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  1. 1. Running head: Case Study of a Student with Multiple Disabilities 1Case Study of a Student with Multiple DisabilitiesSyeda RizviUniversity of St. ThomasEDUC: 6320 Action Research ProposalResearch Professor: Deborah A. Masterson, Ed.DProgram Director: Dr. E. BorrecaSpring2013
  2. 2. Case Study of a Student with Multiple Disabilities2Table of ContentsAbstract 4Chapter 1: Purpose of the Study 5Population of Interest 6Importance of Study 7Educational Beliefs & Theories 8Research Hypothesis and Justification 9Literature Review 10The Open Source / Freeware Assistive Technology Software Inventory Users 11Autism and Neuro-diversity Among People with Different Relations to Autism 12Multiple –Treatment Design to Activate Non-handheld Pointer Interfaces by Eyeor Head Movement 13Students With Disabilities Taking an AA-MAS in Reading or Math 14Visual Analysis Showing a Functional Relationship Between Intervention and Changein Participant Response 15A Survey To Gather Information of CVI 16Misdiagnosis of Epilepsy Amongst People with Intellectual Disabilities 17Visual Behaviors of Students with Cortical Visual Impairment 18Performance of Elementary Students with Typical Development TD and LanguageLearning Disabilities LLD 19Reading Growth Paths of K-to-12 Students Under IDEA’s National Disability 20References 23
  3. 3. Case Study of a Student with Multiple Disabilities3References 24References 25Questionnaire 26
  4. 4. Case Study of a Student with Multiple Disabilities4AbstractPurpose of study is to provide evidence based strategies that may be helpful fordeveloping the academic, social and self-help skills of a student with multiple disabilities. Theparents, school principal, and teachers will be asked to complete a questionnaire to gather theirperspectives on the students’ needs and progress. This is being carried out to identify someevidence-based strategies that may possibly be beneficial for developing the child’s academicsocial and self-help skills.The research approach/design will be a questionnaire which will be completed byparents, care givers, teachers and other pertinent individuals who work with Peter. I will alsogather notes during class observations, reviewing Peter’s IEP and special education folder. Iwill carry out a follow up interview parents, teachers, and the school principal to confirm theinterpretation of the data. This research approach is being carried out in order to develop someeffective educational strategies for improvement in Peter’s academic, social and self-help skills.Chapter 1Purpose of the Study
  5. 5. Case Study of a Student with Multiple Disabilities5The purpose of this case study will explain what a student with multiple learningdisabilities is challenged with on a daily basis in areas of academic development, socialinteractions, and self-help skills?Face-to-face/ telephone interviews, analytical questionnaires via mail/e -mail or phoneinterviews of care givers, teachers and other pertinent individuals will be used. This will helpvoice concerns and generate feedback of what the pros and cons are of present modifications. Aconclusion with findings and strategies for the student’s future development in cognitiveacademic, social and physical areas will be suggested.Students with multiple learning disabilities are challenged on a daily basis in areas ofacademic development, social interactions, and self-help skills. Educators know that teachingstudents with multiple disabilities requires increased explicit instruction in academics and dailyinteractions. According to (Hildebrand 2008, p. 1) “Working with students with special needs isa difficult job, as special educators must accommodate all learners, provide appropriateinstruction, monitor student progress, and manage behaviors within the classroom.”Teaching and supervising students with multiple disabled is demanding for parents,teachers and the principal of the school. It is crucial that they work as a team to keep thestudents’ at the optimal level of functioning in all areas of academic development, socialinteractions, and self-help skills.“all team members, professionals, family and peers need to be aware of the uniqueeducational and psychosocial needs of the student, and to avoid planning and interactionsbased only on the complex physical and medical difficulties that are present. The rightsand dignity of each individual must be paramount in all programming decisions.” (Scout,
