BELIZE BIOGAS EXTENSION PROGRAMM




      USER MANUAL
              OF
     BIOGAS PLANTS
Belize Biogas Extension Programme, Central Farm, Cayo District




                                 USER MANUAL
          ...
Belize Biogas Extension Programme, Central Farm, Cayo District



                               USER MANUAL

            ...
Belize Biogas Extension Programme, Central Farm, Cayo District


1.0   Why This Manual ?
   Like a ll mach in er y, the b ...
Belize Biogas Extension Programme, Central Farm, Cayo District


2.0   O per ation and M aintena nce
2.1   The Initial F i...
Belize Biogas Extension Programme, Central Farm, Cayo District


2.3. Regular maintenance of appliances
       Bio gas c o...
Belize Biogas Extension Programme, Central Farm, Cayo District



After one yea r: Inspect the digester f or scum for mati...
Belize Biogas Extension Programme, Central Farm, Cayo District



2.6   The P ro blem of Scum
        If there is hea vy g...
Belize Biogas Extension Programme, Central Farm, Cayo District


M an y che m ica l pr ocesses ta ke plac e at the same t ...
Belize Biogas Extension Programme, Central Farm, Cayo District


direct ly to the crop b y gra vit y. T he best wa y is us...
Belize Biogas Extension Programme, Central Farm, Cayo District


3.4    Recom m endation fo r the use of slur ry
-   CO R ...
Belize Biogas Extension Programme, Central Farm, Cayo District


-   VE G E T AB L E GA R D EN S A N D F AM IL Y O R CH A ...
Belize Biogas Extension Programme, Central Farm, Cayo District


4.3     Gas Lam ps
T he princ ip le of a gas la m p is s ...
Belize Biogas Extension Programme, Central Farm, Cayo District



5.0   Sim ple P lant M alfunctions a nd Rem edial m easu...
Belize Biogas Extension Programme, Central Farm, Cayo District


6.0 Safet y M easur es
Bio gas is a co mb ustible, ex p l...
Belize Biogas Extension Programme, Central Farm, Cayo District


Following Biogas Constructors and Masons are working:
In ...
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Biogas user manual

