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# Quantum

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this is all about quantum mechanics.

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### Quantum

1. 1. Quantum MechanicsIn quantum mechanics, the electrons occupy mechanics specific energy levels (as in Bohrs model) but they also exist within specific probability volumes called orbitals with specific orientations in space. The electrons within each orbital has a distinct spin. n = The principle quantum number Describes the possible energy levels and pictorially it describes the orbital size. n = 1, 2, 3…. where an orbital with the value of 2 is larger than an orbital with the value of 1. 1s 2s
2. 2. Quantum Mechanics l = angular momentum quantum numberDescribes the "shape" of the orbital and can have values from 0 to n - 1 for each n.orbital designation : s p d f Too hard toshape : draw see text ml = magnetic quantum numberRelated to the orientation of an orbital in space relative to the other orbitals with the same l quantum numbers. It can have values between l and - l . ms = spin quantum numberAn electron has either +1/2 or -1/2 spin values; sometimes referred to as spin up and spin down.
3. 3. Orbital Shapes
4. 4. Electron Configuration Electron configuration is a shorthand notation for describing the arrangement of the electrons about the nucleus. General Format using the quantum numbers: n = principle quantum number nl e- l = angular momentum quantum numberRULES: e- = number of electrons1. Fill the lowest energy levels first. Lowest 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p2. No more than two electrons per orbital.
5. 5. Electron ConfigurationExamples:H : 1s1 He: 1s2 Li : 1s2 2s1 Co: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d7 Br: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p5The condensed electron configuration distinguishes the core electrons from the valence electrons. CORE electrons are tightly held to the nucleus and resemble a noble gas configuration. VALENCE electrons are the outer most electrons and are involved in chemical reactions.Examples of the condensed configuration: Li:[He] 2s1 Co:[Ar] 4s2 3d7 2 10 5
6. 6. Electron Configuration Practice Problems1. Give the full electron configuration: C O Ne Na Si Cl Ar K2. Give the condensed electron configuration: C O Ne Na Si Cl Ar K Answers on next slide
7. 7. Electron ConfigurationAnswers1 & 2. Give the full & condensed electron configuration:C 1s2 2s2 2p2 or [He] 2s2 2p2O 1s2 2s2 2p4 or [He] 2s2 2p2Ne 1s2 2s2 2p6 or [Ne]Na 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 or [Ne] 3s1Si 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2 or [Ne] 3s2 3p2Cl 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5 or [Ne] 3s2 3p5Ar 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 or [Ar]K 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 or [Ar]4s1
8. 8. Orbital DiagramsOrbital diagrams are written in order of increasing energy levels starting with the lowest energy level the 1s orbital. ___ ___ ___ 4p RULES: ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ 3d (1) fill the lowest ___ 4s energy level first ___ ___ ___ 3p (2) fill each orbital in a subshell with one ___ 3s electron first before you double up. ___ ___ ___ 2p (3) Completely fill ___ 2s each subshell before Remember the order!! ___ 1s proceeding to the next energy level.
9. 9. Orbital Diagrams Practice Problems1. Fill in the orbital diagrams for:C O Ne Na Si Cl Ar K ___ ___ ___ 4p ___ ___ ___ 4p __ __ __ __ __ 3d __ __ __ __ __ 3d ___ 4s ___ 4s ___ ___ ___ 3p ___ ___ ___ 3p ___ 3s ___ 3s ___ ___ ___ 2p ___ ___ ___ 2p ___ 2s ___ 2s ___ 1s ___ 1s
10. 10. Orbital Diagrams Practice Problem AnswersFill in the orbital diagrams for: C O ___ ___ ___ 4p ___ ___ ___ 4p __ __ __ __ __ 3d __ __ __ __ __ 3d ___ 4s ___ 4s ___ ___ ___ 3p ___ ___ ___ 3p ___ 3s ___ 3s ___ ___ ___ 2p ___ ___ ___ 2p ___ 2s ___ 2s ___ 1s ___ 1s
11. 11. Orbital Diagrams Practice Problem AnswersFill in the orbital diagrams for: Ne Na ___ ___ ___ 4p ___ ___ ___ 4p __ __ __ __ __ 3d __ __ __ __ __ 3d ___ 4s ___ 4s ___ ___ ___ 3p ___ ___ ___ 3p ___ 3s ___ 3s ___ ___ ___ 2p ___ ___ ___ 2p ___ 2s ___ 2s ___ 1s ___ 1s
12. 12. Orbital Diagrams Practice Problem AnswersFill in the orbital diagrams for: Si Cl ___ ___ ___ 4p ___ ___ ___ 4p __ __ __ __ __ 3d __ __ __ __ __ 3d ___ 4s ___ 4s ___ ___ ___ 3p ___ ___ ___ 3p ___ 3s ___ 3s ___ ___ ___ 2p ___ ___ ___ 2p ___ 2s ___ 2s ___ 1s ___ 1s
13. 13. Orbital Diagrams Group Study ProblemsFill in the orbital diagrams and then write the electron configuration (both full and condensed) for: B F Ca P S As Zn Pb ___ ___ ___ 4p __ __ __ __ __ 3d ___ 4s ___ ___ ___ 3p ___ 3s ___ ___ ___ 2p ___ 2s ___ 1s