  6. 6. Case Study of a Student with Multiple Disabilities61996, p. 12)Evidence based strategies from the literature review may be incorporated into the currentfndividual educational program (IEP) for Peter. Parents, teachers, and the school principal mightwork as a team to promote Peter’s academic, physical and social capabilities by using theliterature research in beneficial ways. The positive changes in teaching techniques might assistPeter’s middle and high school years. It is hoped that the case study might offer Peter endlesspossibilities of progress in transitioning from a student to an independent and functioning adult.ParticipantThe student participant for the case study is a ten- year- old Caucasian boy named Peter(a pseudonym). Peter, an only child, lives with his parents in an affluent community of a largeurban area in Texas. Peter attends second grade in private school. His parents are both universitygraduates and implicitly value education. They are actively involved in Peter’s education andvolunteer their time at their son’s school.Peter has been diagnosed with epilepsy, cerebral palsy and cortical visual impairment(CVI). In Peter, epilepsy is evidenced by sudden recurrent episodes of sensory disturbance, lossof consciousness, or convulsions.Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that can involve brain and nervous systemfunctions, such as movement, learning, hearing, seeing, and thinking. (“Cerebral Palsy,” 2010,www.mayoclinic.com). In Peter cerebral palsy is evident in his physical, cognitive and visualabilities. Cortical Visual Impairment (CVI) is a neurological disorder, which results in uniquevisual responses to people, educational materials, and to the environment and to have loss ofacuity. (“Cortical Visual Impairment,” 2010, www.mayoclinic.com). Peter’s visual and behavioral
  7. 7. Case Study of a Student with Multiple Disabilities7characteristics are shown by his difficulty with visual memory, when copying information fromthe board. Peter also has difficulties with identifying grey and white in a spectrum of colors.Importance of StudyI believe multiple disabilities to be an interesting field as I have worked a long time withsuch students. My beliefs about the role of an educator stems from several factors. I come froma family of educators. Before migrating to the United States, I had the unique opportunity toreside in Dacca, Bangladesh; Karachi, Pakistan; Cairo, Egypt; and Georgetown, Cayman Islandsin the B.W. Indies. . During my travels I have had significant experience in teaching diversemultilingual and cultural groups of students from three to eight year olds. I also had the chanceto work with special education students and was bothered in observing negligence in academicdevelopment, social interactions, and self-help skills. Challenged students are constantly placedin precarious situations due to a scarcity of resources.Coming to the United States twenty- two years ago has been an eye opener for me inmulti-faceted directions. I began my American educational journey as an instructional aide to aneight-year-old physically challenged student diagnosed with cerebral palsy. The quality caregiven to him by the school district was amazing. Further education at the university has helpedme understand the significance of the Institute of Education Sciences (IES). “ every student inAmerica, regardless of family income or place of residence deserves a quality education, thus,improving the quality of teaching, increasing student achievement and making schools safer andbetter places to learn.” ((Institute of Education 2012, p. 50).Educational Beliefs and Educational TheoriesI believe in keeping factors of age appropriateness, space efficiency, visual appeal, safetyand wellbeing for the students at the forefront in all areas of instruction. Another value that I
  8. 8. Case Study of a Student with Multiple Disabilities8aspire to is a technical user friendly environment, coupled with an effective curriculum. Also,individualized lesson plans that focuses on exceptionality and diversity thus, highlighting thestudent and teacher interaction effectively. The two acts of the U. S. Department of Educationthat I hold high regard for are and The No Child Left Behind (NCLB). The Individuals withDisabilities Education Act (IDEA) is a law ensuring services to children with disabilitiesthroughout the nation; it governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention,special education and related services to eligible infants, toddlers, children and youth withdisabilities require states, school districts, and schools to ensure that all students are proficient ingrade-level math and reading by 2014. (No Child Left Behind, 2002)Research QuestionsThe case study will use a questionnaire to explore a single student with multipledisabilities by asking his parents, teachers and the school principal about the child’s needs,instructional programs and accommodations as well as the progress he has made. This is beingcarried out in order to compare the strategies and approaches that have been used to teach thisstudent so far with the evidence based research study of the literature review. It is hoped thateffective strategies might be incorporated with the current approaches being used for continuedstudent progress as he ventures forth to middle and high school.As the participant has been diagnosed with epilepsy, visual impairment (CVI) andcerebral palsy it is hoped that this case study will provide evidence - based strategies that may behelpful for the students academic, social and self-help skills. It is anticipated that this study willimprove the quality of care in academic, social and self-help skills, making Peter’s middle andhigh school years as productive as possible.
