European Society 1-10-2007


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European Society 1-10-2007

  1. 1. European Society From the Renaissance to Roanoke
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Understand the historical background of the European colonists on the American continents </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the pre-conditions for successful trans-oceanic colonization </li></ul><ul><li>Describe features of European culture and political life that would impact the development of the United States later </li></ul>
  3. 3. Modern Europe
  4. 4. The Ancient World <ul><li>Productive, monoculture agriculture, based upon crop rotation and Fertile Crescent crops </li></ul><ul><li>Iron weapons and tools </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy and a tradition of rational enquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Tradition of written law </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Middle Ages <ul><li>Feudal political structure </li></ul><ul><li>Social classes based upon the nobility, clergy, and peasantry </li></ul><ul><li>Militarized society </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity at the center of social life </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Social Pyramid Daylaborers, paupers, criminals, etc. Tenant Farmers and Petty Householders Royalty and Greater Nobility Lesser Nobility Greater Bourgeoisie: Merchants, etc. Petty Bourgeoisie: Artisans, etc. Freeholders, small landlords
  7. 7. Institutions of European Society <ul><li>Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>Centralized nation-states </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging national militaries </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing technological sophistication after ~1300 AD. </li></ul>
  8. 8. International Trade <ul><li>Reestablishment of trading networks </li></ul><ul><li>Urban growth </li></ul><ul><li>Financial institutions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital pooling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insurance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contractual Partnerships </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Goods of the East <ul><li>Chinese silks, perfumes etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Spices from the South Pacific and India </li></ul><ul><li>Gold </li></ul><ul><li>Exotic agricultural products, like tea </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ottoman Expansion <ul><li>Fall of Constantinople – 1453 </li></ul><ul><li>Control of eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea </li></ul>
  11. 11. European State Formation <ul><li>Tudor England: Henry VII 1485-1509 </li></ul><ul><li>Valois France: Louis XI 1461-1483 </li></ul><ul><li>Reconquista Spain: Ferdinand and Isabella </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal: Henry the Navigator (1394-1460) </li></ul>Henry VII (left) and Louis XI (right)
  12. 12. The Renaissance <ul><li>Humanism and Classical Antiquity </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalism and Renaissance Art </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Inquiry and Technological Development </li></ul>
  13. 16. Renaissance Science <ul><li>Anatomical Study: Vesalius, Harvey </li></ul><ul><li>Heliocentric astronomy: Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler </li></ul><ul><li>Reasoning: Descartes and Bacon </li></ul>
  14. 17. The Reformation <ul><li>Church corruption scandals </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Humanism and Erasmus </li></ul><ul><li>The Printing Press </li></ul>
  15. 18. Martin Luther, 1483-1546 <ul><li>Solifidianism </li></ul><ul><li>Indulgences and the 95 Theses </li></ul><ul><li>The Priesthood of all Believers </li></ul><ul><li>Sola Scriptura </li></ul>
  16. 19. Religious Conflict <ul><li>1521 Diet of Worms </li></ul><ul><li>1534 Henry VIII’s break with Rome </li></ul><ul><li>1536 Calvin’s Institutes of the Christian Religion </li></ul><ul><li>1545-1563 Council of Trent </li></ul><ul><li>1555 Peace of Augsburg </li></ul><ul><li>1562-1598 French Wars of Religion </li></ul><ul><li>1565-1609 Dutch Revolt </li></ul><ul><li>1618-1648 Thirty Years War </li></ul>
  17. 20. The English Reformation <ul><li>Henry VIII and the divorce crisis </li></ul><ul><li>1533 Act in Restraint of Appeals </li></ul><ul><li>1534 Act of Supremacy </li></ul><ul><li>Sectarian violence and “Bloody” Mary Tudor </li></ul>
  18. 21. Elizabeth I <ul><li>1559 Compromise Settlement </li></ul><ul><li>Catholics, Anglicans, and Puritans </li></ul><ul><li>Phillip II and the Armada </li></ul>
  19. 22. Puritan Ancestors <ul><li>Lollards: John Wycliffe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scriptural authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consubstantiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-clerical </li></ul></ul>
  20. 23. Religious Spectrum of England Radicals Puritans Anglicans “Church Papists” Recusants While the Anglicans would be the largest group, over time, many of the influential landholders, as they had in France and Germany, converted to a more robust form of Protestantism – they became Puritans.