  1. 1. BELIZE BIOGAS EXTENSION PROGRAMM USER MANUAL OF BIOGAS PLANTS
  2. 2. Belize Biogas Extension Programme, Central Farm, Cayo District USER MANUAL OF BIOGAS PLANTS by: Belize Biogas Extension Programme Cental Farm, Cayo District Tel : 092 – 2129 / 31 Belize, 1992 2
  3. 3. Belize Biogas Extension Programme, Central Farm, Cayo District USER MANUAL Table of Contents Page 1.0 Why this Manual? …………………………………………………. 4 2.0 Operation and Maintenance ………………………………………... 5 2.1 The Initial Filling of the Biogas Plant …………………..… 5 2.2 Operation of the Biogas Plant………………………………… 5 2.3 Regular Maintenance of Appliances…………………………. 6 2.4 Faults of Appliance ………………………………………….. 7 2.5 Interruption of Gas Production ……………………………… 7 2.6 The Trouble of Scum …………………………………………. 8 2.7 Trouble with Feeding ………………………………………… 8 3.0 Use of Slurry ………………………………………………………. 8 3.1 General Properties …………………………………………... 8 3.2 The Slurry Disposal …………………………………………. 10 3.3 Use of Liquid Slurry ……………………………………….. 12 3.4 Use of Slurry for Compost …………………………………. 12 3.5 Recommendations for the use of Slurry ……………………. 11 4.0 Use of Gas ………………………………………………………… 12 4.1 General …………………………………………………….. 12 4.2 Commercial Domestic Burners to operate with Biogas ……. 12 4.3 Gas Lamps …………………………………………………. 13 4.3.1 Security Advise for your Health ……………………. 13 5.0 Simple Plant Malfunctions and Remedial Measures ……………… 14 5.1 Potential Repair Situations for simple Biogas Plants ……… 14 6.0 Safety Measures …………………………………………………... 15 6.1 Safe Residue Discharge …………………………………… 15 Biogas owners willing to share their expertise..………………………. 15 Biogas Constructors and Masons ……………………………………. 16 Selected Literature ……….…………….……………………… 16 3
  4. 4. Belize Biogas Extension Programme, Central Farm, Cayo District 1.0 Why This Manual ? Like a ll mach in er y, the b io gas un its a nd the ir ap plia nces n eed regular ma inte nance ser vice . In ord er to facilitate th is ser vice, th is man ua l is offered t o yo u so th at you can le arn to d o these ser vice yourse lf, whene ver necessar y a nd wh ene ver techn ica l ass istance is not readily at han d. After so met imes in o peration s ma ll fa ilures or acc idents occur. I n the lon g ter m techn ica l ass istance m ay n ot availa ble d ue to personne l lim itat ions in the pro gra m me , wh ile you the o wner ma y not be a ble to afford the cost of private techn ic ian. For th is reason th is ma nua l will offer the kno w-h o w ne cessar y to so lve sma ll fa ilures such as lea ka ge ’s, necessar y c onnect io ns, ado ptions, et c., so that you the o wn er is not depend ent tota lly u pon th e b io gas per sonne l. On ly b y co m pletely un derstand in g yo ur plant yo ur b io gas s yste m can you get the most out of it. T his man ua l will he lp you in crease the kno w-ho w of your u nit s o that yo u will benef it m ore fro m the e ner gy produce d an d ut ilize is pro perly. Photo No.1: Canal of piggery unit, connected to the Biogas Plant of Mr. Ebral Mai, San Antonio, Cayo District 4
  5. 5. Belize Biogas Extension Programme, Central Farm, Cayo District 2.0 O per ation and M aintena nce 2.1 The Initial F illing of the B iogas P la nt T he in it ia l fillin g for a n e w b io gas pla nt sho uld, if p ossib le , cons ist of either s lurr y fro m anoth er plant or fresh cattle dun g. T he amo unt of digested s lurr y or cattle d un g sho uld be 2 – 3% of the total amo unt of s lurr y for in it ial load in g. W hen the p lant is be in g filled for th e first time , the s ubstrate can be diluted with m ore water than usua l. Depe nd in g o n the t ype of su bstrate in use , the p lant ma y ne e d from se vera l d a ys to se vera l wee ks to achie ve a stab le d igest in g process. Catt le d un g can usua lly be exp ected to yie ld goo d gas product ion with in on e or t wo d a ys. Ho we ver, the ver y f irst gas product ion after clos in g th e p lant, s h ould be vented unus ed for reas ons of safet y, s inc e res idua l ox ygen p oses an ex plosion hazard. 