  9. 9. Case Study of a Student with Multiple Disabilities9Material used for the case study will include an informative email informing participantsabout the questionnaire. "(See Appendix A)," the questionnaire will include various aspects ofthe student, such as his diagnosis, and how these disabilities have affected his academicdevelopment. Comments will be requested on current instructional strategies andaccommodations, and how these strategies have helped the student in academic, social and self-help skills. Areas the significant care givers are concerned about and any other concerns andcomments the parents, teachers and principal would like to share.Chapter 2Literature reviewThe challenges faced by teachers and students with multiple disabilities are numerous.Cognitive problems include attention, perception, memory and problem solving as well as poorretention of skills, slow rate of learning, and difficulty transferring or generalizing skills learnedin one situation to another situation. Physical and social disabilities encompass visual andhearing impairment, communication difficulties such as language delay, speech problems, andlimited or no verbal skills. Physical disabilities involve limited mobility, coordination, and fine
  10. 10. Case Study of a Student with Multiple Disabilities10motor skills. Social disabilities would comprise a lack of, or limited self-care and independentcommunity living skills. behavior, ritualistic behaviors, and inability to attend or relate to people.The Open Source / Freeware Assistive Technology Software Inventory UsersMiesenberger, Klaus, Zagler, & Karshmer (2010) conducted this research to suggest amethodology for creating web-based free AT software inventories, which will make the searchand selection of Assistive Technology (AT) products straightforward less expensive, and easier tofind for students with multiple disabilities. The hypothesis of the researchers for The OpenSource / Freeware Assistive Technology Software Inventory Users is the assumption thatstudents with multiple disabilities have difficulty organizing information systematically. Also,this Infirmation Technology (IT ) source would help computer and Assistive Technology (AT)experts to review and access free software testing. These requirements are essential in order todetect and point out reliability, installation, and compatibility issues. The Open Source /Freeware Assistive Technology Software Inventory Users could make this process much simplerfor parents, teachers, and students of Special Education in fulfilling their technical needs.Miesenberger (2010).The steps entailed in the methodology of this study were: Searching and locating free ATsoftware available on the internet, installing the application, testing the application,documenting, usable online inventory design, accessible website development, and update andmaintenance. Miesenberger (2010).The free AT software inventoryhas been online for six months at the time that this paperwas written. This work has been disseminated through the press, special interest mailing lists andannouncements to all disability organizations and associations. The first reactions and feedbackof the disabled Greek community and related professionals are positive. The website statistics
  11. 11. Case Study of a Student with Multiple Disabilities11show 94,528 hits and 1,886 download by 13,440 unique visitors. 78% of the visitors were fromGreece and the rest accessed the web site from abroad. The Open Source / Freeware AssistiveTechnology Software Inventory have received more than 150 user messages (comments onproducts, product rating entries, and e-mails). Miesenberger (2010).The student could eventually build his own inventory of software for maximumefficiency of his daily academic and social projects. This would give confidence as well as afeeling of independence which is an important factor for challenged students. Also, his parents,teachers, and the school principal could benefit from using The Open Source / FreewareAssistive Technology Software Inventory. This 21stcentury technology would be great in thedevelopment of academic as well as social communications.Autism and Neuro-diversity Among People with Different Relations to AutismKapp, Gillespie-Lynch, Sherman & Hutman, T. (2013) conducted an empirical andquantitative design study. These methods were used to study conceptions of autism and neuro-diversity among people with different levels of autism. Also, how the disability affected them inday to day real life situations. The three primary approaches of study were: to characterizeawareness of and evaluations of the neuro-diversity movement online, and to confirm coredistinctions between the medical model and the neuro-diversity movement. An online survey wasposted on Survey Monkey (http://www.surveymonkey.com). (Kapp et al. 2013).The participants (N= 657) were chosen from numerous and diverse sources, includingorganizations that took explicit positions for or against curing autism (e.g., biomedical and
  12. 12. Case Study of a Student with Multiple Disabilities12intensive behavioral intervention-related organizations or autistic self-advocacy groups).Recruitment was conducted via online advertisements, e-mails and mailed invitations toparticipate in the United States and United Kingdom; Facebook, Craig’s List and MySpace werealso used.The finding of this study provides support for the notion of disability as an interactionbetween social factors and personal deficits, the challenges of which do not necessarily make lifeless valid or worthwhile but an equally valid part of human diversity, especially in the subjectiveexperience of disabled people. This studys lack of nonacademic community members among itsresearch team may have reduced sensitivity to participants diverse interests and needs. The toolsused for gathering the data might be effectively used in this case study, as a similar researchdesign could be used by the researcher to gather more information of the student’s parents,teachers, and school principal’s challeges with Peter.Multiple –Treatment Design to Activate Non-handheld Pointer Interfaces by Eye or HeadMovementMan, D. W. K., & Wong, M. L. (2007) conducted a multiple-treatment design (ABCD)research study which was a repeated-measure, that applied the same procedures across twoparticipants according to balanced Latin squares. Each participant served as his or her own"control" The hypothesis of the pilot study was to develop a procedure for evaluating the outputof computer-access systems for helping people with upper-limb functional limitations. Theparticipants were two students 13 and fifteen years of age with quadriplegic cerebral palsy withdyskinetic athetosis. . They were requested to activate the non-handheld pointer interfaces byeither eye or head movement. (Man et al. 2007)
