Water is the most needed substance on the earth for sustenance of life. Due to rapid expansion of population, accelerated industrial growth and enhanced agricultural production, there is ever increasing demand for fresh water. Demand of fresh water (potable water) has increased from 15-20 litres/person/day to 75-100 litres/person/day, Introduction
Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water.
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS): Standards on Drinking Water Quality (TDS < 500 mg/l) • Sodium • Chloride • Hardness • Sulfate • Other inorganic trace minerals (Si, P, K, B, etc.) What Is Salinity ?
MAIN TECHNIQUES FOR DESALINATION a) Flash Distillation b) Vapor Compression Process. c) Electrodialysis d) Reverse Osmosis. e) Solar Distillation .
Solar water Desalination In solar desalination water is evaporated; using the sun energy of then the vapor condenses as pure water. This process removes salts and other impurities. Solar energy is allowed into the collector to heat the water. The water evaporates only to condense on the underside of the glass. When water evaporates, only the water vapor rises, leaving contaminants behind. The gentle slope of the glass directs the condensate to a collection trough, which in turn delivers the water to the collection bottle.
LITERATURE REVIEW 1. It seems that Egyptians who discovered first green house effect use of solar energy began in the third century before J.C, by Archimedes and 100 years after J.C, by heron of Alexandria, in 1615 by salmon de gauss , in 1974 by Joseph priestly and in 1878 a solar still of 500 m 2 has been set up in the desert of atacama (chila) , in order to supply in water a mine of sodium nitrate . 2. After 1878, work on solar energy has slow down because of fossil energy availability in a lower cost. Solar energy has been reused from 1902 to 1908, by Schumann who built up solar machines with much horse power to pump water.
<ul><li>Solar energy has been reused from 1902 to 1908, by Schumann who built up solar machines with much horse power to pump water. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1913,boys set up, near Cairo (Egypt), a big machines of 50 horse power with lengthy parabolic cylinders which concentrates solar radiation upon a central pipe with a concentration factor of 4.5 , in order to pump water from the Nile river for irrigation purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Solar energy still being used till 1938,from which there was no other progress in solar energy field, because of its lack of competitiveness compared to energy issued from fossil fuel, from 1950, use of solar energy , began to develop slowly among solar energy uses. </li></ul>
AIMS AND OBJECTIVE 1. To Study the Effect of water depth on rate of evaporation. 2. To Study the Effect of Salt Concentration on rate of evaporation. 3. To Study the Effect of temperature on rate of desalination. 4. To Study the Effect of wind velocity on rate of condensation.
Instrumentation. a. Liquid Level controlling b. Liquid Level Indicator. c. Pressure Indicator. d. Temperature Indicator. DESIGN OBJECTIVE
SCOPE OF PROJECT <ul><li>Be constructed with locally available materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Be light weight for ease of handling and transportation. </li></ul><ul><li>Have an effective life of 10 to 20 Yrs. </li></ul><ul><li>No requirement of any external power sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Materials used should not contaminate the distillate. </li></ul><ul><li>low in cost and easily assembled in the field. </li></ul>
METHODOLOGY & EXPERIMENTAL WORK Sample Collection Equipment Calibration Filling of Basin with Saline water Recording Initial Operating Conditions Estimation Of ( Rate of Evaporation & Condensation) Product Analysis ( pH , Coductivity , TDS , BOD , COD ,DO)
References <ul><li>Umar k.Mirza. M.Mercedes Maroto-Valer, Nasir Ahmed Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review, Volume 7, Issue 6,December 2003,pages 501-514. </li></ul><ul><li>G.N TIWARI; Bhagwan Prasad, international general of sustainable energy 1478-646X, volume 18 issue 3, 1996. page no 173-190, thermal modeling of concentrator assisted solar distillation with water flow over the glass cover </li></ul><ul><li>B. Bouchekima,R. Gros, R. Ouahes and M.Diboun, Brackish Water Desalination with heat recovery, Desalination 138 (2001),pp.147-155 </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable Energy , Volume 34, Issue 6 ,June 2009 pages 1471-1478 M.I. Ahmed, M,hrairi,A.F.Ismail </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review , December 2007 Umar K. Mirza, Nasir Ahmed, Kanji Harijan, Tariq Majeed </li></ul><ul><li>Johri, A.E.,Drinking Water Quality : Framework for action in Pakistan, Technical Document, Environmental Health Programme, WHO Technical Office, Pakistan, 2005 </li></ul>
References <ul><li>7. Pakistan council of Scientic and Industrial Research , </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.most.gov.pk/frames/organisations/pcsir.htm (accessed </li></ul><ul><li>on 20 March2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistan council for Renewable Energy Technologies, </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.most.gov.pk/frames/organisations/pcret.htm(accessed on 20 </li></ul><ul><li>March 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Energy Development Board, www.aedb.org.pk . </li></ul><ul><li>10. Pakistan council for renewable energy technology, www.pcret.com.pk . </li></ul>