Very good morning every body, Mr Chairman and dear collegues, Today I am very happy and fill honor to be invited to this conference. I hope our discussion today will be fruitful and beneficial for us and to all transport users.
Not long ago, if we go back against time 100 years, people talking about putting engine to hours couches. A few hundreds companies in the US competed to manufacture the couches with engine. At that time the manufacturing process all by highly skilled craftsmen. Then Ford came with systematic manufacturing method which could be handled by ordinary unskilled laborers who worked one small task faster and more efficiently. If you visit Proton manufacturing facilities today, you can see the workers put the screws and nuts, whereas works that requires precision such as molding and welding carried out by robots. Coming back to Ford, by the new method of manufacturing, the company manage to sell a car that priced half of competitor's price with much better quality. Within 3 years, Ford managed to capture more than 60% of car market in the US. This is the start of commoditizing of cars to ordinary American people.
Now, let us take a look to road construction. 2000 years ago, roads were constructed manually with a simple method. If you visit Rome or Iran, some of the ancient road still in existence. A little bit history again, during that time, Rome and Parsia (now Iran) are two super power, competing each other in almost every angle. Now, with computer aided design and construction and heavy machineries, we can construct much longer and wider highways in a relatively very short time. We can even simulate or we can predict accurately the number of vehicle will use the future highway. The environmentalists say, stop highway construction, optimise whatever we have today to conserve our natural resources. The transport planner also talking about sustainable transport, meaning, minimise construction of new transport facilities also to conserve resources for our children and grand children, manage transport demand wisely to minimise carbon emission to reduce global warming and so on and so forth … This our role actually, using modern technology to optimise transport performance, either in term of minimising the use of natural resources, minimising pollution, maximising safety and minimising cost.
That is our goal, to optimize existing facilities, to minimize consumption of natural resources and to maximize comfort and safety. We utilize cutting edge technology for this purposes and find ways to commoditize the technology in order more people can get benefit. Consider navigation system such as GPS. Initially use for military purposes and then for civilian purposes but considered as a luxurious car accessory. Now become a commodity. In fact you can by a GPS from vending machine.
In 1981, when we planned Kuala Lumpur LRT, we never imagine a train system is automatically controlled. During those time, a computer of the equivalent power as our notebook today was as big as this room, and the price was a few million Ringgit. Still fresh in my memory in 1989, I had to use a main frame computer run transport model for Klang Valley and I had to wait for 10 minutes to get the results. Now, the same model can be ran in a notebook computer for less than 1 minute. Coming back to the LRT signaling system, now automatic train signaling system becomes very common and with that we can reduce accident due to human error to almost zero.
On the road network, and this my favorite, with the reduction of computer price and other ICT facilities, we can do huge improvement. I would like to share our experiences in UKM in ITS research. It started in 1998, I would say, by chance. I am a civil engineer and at that time, in fact until today, there is no Area of Research for civil engineering under Intensified Research in Priority Area, a government funded research fund. But there are plenty of opportunity in ICT. Together with my colleagues from Electronic Department, Mechanical Department and Faculty of Science Computer, we submit a research proposal in ITS. We got four projects amounting about RM 5 millions. I know this is small to Japanese standard but for Malaysian, this is a big of sum of money. This is the big picture of our project.
I got inspired into ITS while I was working in City Hall of Kuala Lumpur. In 1991 we installed SCATs to manage our traffic.
I was sent to Melbourne for training on SCATs. I know the strength and weaknesses od SCATs. So we develop our own system using state of the art technology.
Thanks God we manage to complete all projects and along the way we produced 5 PhD and 4 Master (by research) graduates. Our last project in ITS, completed last year, is about smart surveillance system. This a Kuala Lumpur City Hall project called ITIS (Integrated Transport Information System). Basically using ITIS you can observe almost every road in Klang Vally. The last project of ours is actually to add a smart system to detect accident or incident, speeding, plate number recognition, flooding and slope failure automatically.
VMS (Variable Message System) is now becoming fashionable today. In our last project, the message is written automatically based of computer analysis of the road network situation in real time.
Traditionally, traffic control system is manage by one computer. Every traffic light is connected to the main computer. We have problem with this architecture because the system is very slow to react to changes in traffic pattern. Besides, the communication system to connect every single traffic light directly to the main computer is very costly. But in those days, the price of a computer was very expensive. So a cetralised processing system was very common.