  13. 13. Case Study of a Student with Multiple Disabilities13The setting was a workstation comprising of a desktop computer with all of the relevanthardware and software installed was fixed on a height-adjustable arm with an 18.1-inch LCDdisplay in a classroom. Although both participants were students with dyskinetic athetosis andquadriplegia who had not had previous experience in computer access, the clinical prototypes ofaccess solutions that best suited them were different. The findings were the domains of"comfort" and "satisfaction" with computer access, as a matter of psychometric study, requiresmore attention. The limitations were that the multiple-treatment design (ABCD) research studywould require more careful review, further study and have a larger participant sample.Participants also suggested two items that in the future could evaluate the level of comfort with acomputer-access system: duration of work and eye strain. (Man et al 2007). The peer reviewedarticle above is an innovative method for challenged students. The customized building of awork station with applicable technology, and focus on using all parts of the student’s bodycomponents for movement might be a useful strategy to assist the care givers as well as thestudent options in physical, academic and social skills.Students with Disabilities Taking AA-MAS in Reading or Math.CHO, H. NEAL’S (2011) conducted a study using descriptive statistics, chi-square testsand univariate analyses of variance study to examine the characteristics of elementary schoolstudents with disabilities taking an AA-MAS in reading or math. Were there differences inperformance among the disability categories in the states AA-MAS reading and mathassessments in 2009? What type of tests did students with disabilities who took an AA-MASreading or AA-MAS math in 2009 take in 2008, and what were their performance scores? Werestudent assignments to the 2009 AA-MAS assessments appropriate based on their 2008performance score and test type?
  14. 14. Case Study of a Student with Multiple Disabilities14Participants were predominantly white, male and the most common primary disabilitycategory was learning disability (LD). The participants were from 4,209 elementary studentswho took the 2009 AA-MAS reading assessment and 3,489 elementary students who took the2009 AA-MAS math assessment. The method of research was data extraction from a statedatabase of student performance, assessment information, and demographics and only thosestudents were included for whom assessment data also were available from the 2008 school year.The selected sample numbered 3,260 student participants in the reading assessment and 2,743 inthe math assessment.The finding of the study were insufficient information to determine why certain studentswith disabilities achieved at or above proficiency in reading and math in the general educationassessment in 2008, yet were placed in the AA-MAS assessment in 2009. The researchers wereunable to learn what types of intervention teachers used to improve their instruction, howteachers monitored student progress, which scientific evidence was used to measure progress,and what effect the quality of teaching may have had on their students performance scores.CHO, 2011).A major concern of parents, teachers and the principal are Peter’s success in middle andhigh school and his future life as a productive adult in society. The study would prove useful forthe participant in terms of preparing the student for state and nation wide testing i.e. STAAR andSAT.Visual Analysis Showing a Functional Relationship between Intervention and Change inParticipant Response.Spooner, Knight, Browder, Jimenez (2011) conducted a single-case multiple probe acrossbehaviors (i.e., units) with concurrent replication across participants design study. The
  15. 15. Case Study of a Student with Multiple Disabilities15hypothesis was whether visual analysis shows a functional relationship between the introductionof the intervention and a change in each participants responding.Participants chosen were threeelementary aged students between 6 and 8 years old. The method was to teach units from anEarly Science curriculum via inquiry-based lessons and effects were to be measured by amultiple probe design across behaviors (units). The setting of all probe sessions occurred in a10 X10 tutor room located next door to the participants classroom. The study included an initialprobe to determine the level of performance on the behavior or skill, a series of intermittentbaseline measurements on level of performance on behaviors being trained as well as prior to theintervention for each behavior or skill, and following criterion based performance, a probe todetermine what change the intervention had on the level or trend of the data.The findings of this study using a single-case multiple probe across behaviors designshowed that though all three students began this study with limited knowledge of the sciencecontent; they were all able to meet the criteria for progressing through science lessons for all fourunits of instruction with time delay trials embedded during an inquiry-based science lesson.Limitations of the study were that while prior knowledge of specific learning objectives is notoptimal in research, it is to be noted that typically developing students often begin instructionalunits with varying entry knowledge; the overall objective for all learners is an increase in thebreadth and depth of that knowledge.This study is appropriate in suggestions for helping the participant’s cognitive awarenessin science subjects. It could also be used for other subject areas. It is age appropriate. Theprobes of behavioral skills as well as cognitive achievement can be gathered in a comfortablesetting with the least amount of distractions. (Spooner et al, 2011)A Survey to Gather Information of CVI
