1
SUBSTRATE EVALUATION FOR SPAWNPRODUCTION AND YIELD OF OYSTERMUSHROOMByMuhammad Rizwan Liaqat2
Introduction3
Introduction Higher fungi 12000 spp 2000 edible 120 commercially cultivatedMushrooms4
5
Mushroom were one of man’s earliest foods.An exotic and luxurious food reserved for the rich.They can be grown anywhere...
Oyster mushroomEdible mushroom , excellent flavorand taste.3rd largest commercially producemushroom. naturally on rotte...
× Mushroom normally ranges between 20 and 40% inprotein.× Also contain all the essential amino acids .× low in total fat c...
Mushroom classification9
• Large quantity of agriculture wastes producesannually• Alternate method of utilization these agriculturewaste• Environme...
OBJECTIVEEvaluation of agricultural wastes and grains forthe development of spawn.To evaluate spawn developed on differe...
Materials and Methods12
Mushroom culture PreparationStrain of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida)Pure culture was maintained on malt extract mediu...
oven dried at 50 oCfor seven daysground in a Grindingmill 1mm mesh sizeSUBSTRATE PREPARATION OF WASTEsubstrate 83%wheat br...
soaked inwater 24hoursExcessivewaterdrainedoffcapped &sterilizedat 121oCfor 20minutes.Inoculation inasepticconditioncapped...
Substrates used for spawn productionS.NO Name of the substrate1 Lipedium spp2 Date palm leaves3 Okra4 Barseem5 Tea waste6 ...
Substrate preparationChopped wheat straw 4-5cmsoaked in water for 48 hours to moistenleft overnight to remove the excess o...
18
Filling and Pasteurization of bagsSubstrate was filled in heat resistant glass bagspasteurized for 3-4 hours at 80-900Clef...
InoculationInoculated with spawn of oystermushroom developed on selectedagricultural wastes and grains.All the bags were l...
DATA RECORDEDTime for completion of spawn runningDays to appearance of pin headsNumber of pin headsDays to maturity format...
Yield:Number of fruiting bodies per bagSustenance percentageWeight of SporophoreCap diameterData analysisDATA RECORDED22
Results andDiscussions23
Mycelial growth of Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida)on different substrates(Top to bottom).24
Substrate 5 days 10 days 15 daysLepedium spp 9.25 e 20.50 d 25.00 deDate palm leaves 13.30 d 36.66 bc 47.00 bOkra waste 31...
SubstrateSpawn run in days25% 50% 75% 100%Date palm leaves 13.00 c 17.50 bc 23.50 c 27.50 deOkra waste 14.00 b 19.33 ab 24...
Substrate Different mushroom stages (days)Spawn run pin heads Fruiting bodies Total daysDate palm leaves 27.5 de 7.1 ef 2....
Cap diameter28
Substrate No. of pin heads No. of fruiting bodies Cap diameter(cm)Date palm leaves 91.8 d 23.1 d 5.1 bcOkra waste 86.0 e 2...
30
Substrate No. of pin heads No. of fruiting bodies Sustenancy (%)Date palm leaves 91.8 d 23.1 d 25.23 cOkra waste 86.0 e 21...
32
Substrate Ist Week 2ND Week 3RD Week 4TH Week Totals MeansDate palm leaves 88.2 a 58.5 a 52.4 a 50.8 a 250.1 a 62.5 aOkra ...
Substrate Biological efficiency (%)Date palm leaves 19.24 aOkra waste 11.29 cMung beans pods 6.41 fPaddy straw 17.21 bRed ...
Substrate Estimated costs Cost benefit ratioDate palm leaves 15.00 0.3Okra waste 10.00 0.2Mung beans pods 10.00 0.2Paddy s...
Paddy straw and date palm leaves were found bestsubstrates for the spawn development of oystermushroom.Instead of wheat gr...
Research work is needed to investigate the effect ofsubstrate on sustainable yield of edible mushroomswith regards to comm...
Thankful toHigher Education Commission.Acknowledgment38
39
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Substrate evaluation for spawn production and yield of oyster mushroom

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shows some statistical facts and literature on oyster mushroom using different media for its propagation.

