E-commerce Web site design: strategies and models                                 H. Joseph Wen                           ...
H. Joseph Wen,                Table IHoun-Gee Chen and             The benefits of electronic commerceHsin-Ginn HwangE-com...
H. Joseph Wen,                characteristics. The marketing activities         customer relationships are beingHoun-Gee C...
H. Joseph Wen,                   growing. There are reasons to believe that the            After visiting many Web sites, ...
H. Joseph Wen,                              .   Reebok (www.reebok.com) lets visitors       Promotion modelHoun-Gee Chen a...
H. Joseph Wen,                The following eight models that are based on       Mall modelHoun-Gee Chen and             t...
H. Joseph Wen,                Web. A 1999 survey by Jupiter                     savings that may or may not be passed on t...
H. Joseph Wen,                transactional design strategy include               Griffith, D.A. and Krampf, R.F. (1998), ...
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E commerce website design

  1. 1. E-commerce Web site design: strategies and models H. Joseph Wen New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey, USA Houn-Gee Chen National Chung-Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan Hsin-Ginn Hwang National Chung-Cheng University, Chia-Yi, TaiwanKeywords ways of doing business that no company canBusiness strategy, E-commerce, Introduction afford to ignore. The basis for moving to anWorld Wide Web, Marketing,Model, Design The Web is one of the most revolutionary electronic commerce is a belief that technologies that changes the business electronic markets have the potential to beAbstract environment and has a dramatic impact on more efficient in developing newThe rapid adoption of the Web as a the future of electronic commerce (EC). The information-based goods and services,commercial medium has causedfirms to experimen t with future of EC will accelerate the shift of the finding global customers and tradinginnovativ e ways of doing business. power toward the consumer, which will lead partners to conduct business. ElectronicThose firms that effectivel y to fundamental changes in the way commerce via the Internet or the nextmarket themselves on the Web companies relate to their customers and generation Internet Protocol, IPv6, willhave a distinct advantage. Thispaper presents two e-commerce compete with one another (Slywotzky, 2000). change business institutions, operations andWeb site design strategies and 12 The immense popularity of the Internet in products/services as we know today, just ase-commerce models for gaining recent years has been fueled largely by the the telephone, TV, fax, and e-mail changedthat advantage. prospect of performing business on-line. the way businesses and consumers More and more companies set up their own communicate. Electronic commerce has corporate LANs by Intranet, apply Extranet become very popular because of the benefits and Internet to work collaboratively with and the convenience it brings along. As their customers, suppliers, and partners. shown in Table I, the benefits include The Internet can bring down physical product promotion, cost saving, timely barriers to commerce, almost immediately information, shortened remittance time, giving even the smallest business access to information consistency, better customer untapped markets around the world. At the service, better customer relationship, same time, consumers can conduct business customization of products, competitive and make purchases from companies advantages, and convenience of doing previously unavailable to them. business. Furthermore, companies are able to place Electronic commerce is no longer an marketing material on Internet servers alternative, it is an imperative. The only ranging from simple advertising to choice open is whether to start quickly or comprehensive virtual brochures. In today’s global marketplace, fast reliable information slowly. Many companies are still struggling is a necessity for most companies to attain with the most basic problem: what is the best some kind of competitive advantage. For EC model? Unfortunately, there is no simple instance, companies can create a virtual answer for this question. Even companies in marketplace in which to sell their products. the same industry, of the same size, or with This virtual market is untapped and could similar cultures are finding that one EC reach millions of users on the Internet 24 model does not fit all. Companies are hours a day. required to review their EC models and Electronic commerce is defined as buying rethink strategy in order to capitalize on the and selling of product, services or changing dynamics of the marketplace. The information via computer networks, mainly purpose of this article is to examine the the Internet. As the fastest growing facet of currently available EC models and help the Internet and other information readers to figure out the best way to makeInformation Management & technologies, EC offers functionality and new money in the EC era.Computer Security9/1 [2001 ] 5±12 The research register for this journal is available at The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at# MCB University Press[ISSN 0968-5227] http://www.mcbup.com/research_registers http://www.emerald-library.com/ft [5]