  16. 16. Case Study of a Student with Multiple Disabilities16Jackal, Wilson, & Hartmann (2010) conducted a survey to gather information on CVI.The hypothesis and research questions were: How do parents receive their children’s diagnosis ofCVI, and what supports are provided upon the diagnosis? What educational supports are childrenwith CVI receiving? And what do the parents of children with CVI feel about the supports thatthey and their children receive? The participants were a total of 212 people who responded tothe survey, including 80 parents. The method used was a survey conducted usingSurveyMonkey.com. The 45 questions were broken up into four categories: (1) parents‘suspicion of CVI, (2) diagnosis and information provided, (3) etiology and visual inventory, and(4) education and related services. A recruitment e-mail message was sent to four electronicbulletin boards for parents and one for professionals. A link to the survey was also posted onFamily-Connect, the web site for parents of the National Association of Parents of Children withVisual Impairments/American Foundation for the Blind (NAPVI/AFB). (Jackal et al 2010) Thefindings were that there is much more to be done before parents of children with CVI receive acorrect diagnosis in a timely manner and receive the appropriate educational supports.This survey study of Cortical Visual Impairment would be useful in gathering pertinentinformation about the challenges, and strategic tools for help for the parents, teachers, principaland the participant, I write this because one of the disabilities that the student is challenged withis CVI. Currently, there is very limited information about CVI, and every bit of informationabout it is useful. (Jackal et al 2010)Misdiagnosis of Epilepsy amongst People with Intellectual Disabilities.Chapman, In, Atkinson, Brodie, Mitchell, Garvin & Willis (2010) carried out a systematicliterature review. The purpose of this study was that intellectual disability and epilepsy healthpractitioners wanted up-to-date evidence about the misdiagnosis of epilepsy amongst people with
  17. 17. Case Study of a Student with Multiple Disabilities17intellectual disabilities. The hypothesis and research questions discussed are: How common themisdiagnosis of epilepsy is amongst people with intellectual disabilities, reasons formisdiagnosis of epilepsy, and implications of misdiagnosis and improving diagnosis. (Chapmanet al. 2010)Methods used for the systematic literature review were primary studies and systematicreviews published in the English language between 1998 and 2008. The literature review wasidentified from electronic databases, experts, the Internet, grey literature, and citation tracking.The setting included studies critically appraised by team members using the appraisal toolsproduced by the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) at the Public Health Resource Unit,Oxford. (Chapman et al. 2010) The findings were robust. It had a number of strengths. It wascarried out by a multidisciplinary team whose members brought a range of skills and knowledgeto the review. Some of the limitations of the review highlighted a clear lack of research focusingon the diagnosis and misdiagnosis of epilepsy amongst people within intellectual disabilities.Chapman et al (2010). These types of literature reviews are useful for parents, teachers, and theprincipal in understanding the possibility of misdiagnosis, and it awakens awareness of revisionin assessments in order to avoid this mishap. This would help in minimizing incorrect strategiesused, as well as types of medications and other aspects of the student’s wellbeing.Visual Behaviors of Students with Cortical Visual ImpairmentBlanchette (2006) conducted a research project utilizing a mixed methodqualitative/quantitative approach design. This study was carried out to investigate the visualbehaviors of students with Cortical Visual Impairment when environmental modifications wereimplemented. The hypothesis for this study was to observe the results of what happens to the
  18. 18. Case Study of a Student with Multiple Disabilities18visual behaviors of students with Cortical Visual Impairment when environmental modificationsare implemented. (Blanchette, 2006)The method used was an intervention that began by administering The CVI RangeRating Scale. Each assessment was videotaped for exact student behavior and responses.Interview questions helped the researcher to build up a knowledge base of the child’s currentlevel of functioning. Data was collected by way of a data sheet that was created to look at therelationship between what modification was made and how the students “visualbehaviors“(localize, fixate, and track) were affected. The participants were three multipledisabled and sensory impaired students. The setting was the classroom and the students weretested on their visual behaviors by the ability to localize, fixate, and track objects/ itemspresented. Individualized environmental modifications were made following preliminaryassessments of each of the students’ visual functioning. (Blanchette, 2006) The findings of thepost-test concluded that the students’ demonstrated improvement in their ability to localize,fixate and track a target using the CVI Range Rating Scale videotaped responses, for exactbehavior with environmental modifications based upon what phase of CVI they currentlyexhibited. (Blanchette, 2006)Limitations of the study were that while all of the students had similar diagnosis, therewas a variation in the disabilities on a case by case basis. The second limitation was that thestudent’s all received different amounts of schooling/ educational services. Finally, theenvironments in which data was collected were in different settings. The researcher claims thatthe classroom setting was easier to control i.e. by altering lighting, clutter, and the noise level.However, the researcher did not have control over those elements in the student’s home, thus,making it more difficult to analyze.