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Substrate evaluation for spawn production and yield of oyster mushroom

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. SUBSTRATE EVALUATION FOR SPAWNPRODUCTION AND YIELD OF OYSTERMUSHROOMByMuhammad Rizwan Liaqat2
  3. 3. Introduction3
  4. 4. Introduction Higher fungi 12000 spp 2000 edible 120 commercially cultivatedMushrooms4
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. Mushroom were one of man’s earliest foods.An exotic and luxurious food reserved for the rich.They can be grown anywhere as long as the conditions for theirgrowth and cultivation are provided.Available mushroom technologies range in complexity from veryhigh to amazingly low.Introduction6
  7. 7. Oyster mushroomEdible mushroom , excellent flavorand taste.3rd largest commercially producemushroom. naturally on rotten wood material.40 well recognized species. 12 arecultivated.7
  8. 8. × Mushroom normally ranges between 20 and 40% inprotein.× Also contain all the essential amino acids .× low in total fat content and have a high proportion ofpolyunsaturated fatty acids (72 to 85%) relative to total fatcontent.× High content of linoleic acids is one of the reasons whymushrooms are considered a health food.Nutrition value8
  9. 9. Mushroom classification9
  10. 10. • Large quantity of agriculture wastes producesannually• Alternate method of utilization these agriculturewaste• Environment pollution problems associatedburning and soil incorporation.INTRODUCTION10• Cultivation of Saprophytic edible mushroommay be the only current economicalbiotechnology for lignocelluloses organic wasterecycling that combines the production ofprotein rich food with the reduction ofenvironmental pollution
  11. 11. OBJECTIVEEvaluation of agricultural wastes and grains forthe development of spawn.To evaluate spawn developed on differentagricultural substrates for mushroom yield.11
  12. 12. Materials and Methods12
  13. 13. Mushroom culture PreparationStrain of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida)Pure culture was maintained on malt extract medium.Grain and waste collectionMalakander farm & other location of K.PLAB EXPERIMENT13
  14. 14. oven dried at 50 oCfor seven daysground in a Grindingmill 1mm mesh sizeSUBSTRATE PREPARATION OF WASTEsubstrate 83%wheat bran 15%gypsum 1%calcium carbonate 1%14
  15. 15. soaked inwater 24hoursExcessivewaterdrainedoffcapped &sterilizedat 121oCfor 20minutes.Inoculation inasepticconditioncappedand sealedincubatedfor 15-20days at25oCSUBSTRATE PREPARATIONOF GRAINSsubstrate 83%wheat bran 15%gypsum 1%calcium carbonate 1%15
  16. 16. Substrates used for spawn productionS.NO Name of the substrate1 Lipedium spp2 Date palm leaves3 Okra4 Barseem5 Tea waste6 Mung bean7 Paddy straw8 Red chilli9 Maize grains10 Millet grains11 Wheat grains 16
  17. 17. Substrate preparationChopped wheat straw 4-5cmsoaked in water for 48 hours to moistenleft overnight to remove the excess of waterRetain 80-90% moisture in the strawMushroom house Experiment17
  18. 18. 18
  19. 19. Filling and Pasteurization of bagsSubstrate was filled in heat resistant glass bagspasteurized for 3-4 hours at 80-900Cleft overnight for coolingMushroom house Experiment19
  20. 20. InoculationInoculated with spawn of oystermushroom developed on selectedagricultural wastes and grains.All the bags were labeled and incubated inthe production room at 25oC.Mushroom house Experiment20
  21. 21. DATA RECORDEDTime for completion of spawn runningDays to appearance of pin headsNumber of pin headsDays to maturity formationBiological efficiency (BE)Cost benefit ratio21
  22. 22. Yield:Number of fruiting bodies per bagSustenance percentageWeight of SporophoreCap diameterData analysisDATA RECORDED22
  23. 23. Results andDiscussions23
  24. 24. Mycelial growth of Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida)on different substrates(Top to bottom).24
  25. 25. Substrate 5 days 10 days 15 daysLepedium spp 9.25 e 20.50 d 25.00 deDate palm leaves 13.30 d 36.66 bc 47.00 bOkra waste 31.00 a 56.66 a 69.25 aBarseem waste 0.00 f 10.00 e 15.00 efTea waste 0.00 f 8.00 e 8.75 fMung beans pods 12.66 d 28.66 cd 34.33 bcdPaddy straw 22.50 bc 56.00 a 65.00 aRed chilies 14.00 d 23.00 d 31.00 cdMaize grains 20.33 c 42.50 b 44.50 bcMillet grains 20.33 c 38.00 bc 41.00 bcWheat grains 24.00 b 38.33 bc 42.66 bcLSD(P < 0.05) 3.2095 10.411 14.231Effect of substrates on mycelial growth (mm) of oyster mushroom(Pleurotus florida).Means followed by different letters within the columns are significantly different at 5% level25
