Carrier Ethernet


Published on

Class lecture by Prof. Raj Jain on Carrier Ethernet. The talk covers Options to Connect Two Data Centers?, Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH), SONET/SDH, Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS), Label Switching Example, IP over MPLS over Ethernet, Martini Draft, Pseudo Wire: L2 Circuits over IP, Ethernet over PWE3 over MPLS, Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS), Differentiated Services, Carriers vs. Enterprise, Issue: UNI vs Peer-to-Peer Signaling, UNI vs. ENNI, Operator Virtual Connection (OVC), Metro Access Ethernet Private Line, End-to-End Metro Ethernet Connection, Ethernet Virtual Connections (EVCs), Metro Ethernet Service Attributes, Metro Ethernet OAM, Metro Ethernet OAM Messages, Metro Ethernet Use Cases, Ethernet Provider Bridge (PB), Provider Backbone Network (PBB), MAC-in-MAC Frame Format, PBB Service Instance, Connection Oriented Ethernet, VLAN Cross-Connect, PBB-TE, PBB-TE QoS, Ethernet Tagged Frame Format Evolution, Comparison of Technologies. Video recording available in YouTube.

Published in: Technology, Spiritual
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Carrier Ethernet

  1. 1. Carrier Ethernet . Raj Jain Washington University in Saint Louis Saint Louis, MO 63130 These slides and audio/video recordings of this class lecture are at: Washington University in St. Louis 7-1 ©2013 Raj Jain
  2. 2. Overview Technologies for Data Center Interconnection: PDH, SDH, MPLS, PWE3 2. Metro Ethernet Services: E-Line, E-LAN, E-Tree, E-Access 3. Administration and Management Ethernet Services 4. Extensions to Ethernet for carriers: PB (Q-in-Q), PBB (MAC-in-MAC), PBB-TE Note: Although these technologies were originally developed for carriers, they are now used inside multi-tenant data centers (clouds) 1. Washington University in St. Louis 7-2 ©2013 Raj Jain
  3. 3. Options to Connect Two Data Centers? Danforth Campus 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Medical Campus Dedicated Optical fiber (leased from the phone company) Ethernet over Optical Transport Network (all-Optical Switches) Ethernet over Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) Ethernet over Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) Ethernet over Plesiochronous Hierarchy (PDH) Ethernet over Pseudo-wire over MPLS Ethernet over Micro-wave Single Pair High-Speed Digital Subscriber Line (SHDSL) Ethernet with enhancements Washington University in St. Louis 7-3 ©2013 Raj Jain
  4. 4. Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH)     Plesios + Synchronous = Near synchronous Phone Line = 64 kbps = 1 User channel North America  T1 = 1.544 Mbps = 24 User channels  T2 = 6.312 Mbps = 96 Channels  T3 = 44.736 Mbps = 480 Channels Europe:  E1 = 2.048 Mbps = 32 Channels  E2 = 8.448 Mbps = 128 Channels  E3 = 139.264 Mbps = 2048 Channels Washington University in St. Louis 7-4 T1 ©2013 Raj Jain
  5. 5. SONET/SDH E Ethernet           E S S S S SDH SONET=Synchronous optical network Standard for digital optical transmission Standardized by ANSI and then by ITU  Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) Protection: Allows redundant Line or paths Fast Restoration: 50ms using rings Sophisticated management Ideal for Voice: No queues. Guaranteed delay Fixed Payload Rates: OC1=51.84 Mbps, OC3=155M, OC12=622M, OC48=2.4G, OC192=9.5G Rates do not match data rates of 10M, 100M, 1G, 10G Static rates not suitable for bursty traffic One Payload per Stream  High Cost Washington University in St. Louis 7-5 ©2013 Raj Jain
  6. 6. Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) PBX 1       PBX 3 5 2 3 Allows virtual circuits in IP Networks (May 1996) Each packet has a virtual circuit number called ‘label’ Label determines the packet’s queuing and forwarding Circuits are called Label Switched Paths (LSPs) LSP’s have to be set up before use Allows traffic engineering Washington University in St. Louis 7-6 ©2013 Raj Jain