  21. 24. Puritan vs. Anglican Controversies <ul><li>Erastianism vs. Presbyterianism </li></ul><ul><li>Episcopacy </li></ul><ul><li>Church ceremony: altars, vestments, images, and worship styles </li></ul>
  22. 25. The Catholic Conspiracy <ul><li>The Jesuits and Catholic Recusancy </li></ul><ul><li>International intrigue </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish threat, the Armada and beyond </li></ul><ul><li>Popular Protestantism and Catholophobia – a case for the press </li></ul>
  23. 26. Spanish Colonization of the New World
  24. 27. Advances in Technology <ul><li>Sail technology (lateen sails) </li></ul><ul><li>Navigation: Compasss and Astrolabe </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques: tacking against the wind </li></ul><ul><li>Shift from galley to cog and caravel </li></ul>
  25. 28. Portuguese Forays <ul><li>Prince Henry the Navigator </li></ul><ul><li>Development of technology </li></ul><ul><li>The Mediterranean Atlantic </li></ul><ul><li>West Africa </li></ul>
  26. 29. Vasco da Gama <ul><li>1498 rounded Cape of Good Hope </li></ul><ul><li>Indian spice trade </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict with Islamic traders in region </li></ul>
  27. 30. Christopher Columbus <ul><li>Genoese sailor </li></ul><ul><li>Ferdinand and Isabella </li></ul><ul><li>Miscalculation of Earth’s diameter </li></ul><ul><li>First Voyage: 1492 </li></ul>
  28. 31. Columbus on the Natives: <ul><li>“ They… brought us parrots and balls of cotton and spears and many other things, which they exchanged for the glass beads and hawks’ bells. They willingly traded everything they owned…They were well-built, with good bodies and handsome features…They do not bear arms, and do not know them, for I showed them a sword, they took it by the edge and cut themselves from ignorance. They have no iron. Their spears are made of cane…They would make fine servants…With fifty men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want.” </li></ul>
  29. 32. Return Voyages: <ul><li>Second Voyage 1493-4 Bahamas, Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>Third Voyage 1498 S. America </li></ul><ul><li>Final Voyage 1502-3 Central America </li></ul><ul><li>Towards the understanding of a new continent </li></ul>
  30. 33. Conquest of Mexico <ul><li>1519 Cortes’ Expedition </li></ul><ul><li>Malinche </li></ul><ul><li>Moctezuma II </li></ul><ul><li>Noche Triste </li></ul><ul><li>Siege of Tenochtitlan – role of disease </li></ul>
  31. 34. <ul><li> </li></ul>
  32. 35. Conquest of Peru <ul><li>Francisco Pizarro invades 1532 </li></ul><ul><li>Capture of Atahuallpa </li></ul>
  33. 36. The Columbian Exchange <ul><li>From the New World: </li></ul><ul><li>Potatoes, cassava, corn, beans, and squash </li></ul><ul><li>Gold and precious metals </li></ul><ul><li>Syphillis </li></ul><ul><li>From the Old World: </li></ul><ul><li>Horses, cows, pigs </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat, sugar (via the East Indies) </li></ul><ul><li>Iron and steel </li></ul><ul><li>African slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Typhus, dysentery, smallpox, etc. </li></ul>
  34. 37. Summation <ul><li>Europe was transformed in the course of 15 th and 16 th centuries, as states grew in cohesion and power. The changes in thought and society associated with the Renaissance and Reformation, alongside the economic motives of early capitalism, were some of the preconditions for an outward looking, expansive Europe. This exploration, however, was not without tragic consequences for many natives involved. Nevertheless, by the end of the 16 th century, England looked to expand its power as had Portugal and Spain by creating a New World colonial empire – the forerunner to our nation today. </li></ul>