  2. 2. H. Joseph Wen, Table IHoun-Gee Chen and The benefits of electronic commerceHsin-Ginn HwangE-commerce Web site design: Benefit Descriptionstrategies and modelsInformation Management & Product promotion Through a direct, information-rich and interactive contact with customers, ECComputer Security enhances the promotion of products. Electronic medium also allows interactivity and9/1 [2001] 5±12 customization for advertising content, based on the customer profile or input. EC thus offers an opportunity for new promotion strategies, enhancing the branding of products Cost saving By using a public shared infrastructure such as the Internet and digitally transmitting and reusing information, EC systems lower the cost of delivering information to customers, including personnel, phone, postage, and printing costs Timely information Due to their instantaneous nature, EC systems allow a reduction of the cycle time required to produce and deliver information and services. Shortened remittance time With electronic funds transfer (EFT), customers send their remittances electronically to the company’s bank. This arrangement eliminates the time delay associated with the remittance in the mail system Information consistency EC ensures the consistency and accuracy of information through sharing of information and use of electronic forms for doing business Better customer service The ability to provide on-line answers to problems through resolution guides, archives of commonly encountered problems and electronic mail interaction 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, builds customer confidence and retention Better customer EC enables the learning about customers due to its ability to record every event in relationship which a customer asks for information about a product, buys one, requests customer service, etc. Through these interactions, the needs of the customer are identified and will feed future marketing efforts Customization of products The information-based nature of the EC processes allows for new products to be created or existing products to be customized based on customers’ exact needs. Competitive advantages EC enables a company to achieve competitive advantages of: cost saving based on reduced advertising/promotion costs; product differentiation by customizing products and timely response to market; customer focus through better customer relationships and better customer services Convenience of doing There is no limit on time and location to conduct a business with related parties. business The information delivered to manufacturers, suppliers and warehouses is almost real time Myerscough (1996) identified five different Background ways that a ``for-profit’’ company may use the Hoffman et al. (1995) proposed a structural Web for: framework for examining the explosion in 1 market awareness; commercial activity on the Web. The study 2 customer support; leads to a new classification of current 3 sales; commercial Web site designs as: 4 advertising; and . online storefront; 5 electronic information services. . Internet presence; Liu et al. (1997) examined Web sites of US . content; Fortune 500 companies to provide a status . mall; report of Web usage by these companies. . incentive site; and They concluded that about 93 per cent of the . search agent. Fortune 500 companies display their The authors examined the Web site designs products and services on their Web sites, in the context of integrated marketing and and about 26 per cent of them provide for facilitated greater understanding of the Web some type of online business with their as a commercial medium. This study, as well customers through their Web sites. A study as those by Ju-Pak (1999) and Griffith and of 250 US Fortune 500 Web sites, conducted Krampf (1998) essentially perform Web site by Palmer and Griffith (1998), illustrate the content analysis from an Internet marketing powerful impact that the Web has made on point of view. marketing practices. The authors argued Kalakota and Whinston (1996) classified that Web-based marketing activities and its advertising, sales, and customer service as site design are driven by the interaction the main consumer-oriented electronic among the firm’s market offering, commerce activities. In addition, Cappel and marketing activities and technical[6]
  3. 3. H. Joseph Wen, characteristics. The marketing activities customer relationships are beingHoun-Gee Chen and used in the study to examine corporate Web incorporated into commercial Web siteHsin-Ginn Hwang sites are: design. There are two generic Web siteE-commerce Web site design:strategies and models . promotional activities; design strategies:Information Management & . sales; 1 informational/communicational strategy;Computer Security . service; and and9/1 [2001] 5±12 . support. 2 on-line/transactional strategy, summarised in Table II. From the seller’s perspective, Angehrn (1997) proposed the ICDT model for analyzing and Informational/communicational strategy classifying EC strategies. The model In the informational/communicational describes four virtual business spaces, strategy, the Web is used to support but not to namely: replace a company’s main business activities. 1 virtual information space; Companies do not limit themselves to just 2 virtual communication space; marketing on the Web. As a matter of fact, they 3 virtual distribution space; and look at other traditional media of advertising 4 virtual transaction space. and marketing study in order to meet their Based on the model, the authors suggest four business goals and marketing objectives. EC strategies that are further refined by the Looking at Web marketing as another tool in level of sophistication and customization of the company’s marketing arsenal (Clark, 1997), the Web site design. the informational/communicational design is Watson et al. (1998) coined the concept of the most common use of Web marketing today. ``attractors.’’ An attractor is a Web site with Liu et al. (1997) report that 93 per cent of the potential to attract and interact with a Fortune 500 companies have publicly relatively large number of visitors in a accessible sites, but fewer than target stakeholder group. Authors visited 26 per cent of those sites support transactions. many Web sites and use metaphors to label On the other hand, there is no doubt that and group sites into eight potential informational/ communicational design on the attactors: Web can also produce significant sales in other 1 the entertainment park; areas of business. For example, Insight Direct, 2 the archive; a discount computer cataloger selling mostly to 3 exclusive sponsorship; business, generates only 10 per cent of its sales 4 the town hall; from its on-line catalog, but more than 75 per 5 the club; cent of its new customers come from the site. 6 the gift shop; 7 the freeway intersection; and On-line/transactional strategy 8 the customer service center. The on-line/transactional strategy invariably provides an electronic catalog of They argued that the strategic use of hard-to- products for sale. Visitors can browse imitate attractors is a key factor in on-line through the catalog and order products on- marketing and creating an attractor will line. Although the informational/ become a key component of the strategy of communicational design often provides an some companies. electronic catalog as well as ordering The EC models for commercial Web site information (e.g. by phone, fax, or e-mail), it design to be examined in this article are does not support on-line transaction. Without similar to some of the models in the previous on-line ordering Web database capability, it studies. However, we introduce a wider hardly exploits the potential of the Web as an range of available models, extracted from the interactive medium. current commercial Web sites, than any The on-line/transactional strategy is what previous studies. In addition, all models are most proponents of marketing on the Web discussed based on two different Web site design strategies, informational/ expect. Griffith and Krampf (1998) indicated that the ability to enhance a company’s overall communicational strategy and on-line/ transactional strategy. sales was a significant decision factor to establish a Web site. Although there are still some hidden obstacles (e.g. transaction security), it seems that most companies are Web site design strategy likely to benefit directly from marketing on Web design has evolved from static hypertext the Web, especially for small and medium- publishing in the early days to dynamic sized enterprises. In fact, there have been a lot multimedia, Web database application of successful on-line/transactional designs, servers. More importantly, new business such as Amazon.com and Virtual Vineyards. models that bring savings, revenues, and The number of successful enterprises is [7]
  4. 4. H. Joseph Wen, growing. There are reasons to believe that the After visiting many Web sites, a total of 12Houn-Gee Chen and Web will become a significant money-making Web site design models for EC were found,Hsin-Ginn Hwang vehicle for electronic commerce. International shown in Figure 1. The first four models thatE-commerce Web site design:strategies and models Data Corp. forecasts that Internet purchase related to the informational/communicationalInformation Management & volume will jump from $12.4 billion in 1997 to design are:Computer Security $425.7 billion by 2002. The US share is 1 brand awareness and image building model;9/1 [2001] 5±12 2 cost saving model; projected to be $268.8 billion, the European Union $55.5 billion, Japan $21.4 billion, and 3 promotion model; and Asia $15.6 billion. 4 info-mediary model. In the following section, available Web design models are grouped and discussed Brand awareness and image building based on the two design strategies. However, model the models in each strategy group are not Web sites that apply this model provide mutually exclusive. For instance, a company detailed, rational information about the firm may build brand awareness on the Web (the and its offerings. They may also serve as a informational/communicational design signal to current and prospective customers strategy) and may do on-line retailing (the and competitors that the firm is on the cutting on-line/transactional design strategy) at the edge. The model reaches motivated customers same time. with an information/image-rich communications message. Because the entry barriers are so low, smaller firms can set up this kind of site as well or in some cases even E-commerce Web site design models better than larger firms. Examples of the brand There is no doubt that many Web design awareness and image building model include: models exist on the Internet and new models . Ford (www.ford.com) not only lists all the are increasing expeditiously. EC is not just models of its seven famous automotive about doing business over the Internet, it is brands, but also posts its environmental about changing the way companies do policy, cleaner manufacturing, business. It is about creating new business community involvement, and corporate models while transforming traditional ones. citizenship report.Table IIWeb site design strategyWeb site design Definition/characteristic Promotion measures/ways MeritsInformational/ This approach is for companies to 1. Putting companies’ catalog on-line 1. Providing large quantities ofcommunicational use the Web as a supplement to 2. Building broad awareness and image information to customersdesign traditional marketing, delivering 3. Using the Web as a cost-effective way to 2. Giving a company an instant global additional benefits to customers and augment