As the price of a computer became lower and lower, hierarchal control became a choice in traffic control system. In this system a number of traffic lights, sometime up to 100 intersections in a sub-region are controlled by one computer. In another sub region another computer control another group of traffic light. At the central office there is one computer to act as a supervisor to the regional computer.
Now, computer price even lower and with the advancement in wireless communication system, distributed control system is more viable and easier to install and maintain. In fully distributed control, every intersection is equipped with a micro processor or a computer, hence every intersection able to process traffic data and decide a suitable strategy. This make this architecture able to respond or adapt more quickly to any sudden changes in traffic pattern. Unlike the centralized and hierarchy control system which require 10 to 20 minutes, the fully distributed control able to respond within 2 minutes to the new traffic pattern.
Ooops I forgot to translate into English. The system that we have developed, utilised cameras to collect traffic data such as traffic volumes, queue length and incident. The processor, act as image processor beside for optimizing traffic light setting. At the same time, video image from the intersection can be observed at control room.
This our control room. We have installed our system in Bangi, part of Kajang and part of Petaling Jaya.
When we installed our traffic lights in Bangi, it has became the talk in town. Be careful …. Now camera everywhere. We have a camera at every approach at any intersection. Beside the traffic flows are much smoother with much better band width, the number of red light biting is reduced to almost zero, reducing accident at intersection dramatically.
For optimization, we use genetic algorithm instead of traditional Webster of ITE method.
At the intersection, the chromosome of the genetic algorithm contains green time or green time split.
Chromosomes are crossed at each other at random point to produce offspring or the next generation of chromosome. The objectives are minimizing delay and maximizing flows.
One chromosome at each generation, selected at random is mutated.
After 500 generations, usually we can achieve our objective.
Let take a look to this video on how the progressive flow or green wave in real situation in Bangi
While in Malaysia we give progressive flow or green wave to the vehicular traffic, in Europe, the progressive flow is given to pedestrian and public transport. If you drive a car in Amsterdam, the chance that you get red light at every intersection is very high. They called it civilized traffic control. Our traffic light in Malaysia that gives progressive flow to vehicular traffic, they called it uncivilized traffic control. Are you agree with this term? I am quite agree with this, to encourage people to use public transport and walking hence reduce the emission of green house gases.
In fact I am nervous and afraid every time I look these figures. The concentration of green house gases are increasing very rapidly in the last 50 years and so the global temperature
And we can feel now the global warming and climate change. Now I ask you again, are you agree that the traffic control that give priority and progressive flow to the vehicular traffic is uncivilized traffic control????
Coming back to our surveillance system. This one of our camera in Kajang. Be careful if you are in Kajang, Bangi or some part of Petaling Jaya.
An example detected accident. Our system alert me or whoever assigned to manage the control room by sending sms.
Again our surveillance camera at road side and at traffic light which are also act as traffic sensors
Traditionally, every surveillance camera is connected to the control room using telecommunication cable. You need broad band width for video streaming. Off-course the telecom company like this architecture because you have to pay a lot of money.
In our system, every surveillance system is equipped with micro processor for image processing and assign with an IP address. It is like a WIFI. We save a lot of money compared to the conventional method.
Now let me explain a little bit of image processing. Any digital image consists of picture elements or pixels. In our case, every frame of video image contain 480 X 640 pixels, multiply by 3 for red, green blue pixels
As the video images are streamed, we can observed a number pixels intensity to detect vehicle
In this case, Pixels intensity about 140 represent road surface. When a bright colored car is passing trough, the pixels intensity will go up. If a dark colored car is passing through, the intensity will go down. We can write computer program to count this sudden changes hence the traffic volume
We also can measure the length of a vehicle for classification purposes. By observing pixels intensity in a frame as shown in the slide
For speeding, we can observe the location of a vehicle in two frames. In this slide, the car has traveled 5.8m within 1/5 seconds. Therefore the speed is 104 km/hr. The speed limit it this stretch of the highway is only 90 km/hr. What’s next?
The next step is recognizing the plat number to search who is the owner. The steps are shown in the slide.
