The Pre-Hispanic Period in the Phillipines• What does prehistory mean?• Stone-Age (c.50,000 - c.500 BC)• The Callao Man (c. 41 000 BC )• Tabon Man (c. 24000 or 22,000 BC)• 5000-2000 BC—Austronesian• Early Metal Age (c.500 BC - c.1 AD)• 100 BC onward• Other significant Events before Spanish Colonization• The Migration Theories
Philippine Prehistory : Meaning• It covers the events prior to the writtenhistory of what would become the Philippinearchipelago. The current demarcation linebetween this period and the early history ofthe Philippines, 900 AD, which is the date ofthe first surviving written record to come fromthe Philippines, the Laguna CopperplateInscription.
Why shall we studythe Prehistoric Period?• It traces back the primitive culture of theFilipinos.• It gives a hint of who were the real ancestorsof the Filipinos.• These are events that makes up the past of aFilipino towards his present environment andculture.
• This is an example of thestone age people.• They are sometimesdressed with animalskins or leaves orsometimes naked.• They also use tools fromstones and bones ofanimals.• They don’t haveconcrete houses like thatof what we have today.
The Stone Age c. 50 000 – c. 500 BC• The Stone Age covers the c. 50 000 –c. 500 BC.• The Callao Man period together with theTabon Man period are some of the MajorPrehistoric Ages that was covered by theseinclusive years.
• The first evidence of the systematic use ofStone-Age technologies in the Philippines isestimated to have dated back to about 50,000BC.• It traces back the events and how the earlypeople in the Philippines live and the culturethat they share to survive.The Stone Age c. 50 000 – c. 500 BC
The Callao Man• The earliest human remains known in thePhilippines are the fossilized remains discoveredin 2007 by Armand Salvador Mijares in CallaoCave, Cagayan,Philippines.• It is a 67,000 years old single 61 millimetermetatarsal that predates Tabon Man.• It was dated using the uranium series ablation.• It was said to be remains of the Homo sapiens.• It was the earliest human known in thePhilippines.
The Callao Man• Callao Man was believed to exist approximately inyear c. 41 000 BC.• The primary theory surrounding the migration ofCallao Man and his contemporaries to Luzon fromwhat is believed to be the present-day Indonesiais by raft.• Butchered animal remains were also found in thesame layer of sediment, which indicates that theCallao Man had a degree of knowledge in the useof tools, although no stone tools were found.
Tabon Man• Tabon Man refers to fossilized anatomicallymodern human remains discovered on theisland of Palawan.• Dr. Robert B. Fox, an American anthropologistof the National Museum of the Philippinesdiscovered the remains on May 28, 1962.• Tabon Man remains generally got its name“Tabon” from the cave were it was collected,the Tabon Cave in Palawan.
Tabon Man• Tabon Cave appears to be a kind of StoneAge factory. They have both finished stoneflake tools and waste core flakes having beenfound at four separate levels in the mainchamber.• The Tabon Man fossils are considered to havecome from a third group of inhabitants, whoworked the cave between 22,000 and 20,000BCE.
Tabon Man• The Tabon Man skullcap belongs to modernman, Homo sapiens, as distinguished from themid-Pleistocene Homo erectus species.• Tabon Man was pre-Mongoloid or theanthropological term of racial stock thatapplies to which entered Southeast Asiaduring the Holocene and absorbed earlierpeoples to produce the modern Malay,Indonesian, Filipino, and "Pacific" peoples.
Austronesian Languages Origin5000-2000 BC• William Henry Scott said that the Negritoswere one of the origin and spread of theAustronesian Languages.• About 25,000 B.C., Ancient Negroid peopleimmigrate to the Philippines over a landbridge then still connecting the archipelagowith the Asian mainland.
Early Metal Age• The earliest metal tools in the Philippineswere said to have first been used somewherearound 500 BC.• It was referred to as the “incipient phase”according to Jocano which is a period between500 BC and 1 AD.• This was the time that the metal tool remainswere recovered.
100 BC Onward• The Philippines is believed by some historiansto be the island of Chryse, the "Golden One,"which is the name given by ancient Greekwriters in reference to an island rich in goldeast of India.• Ptolemy locates the islands of Chryse east ofthe Khruses Kersonenson, the "GoldenPeninsula.”
25,000 B.C. Ancient Negroid people immigrateto the Philippines over a land bridge thenstill connecting the archipelago with theAsian mainland. They are food gatherersand hunters, and the forefathers oftodays Negritos. These people use bowsand arrows and stone made implements.They live in caves.
5,000 B.C. to 3,000 B.C. The "New Stone Age".Sea faring Malays from what is todayIndonesia come to the archipelago. Thesenew settlers bring with them polishedstone tools, boat building, bark and animalskin cloth making, pottery, rice planting,the process of cooking food in bambootubes, the techniques of making fire byrubbing two sticks together. The Negritosbegin to move out of caves and settle in ascattered manner along the coasts andrivers.
3,000 B.C. to 1,000 B.C. A second wave of Malayimmigrants arrives in the Philippines bysea. Each of their ships accommodatedone small clan. Such a ship load of peoplewas called a barangay.