  19. 19. Case Study of a Student with Multiple Disabilities19My conclusion is that the use of the CVI Range Rating Scale as well as each assessmentbeing videotaped for exact student behavior and responses would be useful for understandinghow to understand better ways to communicate with the participant. The technique of interviewquestions would probably help the researcher to build up a knowledge base of the child’s currentlevel of functioning. Data collection by way of a data sheet that might be created to look at therelationship between what modification how the participant’s “visual behaviors“(localize, fixate,and track) are affected would help in academic, and social development.Performance of Elementary Students with Typical Development TD and Language LearningDisabilities LLDGray, Nippold, M., & Schneider, P. (2012). Investigated via qualitative and quantitativeresearch study to determine how the performance of elementary students with TypicalDevelopment TD and Language Learning Disabilities LLD vary on analytic writing measurescompared to holistic writing measures. (Gray et al. 2012). The hypothesis was to determinehow the performance of elementary students with Typical Development TD and LanguageLearning Disabilities LLD vary on analytic writing measures compared to holistic writingmeasures, commonly used to score high-stakes tests. The secondary purpose was to investigatethe relationships among scores on these two types of measures.The participants were fifty-six 4th and 5th graders with typical development (TD) orLLD and they were asked to produce 1 narrative and 1 expository writing sample. Measures oforal language ability and handwriting accuracy-speed were also obtained. The narrative andexpository samples were scored using 5-6 separate analytic measures and 6 separate traits on the(Six Trait Writing Rubric) STWR. This study used writing samples to compare how students
  20. 20. Case Study of a Student with Multiple Disabilities20with and without LLD scored on analytic writing measures that are typically used in writingresearch and on a more holistic measure of writing, STWR which is used in high-stakes writingassessments.The findings on narratives were significant as the TD group scored substantially higherthan the LLD group on 5 analytic measures and all 6 traits. Similarly, for expository, the TDgroup outscored the LLD group on 3 analytic measures and all 6 traits. Results also demonstratedthat the analytic scores of productivity, sentence complexity, and lexical diversity were correlatedextensively with a higher overall score on the STWR for narrative writing samples only.Limitations of this study suggest that exclusive use of analytic scores to select treatment goalsand document writing progress may not translate into increased scores on writing rubrics,particularly for expository writing samples.A significant amount of information has been gathered from this study, and it might helpthe student in successfully developing useful strategies in reading of all subject matter. Also,language therapists can help the student with speech impediments to increase his speech-and articulacy while instantaneously minimizing the opposing effect of his verbal challenges, aswell as assisting in his development of speech and vocabulary.Reading Growth Paths of K-to-12 Students under IDEA’s National DisabilityWei, Xinblackorby, Joseschiller, & Ellen (2011) conducted a longitudinal study toexamine the reading growth paths of K-to-12 students classified under IDEA’s disabilitycategories at a national level. This study can be useful for the participant’s future academicdevelopment in reading, writing, comprehension and cognitive understanding in all subject areas.The hypothesis and research questions were identifying the reading growth approaches ofstudents with disabilities, ages 7 to 17, how the growth curves differ between students with
  21. 21. Case Study of a Student with Multiple Disabilities21learning disabilities and the other 10 disability categories and how the reading growth curves forstudents with disabilities differ by gender, race/ethnicity, or SES? (Wei et al. 2011)The methods used were The Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study(SEELS) which tracks growth in reading for a national sample of students withdisabilities as the three features of SEELS make it appropriate for addressing the researchquestions. The two-stage sampling procedure enabling generalization to the nationalPopulation of students with disabilities as a whole and to students in each IDEA disabilitycategory; its inclusion of data from a face-to-face assessment of reading performance forstudents ages 7 to 15 in Wave 1, ages 8 to 15 in Wave 2, and ages 10 to 17 in Wave 3, whichprovides academic growth trajectories for about 3,421 students with disabilities from age 7through 17; and inclusion of student demographic and family SES information, which supportsthe examination of factors related to variations in growth. Data such as, telephone interviewswith parents and emailed surveys of school staff and direct assessments of students abilities weregathered.The results of this study showed comparable rates of growth but differential mean readingachievement across disability categories. .Compared with students with learning disabilities, allother disability categories had a similar deceleration rate, except students with speechimpairments decelerated significantly faster and their reading growth trajectories flattened outsharply in high school. The developmental course of reading achievement in students withdisabilities is better defined by a deficit model rather than by a lag model. Finally, these analysesconfirmed that measures of reading growth need be considered for school accountabilitypurposes.
