Magnitude & Scale The Moment magnitude scale (abbreviated as MMS; denoted as MW) is used to measure the size of earthquakes in terms of the energy released. The scale was developed in the 1970’s to succeed the 1930’s-era Richter magnitude scale (ML) Richer scale is improved form of Marcalli scale.
Tectonic Plates Tectonic plates are large plates of rock that make up the foundation of the earths crust. There are ten major plates on the earth and many more minor ones. The plates are most famously known for being the source of Earthquakes.
Pakistan Tectonic Plates• Pakistan overlapswith the Indian andthe Eurasian tectonicplates.• Sindh and Punjab lieon Indian plate.• Balochistan andKhyber Pukhtunkhwalie within the Eurasianplate. Source: www.ecogeodb.com
Earthquake DetailsMagnitude 7.8 Saturday, October 08, 2005 at 08:52:37Date/Time AMLocation Muzafferabad, AJK Depth 26 km (16.2 miles) 105 km (65 miles) NE of ISLAMABAD,Distance Pakistan Source: www. earthquake.usgs.gov
Losses 87,000 Dead (According to World Bank Report) 100,000 injured 171,884 houses completely demolished 4 Million people homeless in 1,083 villages of Azad Kashmir In Kashmir, the districts of Muzaffarabad, Bagh and Rawlakot were the most affected. Source: www.dripireland.org
Earthquake vs TsunamiThe adverse effects of thisearthquake are estimatedto be larger than those ofthe Tsunami of December2004
Reasons of Destruction Stone masonry buildings (with poor bonding) No horizontal bond beams were provided at the levels of plinth, or roof No vertical members of concrete or wood were provided in walls In some cases, certainly due to economic constraints, the stones were observed to have been laid even dry (no mortar at all) and the gaps were filled by small pieces of stones
Reasons of destruction Poor quality of concrete used for fabrication of blocks Inadequate thickness of walls (6 inch) No integrity of the wall in the transverse direction Weak connections at corners Inadequate lap splices
ERRA The Govt. of Pakistan established the Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority (ERRA) on October 24, 2005 to take up the task of rebuilding in the earthquake affected regions. It includes civil servants, armed forces personnel and international consultants. ERRA’s mission was to “Convert this Adversity into an Opportunity” by reconstructing the lost and destroyed facilities.
NDMA National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), is the lead agency at the Federal level to deal with Disaster Management Activities. In event of disaster, Government Ministries & Departments, Armed Forces, NGOs, work through and from NDMA to conduct one window operation.
2011 Earthquake, PakistanMagnitude 7.2Date/Time Friday, January 19, 2011 at 01:23 AMLocation Dalbandin, Balochistan Depth 84 km (52 miles) 45 kilometers west of Dalbandin inDistance Balochistan. Source: www. earthquake.usgs.gov
2005 vs 2011 Earthquake 2005 Earthquake was Disaster while 2011 Earthquake was Hazard. 2005- Magnitude 7.8 & Densely populated areas. 2011- Magnitude 7.2 but Sparsely populated areas. 2005- 80 000+ people died. 2011- No major loss. HAZARD can become DISASTER, if earthquake comes in Densely populated areas or near Coastal Areas.
Constraints Lack of latest equipments. Lack of funding from Govt. Lack of implementation of Seismic Building Codes. Lack of public awareness. Lack of training programs and workshops. Poverty