2.2 O peration of the B iogas P lant T he operat ion of a s imp le b io gas p la nt is re lat ive l y unco mp licated. T he ease of ma intena nce ensures consta nt attention b y the farmer. Ne verthe less , e ven wit h a perfect design, a m in imu m of daily care is n eeded to rece ive a pro pe r servic e fro m the un it. The lid. T he sealin g of the lid must stay mo ist. T herefore, the lid m ust be co vered with water all the t ime. I n order to reduce e vaporat io n and mos qu ito bree din g, mac h ine o il ca n be add ed o n the surfac e of the water. Atte ntion ! M inera l o il po llutes gro und water an d sho uld be use d in sm all qua ntit ies a nd with care. Fr om time to t ime the water ab o ve the lid must be c hec ke d and ref illed when necessar y. Whe n water is controlle d, p oss ib le lea ke d at the lid a re als o detected . Exp ansio n cham ber. Once in a wh ile the expans ion c ha mber sho uld be clean ed in order to avo id solids ass emb lin g in the corners and thus , reduc in g th e gas st ora ge ca pac it y. F eeding th e pla nt. T he plant must be fed re gu lar ly in or der to ac h ie ve gas produ ctio n. T he sub strate shou ld be free of stalks and other impur it ies in ord er to a vo id scu m for mat ion a nd b lo c ka ge of the in let and out let p ipes. T he ne xt step shou ld be to m ix th e dun g s uffic ie ntly wit h urin e and/or water to a vo id sepa ration of so lid and liq uid mater ia l ins ide the d ige ster. T he overflo w s lurr y s hou ld b e m o ved a wa y fro m the o utle d. Other wise it can be b loc k the o verf lo w and the gas pressur m igth increase until it escapes throu gh the in let pipe or blo ws off the water trap. T herefore, the outlet and the s lurr y cana l must be cleane d. T his must be part of the daily rout ine of c lean in g the stab le an d feed in g the p lant. 5
  6. 6. Belize Biogas Extension Programme, Central Farm, Cayo District 2.3. Regular maintenance of appliances Bio gas c ooke rs and st oves ar e simp le an d eas y to op erate. T here is no ma intena nce neede d besides keep in g it clean , in case of harden ed kn obs, it is necessar y that the y be c lea ned and greas ed. It is po ssible to us e an y t ype of coo kers or sto ves e. g. b utane gas c oo kers. B ut it is n ecessar y t o ex pand or ch an ge the injectors (to a bout 1. 4 – 1 .6. m m) and the air supp ly needs to be c lose d. B io gas contains ab out 1 – 2 % su lfur ic a cid. T hat’s the reas on wh y simp le gas st o ves are gett in g ( most ly) corros io n after one or two years of use. It is therefore recom me nded to use so lid stee l coo kers to a vo id th is corros ion . T he glass scree n of the gas-lam p Photo No. 2: Cooking with Biogas needs c le an in g in or der to ha ve br ight in San Antonio, Cayo District light a ll the time . Clean in g sho uld be done on ly if necess ar y to a vo id sh oc ks on the la mp that can d estro y the gas mant le. Gas m antles of la mps only ha ve a certain lifet ime a nd ou ght to be rep lace d freque ntly. T he y are f ixe d with strin g to the nozz le an d rep lace me nt is eas y and do es not req uire and s kill. Attentio n! Use d m antles are rad ioac tive. T herefore , dust or p ieces of the bro ken mant le shou ld not co me in contact with foodstuff. Ch ildren shou ld be protected fro m inha lin g th e dust. Hands an d wor kin g p lace shou ld b e c leane d with water after replace m ent of the ma ntle (see a lso point 4.4 Se c urit y ad vises for your he alth) M ain P oints f or the Da ily Operat io n/ Re gu lar M a intenan ce are :  Fill the p lant wit h m ixture of dun g an d water/ur in  Chec k the water trap from t ime to tim e, espec ially whe n there is n o gas a va ilab le or when the f la me of t he coo ker is puff in g  P oke the in let or out let p ip e fro m time to t ime, es pec ia lly if substrate does not e nter the p la nt  Clean a nd ins pect the gas ap plia nce re gular ly  Keep the o verflo w free fro m s lurr y  Chec k, if the lid of the digester is co v ered with water  Chec k the gas va lve s, tube s and fitt in gs 6
  7. 7. Belize Biogas Extension Programme, Central Farm, Cayo District After one yea r: Inspect the digester f or scum for mation and re mo ve as necessar y b y o pen in g the p la nt. 2.4. Faults at Appliances It is surpr isin g to see, h o w m uch comp la ints ar ise b ecaus e equip ment was not kept c lea n. Often f ood dr ops int o the burner head b it somet imes dust or c in der b lo c k th e jets of t he b urners or la mps. Nor ma lly, b loc ka ge of the jet is rem o ved with he lp of a fine wire or need le. On ly whe n bloc ka ge occurs in s h ort inter va ls, the jet must be dis mant led an d c leane d. T he rubb er tube is t o be d isco nnected and freed from dust b y b lo win g throu gh. If a lamp starts to loose its brightness, it is ver y like ly that dust partic les ha ve b loc ked the no zzle. Aga in , the n ozz le must be u nscre wed and c lean ed . 