After the computer focus to the plate number, it enhance image by turning the image to black and white and removing noises
After segmentation, we use Neural Network to read every character in the plate. Once the computer identify every character, it send the information to another computer in the control room to search the owner. Some one is observing you ………
The same surveillance camera can be used to detect incident and disaster. The easiest method is using neural network to observe pixels pattern associates with incident or disaster.
If incident or disaster detected, the system will send an sms to alert control room
I hope still remember when I mentioned about civilized traffic light. Now we always discuss about sustainable development. We must plan our transport for our sustainability.
The easiest way to plan for We can implement suitable policies to influence car users shift to public transport. Through modeling we can quantify the number of people who will shift if a policy is implemented. Therefore we know in advance how many extra buses or extra train couches are required to implement that policy.
We can also install air pollution sensors in the city centre. Our traffic lights act as sluice gates, reducing green time as air pollution is getting worse. Next time when you notice the green time for inbound traffic become shorter and shorter, please don’t be angry
Now let us move on from talking something related to silicon chips to nano material
This conventional weigh bridge. Cumbersome, takes space and we have to stop and divert vehicles
Our solution is carbon nano tube. It is very thin but very strong. Its resistance to electrical current is highly correlated to its tension. We can design a micro chip, again silicon chip, to measure this resistance and calibrate to measure the weigh of the vehicles. Automatically, a smart camera will take picture and read the plate number of an overweight vehicle. Within one second the computer identify the owner.
Again, nano carbon tube, can be use in bridge construction. Now the price is very expensive. 25 years from now, if we are alive, we will se a very thin, long span and transparent bridge. And the bridge will automatically measure speed and weigh.
Again, 25 years from now, if we are alive, we will see a very thin and durable road surface
And also we will have street lighting without electricity supply. The column will be painted with nano plumbum sulphide and it will act as solar panel.
Whoever read Bible, Torah or Qur’an, knows the story of King Solomon with Queen of Sheba. When King Solomon invited Queen of Sheba to Palestine, he asked his rakyat (I mean his people, jinny and animal), who can bring the throne of Queen of Sheba before she arrive in Palentine. One man said he can bring the throne within a blink of eyes and suddenly the throne was in-front of King Solomon. I know to some of you this like another story, but to the Jews, Christian and Muslim, this a true story.
This is sounded like beyond engineering or beyond our current knowledge, but some of you are very familiar to Star Gate TV series. People can travel a light years distance within a few seconds. This is impossible according to Einstein but possible to Professor Stephen Hawking.
Please read his booked, A Brief History of Time. According to Professor Stephen Hawking, there are worm holes in this universe which can be used as a short cut between far far away places. As a transport engineer, I am very fascinated with this finding and convinced one day we can use the wormhole as our highway. If the wormholes are subject to traffic jam as our current highway, may be we will need ITS experts in the future to optimize the holes.
ITS: Application of Cutting-edge Technology to Enhance
Cuting-edge Technology to Enhance Transport ManagementRiza Atiq bin Orang Kaya Rahmat UKM
Imege from camera Capturing Imege Plate Enhancing Imege Number Searching and focusing to the plate numberRecognition Character Segmentation Character Normalisation Training of Neural Network Testing Neural Network
Transforming Image to Black & White to Simplify Processing
Impact of Unsustainable TransportEconomic Impact Social Impact Environmental ImapctTraffic Congestion Social justice Pencemaran udaraConstruction Cost Impact to low income Climate change groupUser Cost Health deterioration Noise and air pollutionMobility deterrant Impact to community Lost of habitat cohesivenessBreak down and accident Impact to community hidraulic Impact livelyhoodDeplited unrenewable Impact to aestatic Deplited unrenewableresources resources
Modelling policy impact on modal shift from private to public transport 1 Plrt = −0.28 Ag +1.239 G −0.627 Co −0.236 I −0.07 Tt −0.142Tc + 2.908 1+ e 1 Pbus = −0.059 Ag +1.070 G −0.432 Co −0.001I −0.092Tt −0.191Tc + 2.5 1+ e
Monitoring Air Polution Ring Road Sensor pengukur pencemaran udara di pasang di pusat bandar Air polluionTraffic control act sensor atas sluice gate, city centre Cityreducing green Centre Arterialtime for inboundtraffic when roadpollution worsen