  7. 7. Label Switching Example Ethernet Header IP Header Payload Ethernet Header 64 IP Header Payload 3 <64> A Label R1 5 <3> <5> R3 B <5> 5 Washington University in St. Louis R2 <2> <3> C 2 3 7-7 ©2013 Raj Jain
  8. 8. IP over MPLS over Ethernet CE PE Carrier Network PE CE PE= Provider Edge CE = Customer Edge Dest. Adr Src. Type MPLS Customer Customer L3 CRC Next Hop Adr /Len Tag Dest. MAC Adr Src. MAC Adr PDU 48b 48b 16b 32b 48b 48b 32b Label Experimental Stack Position Time CoS/Drop-Preced. 1  Bottom to Live 20b 3b 1b 8b   Allows 220 Label switched paths (LSP) Each path can have reserved capacity  MPLS became a very popular Washington University in St. Louis 7-8 ©2013 Raj Jain
  9. 9. Martini Draft  1995-1999: IP over ATM, IP over Ethernet L3 L2  L2 L3  Ethernet IP ATM PPP 2000+: ATM over IP, Ethernet over IP SONET over IP Ethernet ATM IP PPP Idea proposed by Luca Martini of Level 3 Communications and then Cisco Washington University in St. Louis 7-9 ©2013 Raj Jain
  10. 10. Pseudo Wire: L2 Circuits over IP CE1 ATM Network PE1 PE2 Pseudo Wire Emulated Service A Frame Relay Network Ethernet CE2 ATM Network B IP Network Frame Relay Network Ethernet Tunnel Hdr Demux Field [Control] ATM ATM ATM ATM Payload Type How to de-assemble payload MPLS/GRE/L2TP - How to get to egress Washington University in St. Louis ©2013 Raj Jain 7-10
  11. 11. Ethernet over PWE3 over MPLS MPLS Label PW Label [Control] Ethernet Frame w/o FCS PID Flags FRG Length Sequence # 4b 4b 2b 6b 16b        PW1 MPLS LSP PW2 Pseudo-Wire Emulation Edge-to-Edge (PWE3) Multiple pseudo-wires per MPLS LSP PW3 Payload ID (PID): 5=Untagged Ethernet, 4=VLAN tagged, … 4VLAN tag put by carrier and customers may or may not be relevent for forwarding. Determined administratively by PE. Flags: Payload specific. FRG: Used for fragmentation Pause frames are obeyed locally. Not transported. May put 802.1p priority in exp field of MPLS label Washington University in St. Louis 7-11 ©2013 Raj Jain
  12. 12. Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS)    Allows multi-point Ethernet services over MPLS networks using pseudo-wires Non-Hierarchical VPLS: Edge routers do complete routing table, label distribution, multicast/broadcast replication  Suitable for small deployments Hierarchical VPLS (H-VPLS): Edge routers communicate with only other edge devices and do not have large routing tables  Suitable for large deployments A CE PE B CE PE A CE PE PE CE B PE Service Provider CE A PE CE CE: Customer Edge PE: Provider Edge B Ref: H. Saboowala, M. Abid, S. Modali, "Designing Networks and Services for the Cloud: Delivering business-grade cloud applications and services," Cisco Press 2013, ISBN:1587142945 Washington University in St. Louis ©2013 Raj Jain 7-12
  13. 13. Differentiated Services      A way for IP routers to provide QoS Expedited Forwarding (EF): Also known as Premium Service  Virtual leased line  Guaranteed minimum service rate  Policed: Arrival rate < Minimum Service Rate  Not affected by other forwarding classes Assured Forwarding (AF):  Four Classes: No particular ordering  Three drop preference per class: Low, Medium, High Best Effort Service Differentiated Service Code Point (6 bits) encode the service, E.g., 101110 = EF Washington University in St. Louis 7-13 ©2013 Raj Jain
  14. 14. Carriers vs. Enterprise We need to exchange topology for optimal routing. Washington University in St. Louis Sorry, We can’t tell you anything about our internal network. 7-14 ©2013 Raj Jain
  15. 15. Issue: UNI vs Peer-to-Peer Signaling  Two Business Models:  Carrier: Overlay or cloud  Network is a black-box  User-to-network interface (UNI) to create/destroy light paths (in OIF)  Enterprise: Peer-to-Peer  Complete exchange of information UNI Washington University in St. Louis UNI 7-15 ©2013 Raj Jain