their core products with related presence and attracting people to building relationships with them information and service function one’s ad, some of them are not the 4. Obtaining cost savings from automating company’s target market, but routine customer services potentially will be 3. Opening a new communication channel allowing a company to develop further relationships with customers 4. All at a reasonable costOn-line/transactional This approach is for companies to 1. Creating a retail presence larger than 1. Providing a larger or more specializeddesign use the Web to construct ``virtual any physical store could selection of products than business’’ ± independent, profitable 2. Creating a virtual business providing competitors can offer ventures that exist only on the extra information in a form competitors 2. Providing higher quality and higher Internet cannot imitate quantity information, more economic 3. Creating a virtual business that takes a benefits, and more convenience than specialty product or collectible and sells competitors can offer it worldwide 3. Providing a sense of community for 4. Creating a virtual business that uses the customers Internet to produce superior economic benefits to customers that competitors can not imitate 5. Creating a virtual business providing convenience to customers that competitors cannot match[8]
  5. 5. H. Joseph Wen, . Reebok (www.reebok.com) lets visitors Promotion modelHoun-Gee Chen and read about sports and fitness, hear from The promotion model represents a uniqueHsin-Ginn HwangE-commerce Web site design: Reebok-sponsored athletes, and learn form of advertising that attracts a potentialstrategies and models about Reebok’s human-rights activities, customer to a site. The objective is to attractInformation Management & among other things. the user to the commercial site behind it. InComputer Security many cases, Web sites provide free gifts to get9/1 [2001] 5±12 Cost saving model users’ attention. The gifts typically include Saving from commercial activity on the Web digitized material such as software, includes cost-effective savings and photographs, music, and consumer reports. productivity savings. By directly meeting Examples of the promotion model include: information needs, a Web site can be highly . Auto-By-Tel (www.autobytel.com) offers a cost-effective. Many companies now use their comprehensive consumer report for all Web site to support the ownership phase of major manufacturers. It attracts the customer service life cycle. Productivity consumers to visit the site to read the savings arise from reduction in order and report and compare the price. The Web site produces significant sales for local car processing costs and more efficient inventory dealers. management. Cost savings result through . Kodak (www.kodak.com) provides reduced brochure printing and distribution technical help and tutorials for its digital costs and reductions in order-taking as cameras and offers a library of colorful, customers use fill-out forms to prepare their high-quality digital images that are own orders. As control is effectively downloadable. transferred to the customer, customer satisfaction might actually be increased. Info-mediary model Examples of the cost saving model include: An info-mediary may offer users free Internet . Microsoft (www.microsoft.com) provides access or free hardware in exchange for voluminous support material, live audio detailed information about their surfing and broadcasts of Microsoft conferences, purchasing habits. This is more likely to product user groups, and free download of succeed than the pure promotion model. Data the patch and supplemental programs. about consumers and their buying habits are . FedEx (www.fedex.com) has a Web-based extremely valuable. Especially when that parcel tracking service. The Web site information is carefully analyzed and used to saves at least 100,000 shipment tracking target marketing campaigns. Some firms are requests a day. The savings from reducing able to function as info-mediaries by the number of employees in answering collecting and selling information to other standard customer inquiries are businesses. The model can also work in the tremendous. other direction: providing consumers with useful information about the Web sites in aFigure 1 market segment that compete for their dollar.Emerging models of e-commerce Web site design Examples of the info-mediary model include: . Audio Review (www.AudioReview.com) is a site that allows users to exchange information with each other about the quality of products and services ± or the sellers with whom they have had a good/ bad purchase experience. Other sites take the concept a step further by integrating an intelligent agent into a Web browser. Such agents monitor a user’s habits, thereby increasing the relevance of its recommendations to the user’s needs ± and the value of the data to the collector. . New York Times (www.NYTimes.com), a content-based site, is free to view but requires users simply to register (other information may or may not be collected). Registration allows inter-session tracking of users’ site usage patterns and thereby generates data of greater potential value in targeted advertising campaigns. This is the most basic form of info-mediary model. [9]
