budget $200 million $110 million $150 million $75 million $142 million $60 millionRunning Time 1 hr. 46 min. 1 hr. 51 min. 2 hrs. 24 min. 1 hr. 48 min. 2 hrs. 3 min. 1 hr. 58 min.MPAA Rating PG-13 PG-13 PG-13 PG-13 PG-13 PG-13BBFC 12A 12A 12A 12A 12A 12A
Worldwide Summary WG = world gross FG = Foreign (non-USA) Gross F%W = Foreign % of worldwide box office Source: Box Office MojoQuantum of Solace (2008)(WG) $575,952,505 (FG) $407,584,078 (F%W) 71%The Bourne Supremacy (2004)(WG) $288,500,217 (FG) $112,258,276 (F%W) 39%Die Another Day (2002)(WG) $431,971,116 (FG) $271,028,977 (F%W) 63%The Bourne Identity (2002)(WG) $214,034,224 (FG) $92,372,541 (F%W) 43% 37
Bond‟s Cars Aston Martin BMW A new demographic: the feminisedKa‟s appearance is part of a 3 picture($100 million) deal Ford signed with Bond‟s producers back in 2002. KA 40
The Trailer and Music VideoTeaser Trailer: The films first major theatricalteaser was launched with Sonys summerblockbuster Hancock on 2nd July 2008 after itson-line premiere on 30 June.Music Video: Premiered on C4 Oct. 3rd 2008.
Web SitesDomain name quantumofsolace.com registered bySony Pictures on 22nd Jan. 2008. The title of themovie was then leaked onto the internet prior tothe official press conference on 24th Jan. 2008.Official Site: 007.comNumerous fan sites.
Web site hits (largely 007.com) peak in months leading up to a film‟s release. Familiarity with Craig limits his hits in Nov 08 as opposed to Nov 06.
MerchandisingComputer GamesTargeting new marketsGoldenEye 0071997: Groundbreaking first-personshooter computer game forNintendo 64. Sold 8 million copies. 45
The SoundtrackDavid Arnold: 5th Bond. Released: October 2008 Label: J Records (Parent Company - Sony )
The Song:Another Way to DieAlicia Keys and Jack White.Key‟s label is J Records. The single was released by J on October 20, 2008 in the United Kingdom. It was released as a downloadable song for the video game Guitar Hero World Tour on November 7, 2008. An instrumental version of the song was used in a Coca-Cola Zero commercial. On October 5, 2008, the song entered the UK Singles Chart at number twenty- six on downloads alone, and peaked at nine.
The BookAs a promotional book-tiein for the movie, all nineOriginal James Bondshort stories were housedin one volume forthe first time and called:Quantum of Solace: TheComplete James BondShort Stories.It was released on 29May 2008 in the UK andon 26 August 2008 inNorthern America.
The Bond BrandAdventurous CoolSuccessful SophisticatedRebellious & SexyconformistExotic Dangerous
Product PlacementA British private jetcompany, OceanSky, will featureeight times in thefilm at approx. Virgin Atlantic£600K. Omega Product placement in Quantum of Solace exceeded 2002s Die Another Day (nicknamed Buy Another Day). Other key brands in QoS are: Sony Ericsson, Sony Electronics, Heineken beer, Smirnoff vodka and Ford - including its Aston Martin and Range Rover brands. Ocean Sky 50
Bond EndorsementBond‟s brand identity is licensed from Danjaq to companies seeking toestablish their own brand‟s. The result is a cross-promotion or tie-in. 51
Fandomwww.commanderbond.netA non-profit, unofficial fan site 53
The Critics Mark Kermode: BBC Radio 5 Jonathan Ross: BBC 1 Aint it cool news: Internet (USA) IMDB forums: Internet (USA) Peter Bradshaw and Paul Ross Harry Knowles (The Guardian and The Sun)QoS: odd title; confusing plot; not enough one-liners or casual sex; chaoticaction; poor villain; too much „Bourne‟ and not enough „Bond‟. BOND IS, TO SOME EXTENT, CRITIC PROOF 54
UK Film Council Cultural Test Points 16 out of 31 qualifies for grants Cultural Content (16) Set in the UK 4 Lead characters Brits 4 British subject matter 4 English language 4 Cultural Contribution (4) British culture 4 Cultural Hubs (3) UK Studio/location 2 Cultural Practitioners (8)Director/Prod/Script/Actor, etc 1 each 58
Great BOPopular Success Critical Acclaim The Slumdog Phenomenon UK Triumph Cultural Crossover 59
Unpacking „the package‟ Small Film - Big PlayersDirector Danny Boyle: Trainspotting 1996Screenplay Simon Beaufoy: The Full Monty 1996Film 4: Producer Tessa RossBollywood Star: Anil KaporAcclaimed Novel: Vikas SwarupMusic: A. R. Rahman & M.I.A.Global game show: Who wants to be a Millionaire
A Sleeper Hit Low Budget: $15 million No Hollywood Stars UK Film: Film 4 and Celador Partly in Hindi Set in India - Mumbai Nearly went straight to DVD A story of poverty, corruption &LOVE triumphing against all odds
Originally Channel Four Films, re-branded as Film Four.First production Walter, (1982).In 2002, after mounting losses, re-integrated into C4 drama department.In 2004, Tessa Ross became head of bothFilm4 and Channel 4 drama.
Celador is an independent UK TV, Radioand Film production company: formed 1983.Millionaire is now part of 2waytraffic, a TVformat distribution company, itself partof Sony since 2008.
A News Corp Company: part of Murdoch‟s media empire Founded in 1994 as the independent arm of Twentieth Century Fox.“Fox Searchlight is a filmmaker-oriented company that both produces andacquires motion pictures . It focuses on distinctive films, helmed by world- class auteurs and exciting newcomers, by blending speciality films with trademark art-house fare. It has its own marketing and distribution operations, and its films are distributed internationally by Twentieth Century Fox.” (Fox Searchlight website: June 2009)
PATHE All Pathe films are released on DVD by 2Oth Century FoxP ER XO HD IU BC IE TR O R DISTRIBUTOR 67
Slumdog was sold to Fox Searchlight Pictures (50% share) after WarnerIndependent closed in 2008. The main Warner Bros. studio logo now appearsat the beginning of the film after the Fox Searchlight logo. Warner retaineddistribution rights in some countries outside North America. However, FoxSearchlight is its distributor in North America, and FoxStar handles it in India.“Sources say Warners has been shopping around Slumdog Millionaire. Thefilm, whose U.S. rights were acquired for $5 million by Warner IndependentPictures, is good enough to be accepted at this falls Telluride and TorontoInternational Film Festivals. But Warners is unsure of its commercialprospects. The film, originally slated for release Nov. 7, has now quietly beenbumped to next year.” (LA Times: August 12th 2008) 68
The 2008 Festival Circuit Audience AwardPlus wins at 2008: Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Florida, LA, New York, Phoenix , San Diego, and Washington DC Film Critics Awards 69
Major Awards Season British Academy of Film and TV arts BAFTA: Feb 9th 09
Marketing designed tosuggest an eventmovie by popularacclaim rather thanHollywood hype – atrue „crowd pleaser‟.Hyperbole abounds:„terrific, wondrous, joyful, spellbinding, exciting, exuberantastonishing, brilliant.‟5 star reviews and, ofcourse, leading withBAFTA and OSCARnominations. 72