Cellular Basis Of Life

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Cellular Basis Of Life

  1. 1. Into the world of cells…<br />Development of cytology<br />
  2. 2. Essential question<br />Are all living organisms made up of cells?<br />
  3. 3. Discovery Of The Cell<br />Antonie van Leeuwenhoek<br /><ul><li>1st person to see the cells
  4. 4. built his own microscope
  5. 5. looked in a drop of pond water</li></li></ul><li>Discovery Of The Cell<br />Robert Hooke<br /><ul><li>confirmed Leeuwenhoek’s observation
  6. 6. 1st to use the word “cell”
  7. 7. reminded him of the rooms in a monastery</li></li></ul><li>Discovery Of The Cell<br />Robert Brown<br /><ul><li>described the nucleus
  8. 8. observed cytoplasmic streaming
  9. 9. conceptualized of “Brownian motion”</li></li></ul><li>Discovery Of The Cell<br />Matthias Schleiden<br /><ul><li>contributed to the cell theory
  10. 10. stated plants are composed of cells</li></li></ul><li>Discovery Of The Cell<br />Theodor Schwann<br /><ul><li>contributed to the cell theory
  11. 11. discovered Schwann cells
  12. 12. cell is the basic unit of life</li></li></ul><li>Discovery Of The Cell<br />Rudolf Virchow<br /><ul><li>father of pathology
  13. 13. illnesses are due to malfunctioning of the cell
  14. 14. “Every cell comes from preexisting cell” </li></li></ul><li>Cell Theory<br />All organisms are composed of cells.<br />Cells are the basic unit of life.<br />Cells come from preexisting cells.<br />
  15. 15. Essential question<br />How are cells studied?<br />
  16. 16. Microscopy<br />It is the technical field of using microscopes to view samples or objects <br />
  17. 17. Microscopy Basics<br />Magnification is the process of enlarging an object only in appearance.<br />
  18. 18. Microscopy Basics<br />Resolutionis the ability to tell two points apart as separate points. <br />
  19. 19. Microscopy Basics<br />Resolution = __0.61 * λ__<br /> NA<br />NA = numerical aperture<br />λ = wavelength of light (760 nm)<br />
  20. 20. Microscopy Basics<br />Numerical aperture<br />NA = (n * sin α)<br />n = refractive index<br />α = half the opening angle<br />
  21. 21. Microscopy Basics<br />
  22. 22. Microscopy Basics<br />Resolving power is the microscope&apos;s ability to produce a clear image. <br />
  23. 23. Microscopy Basics<br />Depth of Field (DOF) is the portion of a scene that appears sharp in the image.<br />
  24. 24. Essential question<br />What are the different types of microscopes?<br />
  25. 25. Types of Microscopes<br />Optical Microscope uses two lenses and visible light as the light source.<br />
  26. 26. Types of Microscopes<br />Stereo microscope creates a 3D image and used for dissection.<br />
  27. 27. Types of Microscopes<br />Electron microscope uses a particle beam of electrons to illuminate a specimen. (2 types)<br />
  28. 28. Types of Microscopes<br />Transmission (TEM) provides internal view of the specimen.<br />Scanning (SEM) provides the external view of the specimen.<br />
  29. 29. Essential question<br />How are these specimens prepared for viewing?<br />
  30. 30. Specimen Preparations<br />cells are killed and heat-fixed<br />to provide contrast: stained with colored dyes (optical); coated with electron-dense metals – Au, Pt, Pd and W(electron)<br />
  31. 31. Other techniques<br />Differential Interference – enhance density differences<br />Phase contrast – some regions appear brighter or darker<br />Dark-field – light is scattered by the specimen<br />
  32. 32. Essential question<br />Why cells are so small?<br />
  33. 33. Surface Area to Volume<br />
  34. 34. How It Limits Cell size?<br />A cell is a metabolic compartment where a multitude of chemical reactions occur.<br />All raw materials necessary for metabolism can enter only through its cell membrane.<br />As a cell grows its SA/V decreases.<br />
  35. 35. Cell Sizes<br />Cell needs a surface area large enough to allow adequate nutrients to enter and to rid itself of wastes.<br />
  36. 36. Reading assignment<br />What are the different types of cells?<br />

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