  22. 22. Case Study of a Student with Multiple Disabilities22The findings were that students in the 11 IDEA disability categories that was studiedwere heterogeneous with respect to reading achievement, and that SEELS was not designed tohave a general education comparison group Other variables were not included in the presentmodels (e.g., reading instruction, student social-behavioral skills, academic and behavioralinterventions). Finally, these analyses confirmed that measures of reading growth need beconsidered for school accountability purposes.Wide differences in mean achievement were not reflected in the growth in reading asstudents’ progressed through their school years as students start their school career in differentplaces, but in absolute terms gain about the same amount on standardized reading measures.This study makes a significant contribution by describing with analogous precision with thereading growth of students with low-incidence situations and that of students with high-incidencedisabilities. The use of vertically scaled reading outcome measures by WJ III W-scores allowsaccurate estimation of reading growth across the age range of 7 to 17, or most of students time inthe K-to-12 education system. This study can be useful for the participant’s future academicdevelopment in reading, writing, comprehension and cognitive understanding in all subject areas.
  23. 23. Case Study of a Student with Multiple Disabilities23Chapter 3SampleRecruitment and SiteConsent ProceduresInstrumentsValidity and ReliabilityResearch Approach and DesignDesign ChoiceThreats to ValidityStepsProcedure will be a completed questionnaire by parents, care givers, teachers and otherpertinent individuals. Recording of notes while observing the student in class, in the play groundand his social and self-help skills. Reviewing the student’s IEP as well as his special educationfolder. Follow up interviews of the parents, teachers and the school principal. This is beingcarried out in order to develop some effective educational strategies for improvement inacademic and social areas.TimelineThe timeline to complete the study is Spring - Fall of 2013Organized, Maintained, Analyzed
  24. 24. Case Study of a Student with Multiple Disabilities24Securing DataConsent ProceduresProcedure to Address Ethical IssuesReferencesA Survey of Parents of Children with Cortical or Cerebral Visual Impairment. Jackal, Wilson, &Hartmann. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, October 2010Blanchette, E. (n.d.). Research Question: What Happens to the Visual Behaviors of my Students?With Cortical Visual Impairment when I Implement Environmental Modifications?©2006, American Printing House for the Blind,Inc.Cerebral Palsy (2009, December 1). Retrieved from http://mayoclinic.comCerebral palsy: Hope through research. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/cerebral_palsy/detail_cerebral_palsy.htm. AccessedSept.27, 2010.