  26. 26. SubstrateSpawn run in days25% 50% 75% 100%Date palm leaves 13.00 c 17.50 bc 23.50 c 27.50 deOkra waste 14.00 b 19.33 ab 24.66 b 30.66 bMung beans pods 9.00 e 14.00 d 20.50 e 26.66 ePaddy straw 9.16 e 14.33 d 17.33 f 24.16 fRed chilies 10.33 d 14.16 d 22.50 d 29.50 cMaize grains 15.66 a 21.00 a 25.33 b 29.83 bcMillet grains 14.83 ab 21.66 a 26.83 a 31.83 aWheat grains 10.66 d 15.83 cd 21.33 e 28.16 dLSD(P < 0.05) 0.89 2.49 0.87 0.88Effect of substrate on spawn running ofPleurotus florida.Means followed by different letters within the columns are significantly different at5% level of probability.26
  27. 27. Substrate Different mushroom stages (days)Spawn run pin heads Fruiting bodies Total daysDate palm leaves 27.5 de 7.1 ef 2.6 c 37.3 eOkra waste 30.6 b 9.3 c 3.5 a 43.3 bMung beans pods 26.6 e 7.6 e 2.6 c 37.0 ePaddy straw 24.1 f 7.0 f 2.5 c 33.6 fRed chilies 29.5 c 7.6 e 3.3 ab 40.5 cMaize grains 29.8 bc 12.3 a 2.8 bc 45.0 aMillet grains 31.8 a 10.5 b 3.5 a 45.8 aWheat grains 28.1 d 8.3 d 2.5 c 39.0 dLSD(P < 0.05) 0.88 0.66 0.63 1.31Effect of substrate on different stages ofPleurotus florida.Means followed by different letters within the columns are significantly different at 5%27
  28. 28. Cap diameter28
  29. 29. Substrate No. of pin heads No. of fruiting bodies Cap diameter(cm)Date palm leaves 91.8 d 23.1 d 5.1 bcOkra waste 86.0 e 21.6 de 5.3abMung beans pods 65.5 f 17.3 f 4.9 bcdPaddy straw 136.1 a 29.3 b 5.8 aRed chilies 65.3 f 20.6 e 4.6 cdMaize grains 106.1 c 26.0 c 4.8 bcdMillet grains 57.8 g 25.8 c 4.6 dWheat grains 110.1b 35.1a 5.1 bcLSD(P < 0.05) 3.92 2.11 0.52Comparison of different parameters of oyster mushroom (P.florida) grown from the developed spawn on differentsubstrates.Means followed by different letters within the columns are significantly different at 5%level of probability29
  30. 30. 30
  31. 31. Substrate No. of pin heads No. of fruiting bodies Sustenancy (%)Date palm leaves 91.8 d 23.1 d 25.23 cOkra waste 86.0 e 21.6 de 25.24 cMung beans pods 65.5 f 17.3 f 26.51 cPaddy straw 136.1 a 29.3 b 21.58 dRed chilies 65.3 f 20.6 e 31.60 bMaize grains 106.1 c 26.0 c 24.52 cMillet grains 57.8 g 25.8 c 44.72 aWheat grains 110.1b 35.1a 32.00 bLSD(P < 0.05) 3.92 2.11 2.809Sustenance potential (%) from pin heads to fruitingbody development on different substrate.Means followed by different letters within the columns are significantly different at 5%level of probability31
  32. 32. 32
  33. 33. Substrate Ist Week 2ND Week 3RD Week 4TH Week Totals MeansDate palm leaves 88.2 a 58.5 a 52.4 a 50.8 a 250.1 a 62.5 aOkra waste 67.1 b 40.7 b 20.2 cd 18.7 de 146.8 c 36.7 cMung beans pods 36.1 f 17.1 d 15.7 f 14.2 g 83.3 f 20.8 fPaddy straw 90.2 a 60.4 a 38.4 b 34.5 c 223.7 b 55.9 bRed chilies 59.0 c 29.1 c 22.0 c 19.2 d 129.4 d 32.3 dMaize grains 53.5 d 20.6 d 19.7 de 16.9 ef 110.9 e 27.7 eMillet grains 47.3 e 25.6 c 17.7 ef 16.0 fg 106.7 e 26.6 eWheat grains 90.0 a 57.0 a 51.6 a 46.2 b 245.0 a 61.2 aLSD(P < 0.05) 3.52 4.58 2.13 2.03 7.28 1.82Effect of substrate on yield of oystermushroom (P. florida).Means followed by different letters within the columns are significantly different at 5% levelof probability33
  34. 34. Substrate Biological efficiency (%)Date palm leaves 19.24 aOkra waste 11.29 cMung beans pods 6.41 fPaddy straw 17.21 bRed chilies 9.95dMaize grains 8.52 eMillet grains 8.21 eWheat grains 18.85 aLSD(P < 0.05) 0.560Effect of substrate on Biological efficiency of oystermushroom (Pleurotus florida).Means followed by different letters within the columns are significantly different at 5%level of probability.34
  35. 35. Substrate Estimated costs Cost benefit ratioDate palm leaves 15.00 0.3Okra waste 10.00 0.2Mung beans pods 10.00 0.2Paddy straw 10.00 0.2Red chilies 10.00 0.2Maize grains 25.00 0.5Millet grains 50.00 1.00Wheat grains 30.00 0.6Cost Benefit Ratio of the substrates used for the spawndevelopment of oyster mushroom (P. florida).35
  36. 36. Paddy straw and date palm leaves were found bestsubstrates for the spawn development of oystermushroom.Instead of wheat grain we used paddy straw and datepalm leaves for spawn production.Spawn developed on different substrates have significanteffect on yield of mushroom.Date palm leaves and paddy straw were showed goodresults for yield among the substrates on which spawndeveloped.Conclusions &Recommendations36
  37. 37. Research work is needed to investigate the effect ofsubstrate on sustainable yield of edible mushroomswith regards to commercial production.Research is also needed to check the chemicalcomposition of these substrates.Further Detailed studies are required to explore otheragricultural waste for spawn and mushroomproduction.Conclusions &Recommendations37
  38. 38. Thankful toHigher Education Commission.Acknowledgment38
  39. 39. 39

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