  16. 16. UNI vs. ENNI   User to Network Interface (UNI):  Separates responsibilities between the user and the provider. (Troubleshooting, failures etc).  Like the wired phone box outside your home.  Only one customer’s traffic. External Network to Network Interface (ENNI):  Separates responsibilities between two providers.  Many customer’s traffic passes through an ENNI  Tier 2 operators sell services to Tier 3 service providers. Customer UNI Provider 1 Tier 3 ENNI Provider 2 Tier 2 Ref: Fujitsu, “Carrier Ethernet Essentials,” Washington University in St. Louis ©2013 Raj Jain 7-16
  17. 17. Operator Virtual Connection (OVC)      Between UNI and ENNI or between two ENNIs. For wholesale service providers Two types: Point-to-Point and Multipoint-to-Multipoint Untagged or single tagged frames at NNI. Q-in-Q at ENNI UNIs may be 10 to 100 Mbps. ENNIs at 1 to 10 Gbps. UNI UNI ENNI UNI ENNI Washington University in St. Louis ENNI ENNI UNI 7-17 ©2013 Raj Jain
  18. 18. Metro Access Ethernet Private Line  Access Ethernet Private Line (Access-EPL):  Port-based service for Internet access Like the service at your home.  Ends at your access provider, where many other AccessEPLs may end  Access provider has only one interface Shared by many Access-EPLs Different from p2p EPL. Customer 1 ENNI Customer n E-Access Washington University in St. Louis 7-18 ©2013 Raj Jain
  19. 19. End-to-End Metro Ethernet Connection  An EC may go through multiple service providers  Multiple OVCs can be concatenated to create an EC ENNI Wholesale Access Provider OVC1 UNI Subscriber Washington University in St. Louis ENNI Wholesale Transport Provider OVC2 Retail Service Provider OVC3 EC 7-19 UNI Subscriber ©2013 Raj Jain
  20. 20. Ethernet Virtual Connections (EVCs)     Port-based ECs: Forwarding not based on VLANs. Frames delivered to remote UNI/ENNI for P2P or Based on destination address for P2MP VLAN-based ECs: Forwarding based on VLAN tag.  Multiple Virtual UNIs  Ethernet Virtual Connection (EVC) More cost-effective for Enterprise customers EVC Types of EVCs: UNI EVC 1. Ethernet Virtual Private Line (EVPL) EVC 2. Ethernet Virtual Private Tree (EVP-Tree) 3. Ethernet Virtual Private LAN (EVPLAN) 4. Access Ethernet Virtual Private Line (Access EVPL) Note: Service providers always share an ENNI for multiple connections  OVCs are always virtual  No OCs Washington University in St. Louis 7-20 ©2013 Raj Jain
  21. 21. Metro Ethernet Service Attributes     Bandwidth Profiles: Limits on data dates  Ingress Profile: Incoming data rate  Egress Profile: Outgoing data rate Per UNI, Per EVC or OVC, or Data Per EVC/OVC per Class of Service (CoS) CoS is indicated by the 3-bits in the priority field or CBS 4-bit Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) Rate specified by 5 parameters 1. Committed Information Rate (CIR) CIR EBS 2. Committed Burst Size (CBS) Dropped 3. Excess Information rate (EIR) Mark EIR 4. Excess Burst Size (EBS) DEI 5. Color Mode (CM): Customer does/does not Forwarded mark drop eligibility indicator (DEI) Washington University in St. Louis 7-21 ©2013 Raj Jain
  22. 22. Metro Ethernet OAM Service Provider Wholesale Provider MEG Service Provider MEG UNI-C Subscriber Wholesale Service Provider UNI-N  ENNI  ENNI  UNI-N  Operation, Administration and Maintenance (OAM) Defined in IEEE 802.1ag, IEEE 802.3ah, and ITU Y.1731 Maintenance end points (MEPs) Maintenance Intermediate Points (MIPs) Maintenance Entity Group (MEG): Level of Administration UNI-C  Subscriber MEP MIP Service Provider MEG Subscriber MEG Washington University in St. Louis 7-22 ©2013 Raj Jain
  23. 23. Metro Ethernet OAM (Cont) UNI-C Service Provider UNI-N ENNI Wholesale Service Provider ENNI Subscriber UNI-N  Performance Monitoring: Measure throughput and latency Connectivity Fault Management: Monitor downtime  Service Fault Management  Link Fault Management UNI-C  Subscriber IEEE 802.3ah Link OAM Link OAM ITU-T Y.1731 End-to-End Performance Monitoring IEEE 802.3ag End-to-End Connectivity Fault Management Washington University in St. Louis 7-23 Service OAM ©2013 Raj Jain