  6. 6. H. Joseph Wen, The following eight models that are based on Mall modelHoun-Gee Chen and the on-line/transactional design strategy An e-mall hosts many on-line merchants. TheHsin-Ginn Hwang include:E-commerce Web site design: mall typically charges setup, monthly listing,strategies and models 1 brokerage model; and/or per transaction fees. The virtual mallInformation Management & 2 retail model; model may be most effectively realized whenComputer Security 3 mall model; combined with a generalized portal. Also,9/1 [2001] 5±12 4 advertising model; more sophisticated malls will provide 5 subscription model; automated transaction services and 6 community model; relationship marketing opportunities. 7 manufacturer model; and Examples of the mall model include: 8 customization model. . Yahoo! Shopping (Shopping.Yahoo.com) is a cyber shopping mall. It allows customers These are popular models that provide to visit just one site for all their shopping on-line transaction services for companies to needs. Since it is an attractive and well- make profits on the Web. promoted site, it attracts many more visitors than any individual store could. Brokerage model . zShops (zShops.com) is a virtual mall, but Brokers are match-makers. They bring one that will process the transaction, buyers and sellers together and facilitate track orders, and provide billing and transactions. Those can be business-to- collection services. It brings buyers and business (B2B), business-to-consumer (B2C), on-line merchants to the mall and or consumer-to-consumer (C2C) markets. A provides transaction services such as broker makes its money by charging a fee for financial settlement and quality each transaction it enables. Examples of the assurance. zShops protects consumers by brokerage model include: assuring satisfaction with merchants. . eTrade (www.eTrade.com) is an on-line financial brokerage, where customers Advertising model place buy and sell orders for transacting The Web-advertising model is an extension of financial instruments. Also, travel agents the traditional media-broadcasting model. fit into this category. In this model, the The broadcaster, in this case, a Web site, broker charges the buyer and/or seller a provides content (usually, but not transaction fee. Some models work on necessarily, for free) and services (like e- volume and low overhead to deliver the mail, chat, or forums) mixed with advertising best-negotiated prices. messages in the form of banner ads. The . World Chemical Exchange banner ads may be the major or sole source of (www.ChemConnect.com) is an revenue for the broadcaster. The broadcaster increasingly common model in B2B may be a content creator or a distributor of markets. In this model, the broker content created elsewhere. The advertising typically charges the seller a transaction model only works when the volume of viewer fee based on the value of the sale. The traffic is large or highly specialized. pricing mechanism can be a simple Examples of the advertising model include: offer/buy, offer/negotiated buy, or an . Yahoo! (Yahoo.com) is a high-volume auction offer/bid approach. traffic ± typically tens of millions of visits per month ± driven by generic or Retail model diversified content or services. The high E-tailers are an Internet version of classic volume makes advertising profitable and wholesalers and retailers of goods and services. permits further diversification of site Sales may be made based on list prices or services. Competition for volume has led through auction. In some cases, the goods and to the packaging of free content and services may be unique to the Web and not have services, such as e-mail, stock portfolio, a traditional ``brick-and-mortar’’ storefront. message boards, chat, news, and local Examples of the retail model include: information. . eToys (eToys.com) is a toy business that . Free Merchant (FreeMerchant.com) gives operates only over the Web. The method of users free Web services, site hosting, and selling may be list price or auction. Internet access. Freebies create a high . Lands’ End (www.Landsend.com), a volume site for advertising opportunities. traditional catalog company, has now migrated from mail order to a Web-based Subscription model order business. There is the potential for Users pay for access to the site. High value- channel conflict. Catalog marketing can added content is essential. Generic news prove to be an asset if cleverly integrated content, viable on the newsstand, has proven into Web operations. less successful as a subscription model on the[ 10 ]
  7. 7. H. Joseph Wen, Web. A 1999 survey by Jupiter savings that may or may not be passed on toHoun-Gee Chen and Communications found that 46 per cent of consumers), improved customer service, andHsin-Ginn Hwang Internet users would not pay to view content a better understanding of customerE-commerce Web site design:strategies and models on the Web. Some businesses have combined preferences. The model has the potential forInformation Management & free content (to drive volume and ad revenue) channel conflict with a manufacturer’sComputer Security with premium content or services for established supply chain. Examples of the9/1 [2001] 5±12 subscribers only. Examples of the manufacturer model include: subscription model include: . Micron (www.micron.com), a computer . Quote.com (www.Quote.com) is an manufacturer, sells its computer directly example of a site profitably selling to customers on the Web. Since there is no investment information. It creates a intermediary the distribution costs or unique and ``must have’’ content that cost-of-sales shrink to zero. draws investors to pay a subscription fee . Flowerbud (www.Flowerbud.com) sells for the information. fresh flowers directly to customers on the . ESPN SportsZone (espnnet.sportszone.com) Web. Perishable products that benefit attracts more than 250,000 visitors a day from fast distribution, like fresh flowers, with free, frequently updated sports may prove advantageous by eliminating information, while 50,000 subscribers pay $5 