  25. 25. Case Study of a Student with Multiple Disabilities25Chapman, M., Iddon, P., Atkinson, K., Brodie, C., Mitchell, D., Parvin, G., & Willis, S.(2011).The misdiagnosis of epilepsy in people with intellectual disabilities: A systematicreview. Seizure, 20(2), 101-106. doi:10.1016/j.seizure.2010.10.030Children With Language Impairment. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research,54(1), 72-86. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2010/08-0197)Christopher, G. (2010). Christopher , Kiefel Jacqueline When a Child Has Epilepsy andAttention Problems: The Role of Neuropsychology (2010) Volume 5 issue 3.CHO, H., NEAL. (2011). Capturing Implicit Policy From NCLB Test Type Assignments ofStudents With Disabilities Council for Exceptional ChildrenComputers Helping People with Special Needs, Part I: 12th International Conference, ICCHP2010, Vienna, Austria, July 14-16, 2010.Gostin, Lawrence O, Hildebrand. Special Sections: Keeping Human Rights on the BioethicsAgenda, beyond Moral Claims: A Human Rights Approach in Mental health, 2006Hildebrand, K. E. (2008). Using Curriculum-Based Measures To Assess Special EducationTeacher Candidates Application Of Defining And Measuring Behavior Skills. ThePennsylvania State University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 109-n/a. Retrievedfromhttp://ezproxy.stthom.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/304495944?accountid=7115. (304495944).Institute of Education Sciences . (n.d.). Retrieved from Institute of Education SciencesIntern. J. Neuroscience, 116:1015–1033, 2006 Copyright 2006 Information HealthcareIverson, J., M., & Braddock, B., A. (2011). Gesture And Motor Skill In Relation To Language InKapp, S. K., Gillespie-Lynch, K., Sherman, L. E., & Hutman, T. (2013). Deficit, difference, or
  26. 26. Case Study of a Student with Multiple Disabilities26both? Autism and Neuro-diversity. Developmental Psychology, 49(1), 59-71.Koutsoftas, A. D., Gray, S., Nippold, M., & Schneider, P. (2012). Comparison of narrative andexpository writing in students with and without language-learning disabilities. Language,Speech & Hearing Services in Schools, 43(4), 395-409Man, D. W. K., & Wong, M. L. (2007). Evaluation of computer-access solutions for studentswith quadriplegic Athetoid Cerebral Palsy. AJOT: American Journal of OccupationalMiller, D. (2003). Assistive technology (book). Disability & Rehabilitation, 25(2), 112.National Education CenterNo Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-110, § 115,Stat. 1425 (2002).Smith, Bethany R.Spooner, FredJimenez, Bree A.Browder, Diane. Using An EarlyScience Curriculum To Teach Science Vocabulary And Concepts To Students WithSevere Developmental disabilities. Education & Treatment of Children (West VirginiaUniversity Press), 2013.Scout, P. (1996). Education for students with multiple disabilities . Retrieved fromwww.perkins.org/resources/scout/students-with-multiple-disabilities/Federal Register /Vol. 73, No. 231 /Monday, December 1, 2008 /Rules and Regulations, Print.WEI, XINBLACKORBY,JOSESCHILLER, ELLEN. Growth In Reading Achievement OfStudents With Disabilities, ages 7 to 17. Exceptional Children, 2011
  27. 27. Case Study of a Student with Multiple Disabilities27Appendix A: QuestionnaireMasterson_ EDUC 6320_Research Project Complete _ Rubric _ Fall 2012Chapter 2: Literature review (Minimum of 10 references; typically 10-15 pages)ORGANIZATION AND STRUCTURESubheadings: (5 points)· Include subheadings that organize the literature review.Coherence: (5 points)· Group studies together by topic and arrange in a logicalsequence beginning with less closely related to most closelyrelated so that the paper flows in a coherent manner.20· Your articles for themost part do notinform yourinvestigation.
  28. 28. Case Study of a Student with Multiple Disabilities28REVIEW OF LITERATUREPeer-Reviewed Articles: (70 points)· Minimum of 10 peer-reviewed references in APA style at least 6must be empirical studies (i.e., studies with a method). Four (4)may be theoretical or opinion pieces, reviews, etc.Critique empirical studies:o Include details such as sample, population, researchmethod, and findings that demonstrate a relationship toyour research topic.o Include strengths and limitations of each study, whereapplicable.Summary of the Literature Review: (5 points)· Summarize the reviewed literature to provide a context for thecurrent research question, including a brief summary of how thecurrent study will overcome previous limitations and/or enhancethe existing literature.NOTES:· To earn full credit for each source reviewed, the study must beclearly linked to the research topic and must be from a peer-reviewed journal.· For these studies, the review must include a critique of thestudy’s methodological strengths and limitations. The remainingsources may include theoretical or opinion pieces, reviews, etc.APA Style: (5 points)· Peer-reviewed articles in APA style2000· Most of these articlesdo not support yourstudy.· You did not useappropriate APA stylefor citations. Also,your reference page isnot formattedcorrectly.WRITTEN PRESENTATIONGrammar and Style: (5 points)· Edit for appropriate sentence and paragraph structureAPA Style: (5 points)· Format paper in appropriate APA style (See APA manual.)25· Frequently it wasdifficult to tell whatyou were trying to say.Your sentencestructure needs work.Chapter 2 – TOTAL POINTS 29