  24. 24. Metro Ethernet OAM Messages UNI-C Service Provider UNI-N ENNI Wholesale Service Provider ENNI Subscriber UNI-N  Continuity Check Message (CCM) in both directions (Similar to IP Ping) Link Trace Message (LTM): Locates fault. Link Trace Response (LTR) is returned by each end point and intermediate point (similar to IP trace route) UNI-C  Subscriber Service Provider MEG LTM LTRs Washington University in St. Louis 7-24 ©2013 Raj Jain
  25. 25. Metro Ethernet Use Cases 2. Internet Subscriber 1 Building B UNI P2P EVC Retail Service Provider UNI UNI Subscriber 1 Building A Access EVC ENNI Head office to Satellite offices and/or Internet UNI 1. Customers to Cloud Service Provider Retail Service Provider Washington University in St. Louis EVC2 Cloud Service Provider Wholesale Access Provider 7-25 ENNI OVCD ENNI ENNI OVCC OVCB UNI Subscriber 2 UNI OVCA ENNI UNI Subscriber 1 UNI EVC1 ©2013 Raj Jain
  26. 26. Ethernet Provider Bridge (PB) Customer A VLANs 1-100 CE PE Customer B VLANs 1-100 CE PE     Service Provider S-VLAN 1 S-VLAN 2 PE CE Customer A VLANs 1-100 PE CE Customer B VLANs 1-100 IEEE 802.1ad-2005 incorporated in IEEE 802.1Q-2011 Problem: Multiple customers may have the same VLAN ID. How to keep them separate? Solution: Q-in-Q. Provider inserts a service VLAN tag Allows 4K customers to be serviced. Total 16M VLANs C-DA C-SA Type S-VID Type C-VID Type Payload 88A8 8100 Ref: D. Bonafede, “Metro Ethernet Network,” Ref: P. Thaler, et al., “IEEE 802.1Q,” IETF tutorial, March 10 2013, Washington University in St. Louis 7-26 ©2013 Raj Jain
  27. 27. Provider Bridge (Cont)  8 Traffic Classes using Differentiated Services Code Points (DSCP) for Assured Forwarding S-Tag Priority 3b Priority 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Washington University in St. Louis CFI S-VLAN ID Type/Length 1b 12b 16b Class Strict Priority AF1 AF2 AF3 AF4 AF5 AF6 Best Effort 7-27 ©2013 Raj Jain
  28. 28. Provider Backbone Network (PBB) Subscriber Provider Subscriber Subscriber    Provider Backbone Provider Provider Subscriber Subscriber Problem: Number of MAC addresses passing through backbone bridges is too large for all core bridge to remember Broadcast and flooded (unknown address) frames give unwanted traffic and security issues Solution: IEEE 802.1ah-2008 now in 802.1Q-2011 Add new source/destination MAC addresses pointing to ingress backbone bridge and egress backbone bridge Core bridges only know edge bridge addresses Washington University in St. Louis ©2013 Raj Jain 7-28
  29. 29. MAC-in-MAC Frame Format    Provider backbone edge bridges (PBEB) forward to other PBEB’s and learn customer MAC addresses  PB core bridges do not learn customer MACs B-DA = Destination backbone bridge address Edge Determined by Customer Destination Address Edge Backbone VLANs delimit the broadcast domains in the backbone Core Core Edge Edge Backbone B-DA B-SA Type B-VID Type I-SID C-DA C-SA Type S-VID Type C-VID Type Payload 88A8 88C8 88A8 8100 48b 48b 16b 16b 16b 32b 48b 48b 16b 16b 16b 16b 16b I-Tag  PBB Core switches forward based on Backbone Destination Bridge Address and Backbone-VLAN ID (60 bits) Similar to 802.1ad Q-in-Q. Therefore, same EtherType. Washington University in St. Louis 7-29 ©2013 Raj Jain
  30. 30. PBB Service Instance  Service instance ID (I-SID) indicates a specific flow  All frames on a specific port, or  All frames on a specific port with a specific service VLAN, or  All frames on a specific port with a specific service VLAN and a specific customer VLAN SID 1 20 33 401 502 Definition Port 1 Port 2, S-VLAN=10 Port 2, S-VLAN=20 Port 2, S-VLAN=30, C-VLAN=100 Port 3, S-VLAN=40, C-VLAN=200 Washington University in St. Louis B-VLAN 1 3 6 4 4 7-30 Port 1 Port 2 B-VLAN=1 B-VLAN=3 B-VLAN=6 Port 3 B-VLAN=4 Service Instance Mapping ©2013 Raj Jain