middlemen. per month to access detailed background information, columns, reports, and more. Customization model This model provides customers with content Community model that is customized to meet their preferences. The viability of the community model is By completely customizing information based on user loyalty (as opposed to high needs, a Web site can be highly attractive to traffic volume). Users have a high investment visitors. While this model represents a novel in both time and emotion in the site. In some use of e-commerce technology, it is unclear cases, users are regular contributors of how large a paying market exists for this content and/or money. Having users who kind of information. Examples of the visit continually offers advertising, customization model include: info-mediary or specialized portal . My.Netscape (My.Netscape.com) is a opportunities. The community model may personalized portal. The generic nature of also run on a subscription fee for premium a generalized portal undermines user services. Examples of the community model loyalty. The personalized portals allow include: customization of the interface and . Family Radio (FamilyRadio.com) is a content. This increases loyalty through Christian radio station site. It is the user’s own time investment in predicated on the creation of a community personalizing the site. The profitability of of users who support the site through this portal in based on volume and voluntary donations. Not-for-profit possibly the value of information derived organizations may also seek funding from from user choices. charitable foundations to support the . Intelligent Agents (BargainFinder.com) organization’s mission. are programs that answer to user . Guru (Guru.com) provides a source of problems with navigation in the chaos of information based on professional the Internet. BargainFinder not only helps expertise and the experience of other users find a good price but also learns users. It is typically run like a forum from past user behavior to help optimize where persons seeking information can searches. pose questions and receive answers from (presumably) someone knowledgeable about the subject. The experts may be Summary employed staff, a regular cadre of volunteers, or in some cases, simply This paper studies the emerging models of anyone on the Web who wishes to e-commerce Web site design. The models are respond. categorized based on different Web design site strategies. We identify two major Web Manufacturer model site design strategies: ``informational/ This model is predicated on the power of the communicational design strategy’’ and Web to allow manufacturers to reach buyers ``on-line/transactional design strategy.’’ The directly and thereby compress the models for informational/communicational distribution channel (i.e. eliminate design strategy include brand awareness and wholesalers and retailers). The manufacturer image building, cost saving, promotion, and model can be based on efficiency (cost info-mediary. The models for on-line/ [ 11 ]
  8. 8. H. Joseph Wen, transactional design strategy include Griffith, D.A. and Krampf, R.F. (1998), ``AnHoun-Gee Chen and brokerage, retail, mall, advertising, examination of the Web-based strategies ofHsin-Ginn Hwang subscription, community, manufacturer, and the top 100 US retailers’’, Journal ofE-commerce Web site design:strategies and models customization. Marketing: Theory and Practice, Summer,Information Management & Although a large number of companies use pp. 12-22.Computer Security the Web as an advertising tool to build Hoffman, D.L., Novak, T.P. and Chatterjee, P.9/1 [2001] 5±12 awareness or provide information rather (1995), ``Commercial scenarios for the Web: than relying on the Web to do online opportunities and challenges’’, Journal of transactions, we present eight e-commerce Computer-Mediated Communication, Vol. 1 models that companies are using to make No. 3, pp. 1-20. profits on the Internet. In fact, companies Ju-Pak, K.H. (1999), ``Content dimension of Web usually use more than one model to advertising: a cross-national comparison’’, accomplish their e-commerce objectives. International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 18, Although new models are beginning and are pp. 207-31. continuing to appear on the Web, no one Kalakota, R. and Whinston, A.B. (1996), Frontiers knows which, if any, of these models will of Electronic Commerce, Addison-Wesley, finally succeed. Reading, MA. Liu, C., Arnett, K., Capella, L. and Beatty, R. (1997), ``Web sites of the Fortune 500 References and further reading Angehrn, A. (1997), ``Designing mature Internet companies: facing customers through home business strategies: the ICDT model’’, pages’’, Information & Management, Vol. 31, European Management Journal, Vol. 15 No. 4, pp. 335-45. pp. 361-9. Palmer, J.W. and Griffith, D.A. (1998), ``An Cappel, J.J. and Myerscough, M.A. (1996), ``World emerging model of Web site design for Wide Web uses for electronic commerce: marketing’’, Communications of the ACM, toward a classification scheme’’, http:// Vol. 41 No. 3, pp. 44-51. hsb.baylor.edu/ramsower/ais.ac.96/papers/ Slywotzky, A.J. (2000), ``The future of commerce’’, aisor1-3.htm. Harvard Business Review, January-February, Clark, B. (1997), ``Welcome to my parlor . . .’’, p. 39. Marketing Management, Chicago, Vol. 5 No. 4, Watson, R.T., Akselsen, S. and Pitt, L.F. (1998), pp. 10-25. ``Attractors: building mountains in the flat Duffy, J. (2000), ``Point of no return’’, CMA landscape of the World Wide Web’’, California Management, March, pp. 32-7. Management Review, Vol. 40 No. 2, pp. 36-56.[ 12 ]

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