200 B.C. More civilized Malays in large numbersmigrate to the Philippines. They are theracial stock of the majority of todaysPhilippine populace.
200 B.C. to 1000 A.D. The Iron Age begun theartistry in the Philippines in all aspects oflife and work. Earrings, beads, pendantsand bangles made of clay, stone and shellsare developed. Body tattooing is used asas filing and blackening teeth which werewrapped with gold foil or studded withgold fillings.
1,000 A.D. to 1,200 A.D. In the Porcelain Agetrading begins extensively with Arabia,India, Annan, China and later with theEuropeans. Porcelains from differentChinese dynasties are imported.
1200 to 1300. Migrants from Borneo spread intothe Southern Philippines.
1300 to 1400. The Hindu empire of Majapahiton Java gains influence over parts of theislands.
1380. Islam reaches the Southern Philippines viaBorneo. In islamic areas, slavery is in thefollowing years widely replacing head-hunting. Would be head-hunting victimsbecome slaves that are bartered toChinese traders. A new social order isstarted made up of freemen, commoners,slaves and bonded servants, all under theleadership of a datu.
1450. The Muslim sultanate of Jolo isestablished on the islands between Borneoand Mindanao.
1475. The Muslim sultanate of Maguindanao isfounded on Mindanao. Islam spreadsthroughout the archipelago and evenreaches central Luzon.
Who proposed the Migration Theory?• Henry Otley Beyer• Dr. Fritjof Voss• Felipe Landa Jocano
Henry Otley Beyer• He is the founder of the AnthropologyDepartment of the University of thePhilippines.• He is the head of Anthropology Departmentfor 40 years.• Professor Beyer became the unquestionedexpert on Philippine prehistory.
Dr. Fritjof Voss• He is a German scientist who studied thegeology of the Philippines.• He questioned the validity of the theory ofland bridges.• He maintained that the Philippines was neverpart of mainland Asia. He claimed that it arosefrom the bottom of the sea and, as the thinPacific crust moved below it, continued torise.
Felipe Landa Jocano• He is an Anthropologist of the University ofthe Philippines.• He suggested the one of the Migration Modelof the Filipino people that was named “CorePopulation Theory.”
Wilhelm Solheim II• He is an American anthropologist recognized asmost senior practitioner of archaeology inSoutheast Asia, and as a pioneer in the study ofPhilippine and Southeast Asian prehistoricarchaeology.• He had his archaeological training at theUniversity of California, Berkeley, and then spentseveral semesters at the University of thePhilippines under Prof. H. Otley Beyer. Hecompleted his Ph.D. at the University of Arizonain 1959.• In 1997, he joined the staff of the ArchaeologicalStudies Program at the University of thePhilippines, Diliman.
Migration Theories• Land Bridge Theory• Beyers Wave Migration Theory• Core Population Theory• Diffusion of Austronesian languages
Land Bridge Theory• Early Filipino inhabitants were said to travalthru land bridges.• This land bridge theory was opposed and wasproved in further Migratio Theories proposedby other Anthropologists.
Beyer’s Wave of MigrationFacts presented by Beyer for his Wave ofMigration Theory :1. "Dawn Man", a cave-man type who wassimilar to Java man, Peking Man, and otherAsian homo sapiens of 250,000 years ago.2. The aboriginal pygmy group, the Negritos,who arrived between 25,000 and 30,000years ago via land bridges.
Beyer’s Wave of Migration3. The sea-faring tool-using Indonesian groupwho arrived about 5,000 to 6,000 years agoand were the first immigrants to reach thePhilippines by sea.4. The seafaring, more civilized Malays whobrought the Iron age culture and were thereal colonizers and dominant cultural groupin the pre-Hispanic Philippines.
Beyer’s Wave of MigrationDoubts on Bayer’s Wave Migration1. Beyer used the 19th century scientificmethods of progressive evolution andmigratory diffusion as the basis for hishypothesis. These methods have now beenproven to be too simple and unreliable toexplain the prehistoric peopling of thePhilippines.
Beyer’s Wave of Migration2. The empirical archaeological data for thetheory was based on surface finds and mereconjecture, with much imagination andunproven data included.3. Later findings contradicted the migrationtheory and the existence of the "Dawn Man"postulated by Beyer.
Beyer’s Wave of Migration4. Undue credit is given to Malays as the originalsettlers of the lowland regions and thedominant cultural transmitter.
Core Population Theory• It is a less rigid version of the earlier wavemigration theory.• This theory holds that there werent cleardiscrete waves of migration. Instead itsuggests early inhabitants of Southeast Asiawere of the same ethnic group with similarculture, but through a gradual process overtime driven by environmental factors,differentiated themselves from one another.
Core Population Theory• Jocano contends that what fossil evidence ofancient men show is that they not onlymigrated to the Philippines, but also to NewGuinea, Borneo, and Australia. He says thatthere is no way of determining if they wereNegritos at all.• He used the Tabon Skull that was found inPalawan as evidence.
Diffusion of Austronesian languages• Contemporary theory based on the study ofthe evolution of languages suggests thatstarting 4000-2000 BC, Austronesian groupsdescended from Yunnan Plateau in China andsettled in what is now the Philippines bysailing using balangays or by traversing landbridges coming from Taiwan.