  31. 31. MAC-in-MAC (Cont) SIDB PBBE SIDA SIDB SIDD   SIDB PBB Core Bridge PBBE SIDC  PBBE PBBE SIDA B-VLAN1 B-VLAN2 PBBE PBBE SIDC SIDD Each Backbone VLANs (B-VLAN) can carry multiple services 24-bit SID  224 Service Instances in the backbone I-Tag format: I-Tag not used in the core. Includes C-DA+C-SA UCA=1  Use customer addresses (used in CFM) Priority Code Point (I-PCP) 3b Drop Eligibility Indicator (I-DEI) Use Customer Address (UCA) Reserved 1 Reserved 2 1b 1b 1b 2b Washington University in St. Louis Service Instance ID (I-SID) Customer Destination Address (C-DA) 24b 7-31 48b Customer Source Address (C-SA) 48b ©2013 Raj Jain
  32. 32. Connection Oriented Ethernet   Connectionless: Path determined at forwarding  Varying QoS Connection Oriented: Path determined at provisioning  Path provisioned by management  Deterministic QoS  No spanning tree, No MAC address learning,  Frames forwarded based on VLAN Ids and Backbone bridges addresses  Path not determined by customer MAC addresses and other customer fields  More Secure  Reserved bandwidth per EVC  Pre-provisioned Protection path  Better availability Working Path CE PE PE CE Protection Path Washington University in St. Louis 7-32 ©2013 Raj Jain
  33. 33. VLAN Cross-Connect    Cross-connect  Circuit oriented Connection Oriented Ethernet with Q-in-Q Forward frames based on VLAN ID and Input port  No MAC Learning Input VLAN Output Port ID Port 1 200 7 2 201 5 3 20 5 3 21 6 4 100 7 4 101 8 Washington University in St. Louis P2P VPN 1 5 Wholesale VoD 2 6 3 7 4 8 VOIP VoD High-Speed Internet Broadcast TV 7-33 ©2013 Raj Jain
  34. 34. PBB-TE       Provider Backbone Bridges with Traffic Engineering (PBB-TE) IEEE 802.1Qay-2009 now in 802.1Q-2011 Provides connection oriented P2P (E-Line) Ethernet service For PBB-TE traffic VLANs:  Turn off MAC learning  Discard frames with unknown address and broadcasts.  No flooding  Disable Spanning Tree Protocol.  Add protection path switching for each direction of the trunk Switch forwarding tables are administratively populated using management Same frame format as with MAC-in-MAC. No change. Washington University in St. Louis 7-34 ©2013 Raj Jain
  35. 35. PBB-TE QoS Classification, Policing, Marking Washington University in St. Louis Scheduling, Remarking Subscriber Shaping 7-35 UNI-C Service Provider UNI-N Subscriber Wholesale Service Provider ENNI  ENNI  UNI-N  Guarantees QoS  No need for MPLS or SONET/SDH UNI traffic is classified by Port, Service VLAN ID, Customer VLAN ID, priority, Unicast/Multicast UNI ports are policed  Excess traffic is dropped No policing at NNI ports. Only remarking, if necessary. Traffic may be marked and remarked at both UNI and NNI UNI-C  ©2013 Raj Jain
  36. 36. Ethernet Tagged Frame Format Evolution  Original Ethernet C-DA C-SA Type Payload  IEEE 802.1Q VLAN C-DA C-SA Type C-VID Type Payload 8100  IEEE 802.1ad PB C-DA C-SA Type S-VID Type C-VID Type Payload 88A8 8100  IEEE 802.1ah PBB or 802.1Qay PBB-TE B-DA B-SA Type B-VID Type I-SID C-DA C-SA Type S-VID Type C-VID Type Payload 88A8 88C7 88A8 8100 Tag Type Customer VLAN Service VLAN or Backbone VLAN Backbone Service Instance Washington University in St. Louis Value 8100 88A8 88C7 7-36 ©2013 Raj Jain
  37. 37. Comparison of Technologies Basic MPLS Ethernet No Protection Fast Reroute No Circuit Based Yes Inefficient Priority Diffserve PB PBB-TE Legacy Services Traffic Engineering Scalability No Protection Fast Reroute VLAN Circuit Based Yes No. P2P only Diffserve+ Diffserve+ Guaranteed Guaranteed Yes (PWE3) No No No Yes No Yes Limited Complex Q-in-Q Cost OAM Low No High Some Medium Yes Q-in-Q+ Mac-in-MAC Medium Yes Resilience Security Multicast QoS Ref: Bonafede Washington University in St. Louis SPB/LAG 7-37 ©2013 Raj Jain
  38. 38. Summary 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Carrier networks are moving away from voice oriented networks (SDH, PDH) to data oriented networks (MPLS, Ethernet) Ethernet over Pseudo wires over MPLS is used to interconnect Ethernet switches over long distances Metro Ethernet Forum has defined: EVPL, EVP-LAN, EVPTree, and EVP-Access services Q-in-Q and MAC-in-MAC extensions allow very large Ethernet networks spanning over several backbone carriers PBB-TE extension allows connection oriented Ethernet with QoS guarantees and protection Washington University in St. Louis 7-38 ©2013 Raj Jain
  39. 39. Reading List     Fujitsu, “Carrier Ethernet Essentials,” rEthernetEssentials.pdf (must read) D. Bonafede, “Metro Ethernet Network,” P. Thaler, et al., “IEEE 802.1Q,” IETF tutorial, March 10 2013, H. Saboowala, M. Abid, S. Modali, "Designing Networks and Services for the Cloud: Delivering business-grade cloud applications and services," Cisco Press 2013, ISBN:1587142945 (Safari Book) Washington University in St. Louis 7-39 ©2013 Raj Jain
  40. 40. Wikipedia Links                 Washington University in St. Louis 7-40 ©2013 Raj Jain
  41. 41. Wikipedia Links (Cont)                ,_administration_and_management ng Washington University in St. Louis ©2013 Raj Jain 7-41
  42. 42. Acronyms               AF ATM B-VLAN BGP CBS CCM CIR CM CoS DA DEI DSCP DWDM EBS Assured Forwarding Asynchronous Transfer Mode Backbone VLAN Border Gateway Protocol Committed Burst Size Continuity Check Message Committed Information Rate Color Mode Class of Service Destination Address Drop Eligibility Indicator Differentiated Services Code Points Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Excess Burst Size Washington University in St. Louis 7-42 ©2013 Raj Jain
  43. 43. Acronyms (Cont)               EC ECMP EF EIR ENNI EPL EVC EVP-Access EVP-LAN EVP-Line EVP-Tree EVPL FRG ID Ethernet Connection Equal-cost Multipathing Expedited Forwarding Excess Information rate External Network to Network Interface Ethernet Private Line Ethernet Virtual Connection Ethernet Virtual Private Access Ethernet Virtual Private Local Area Network Ethernet Virtual Private Line Ethernet Virtual Private Tree Ethernet Virtual Private Line Fragmentation Identifier Washington University in St. Louis 7-43 ©2013 Raj Jain
  44. 44. Acronyms (Cont)                ITU LAN LDP LSP LSR LTM LTR MAC MEG MEP MIP MP MPLS MTU NNI International Telecommunications Union Local Area Network Label Distribution Protocol Label Switched Paths Label Switching Router Link Trace Message Link Trace Response Media Access Control Maintenance Entity Group Maintenance End Points Maintenance Intermediate Points Multi-Point Multi-Protocol Label Switching Maximum Transmission Unit Network-to-Network Interface Washington University in St. Louis 7-44 ©2013 Raj Jain
  45. 45. Acronyms (Cont)               OAM OC OIF OTN OVC PB PBB-TE PBB PBEB PDH PE PW PWE3 QoS Operation, Administration and Maintenance Optical Carrier Optical Interoperability Forum Optical Transmission Network Operator Virtual Connection Provider Bridge Provider Backbone Bridge with Traffic Engineering Provider Backbone Bridge Provider backbone edge bridges Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy Provider Edge Pseudo-Wire Pseudo-Wire Emulation Edge-to-Edge Quality of Service Washington University in St. Louis 7-45 ©2013 Raj Jain
  46. 46. Acronyms (Cont)              SA SDH SHDSL SID SONET TE TTL UNI VC VID VLAN VPLS WDM Source Address Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Single Pair High-Speed Digital Subscriber Line Service Identifier Synchronous optical network Traffic Engineering Time to Live User to Network Interface Virtual Circuit VLAN Identifier Virtual Local Area Network Virtual Private Line Service Wavelength Division Multiplexing Washington University in St. Louis 7-46 ©2013 Raj Jain