2.5 Interru ption of Gas P ro ductio n If there is sud den ly no gas reac hin g the po int of use, there mus t be a lea ka ge so me wh ere, o b vious ly in the p ipe or water trap. If yo u are the o wner of a f ixe d do me plant , chec k th e slurr y le ve l in the outlet c ha mber f irst. If the le ve l is high, there s hou ld be gas pressure, or there must be a bloc ka ge so me whe re: If the slurr y le ve l is lo w, f irst close the ma in va lve of the gas p ipe (on the p lant). Wa it o ne d a y for gas press ure b u ildin g up. If ga s is pr oduced , wh ich can be seen o n the higher s lurr y le ve l or if bu bb les c om e up th ere must be a prob le m in the pipe . If the slurr y le ve l is st ill do wn ther e m ight be a b igger pr ob le m. A crac k in t he d o me is th e worst of a ll cases. T he p lant must be e mptied and crac ks must be re pa ired. But don ’t th in k ne gative; th is rare ly happens and in Be liz e we ha ven ’t ha d not yet an y suc h case . Obser ve a lso the sm ell of the s lurr y. If it s me lls sour, t he fer mentat ion process has been d isturb ed. Wa it so me t ime (1 to 3 wee ks) witho ut feedin g the p lant. If gas pr oduct ion d oes n ot start be it se lf a gain, t he plant must be e mpt ied an d ref ille d wit h fresh material. But s uch a brea kdo wn of ferme ntatio n is ver y rar e except in case of a nim al dis ease treated with high d oses of ant ib iot ic. Start in g a b io gas plant or after cleanin g (em pt yin g), man ure from rum ina nts e. g. c attle, is us eful to start the fer mentat ion proce ss, or use the slurr y fro m yo ur fertilizer cha mbe r also, be cause it conta ins a lread y the necessar y methan o gen ic bacter ia f or the gas prod uction. 7
  8. 8. Belize Biogas Extension Programme, Central Farm, Cayo District 2.6 The P ro blem of Scum If there is hea vy gas re lease fro m t he in let b ut n ot en ou gh gas availa ble for use, scu m is mo st like ly the reason. Often the gas pressure does not bu ild up bec ause of the cont inuous re lease throu gh the inlet. If slurr y doe s not o verflo w there is da n ger of bloc kin g the gas p ipe b y ris in g s cu m. T he lid m ust be opene d a nd the sc u m has to be ta ken out. Stra w, grass, sta lks a nd e ven a lread y dried dun g tends t o float to the surface. Solid and minera l material tends to s in k to the botto m. W ith pure an d fresh catt le or p ig dun g there shou ld be n o scu m prob le m. 2.7 Tro uble with F eedi ng t he P lant W hene ver there is a prob le m of char gin g d un g and water to th e plant , there must be a b loc ka ge at the in let or out let p ipe. T he prob le m m ight be c aused b y fibrous su bstrate and cou ld be so lved b y thoro u gh po kin g. If th is happe ns often, t here m ight be scu m bloc ka ge in the inlet or/and out let pip e. Be enterin g a stic k or p ip e into the in let o ne ma y f in d out the nature of the b loc ka ge. On ly in serious cases the p la nt need s to be e mpt ied. 3.0 U se of Slurr y 3.1 G ener al P roperties D igested substrate ( B iofertilizer) has almost no s me ll an d is more liqu id than u nd igested dun g. B iof ertilizer increas e the biolo gica l activit y and the h u mus content of th e so il. W hich th an incre ases the mo isture retent io n and t he nutr ient retention . Like wise ph ys ica l an d technical prop erties of the s oil are bet ter after biofert ilizer ap plicat io n. Am on g the various effects we see for e. g. th at so il is more porous and has a greater a vera ge of partic les afte r 2 – 3 years of slurr y a pp lication. T he betterme nt in a ll areas ( biolo gica l, ph ys ica l, che m ica l resu lts) give you a higher so il fertilit y and ma n y tests prove the greater yie ld increas e b y us in g b iofertilizer (s lurr y) . D igested slurr y has to keep mo ist o r co vered b y so il to preser ve its fertilizer va lue . T he best wa y is to br in g it im m ed iately in liqu id for m to the roots of the p lants. An other p ossib ilit y is to co mp ost the slurr y toget her with or ga nic material. 8
  9. 9. Belize Biogas Extension Programme, Central Farm, Cayo District M an y che m ica l pr ocesses ta ke plac e at the same t ime wh ich n eed different attent ion. But in ge nera l, t wo ru les must be fo llo wed for preser vin g the p lant nutr ients of bo th the undigested dun g a nd the dige sted s lurr y:  Avo id lon g stora ge t ime a nd  Keep m anure m oist and co vere d It is better to use s lurr y d irect ly e. g. to fod der gra ss or trees tha n o n annua l cro ps like ma ize or m illet. Pigpen Biogas Digester Slurry Tank Fodder Grass Vegetable field near the Plant: 2.5% slope Slurry is spread on by buckets Fig No. 1: Example of Slurry Distribution by Gravity Distribution channels need a slope for drainage. The slurry is dumped amongst the pasture when cleaning the channels. Slurry flows mainly to recently harvested areas. Slurry is spread on vegetable fields higher than the outlet and near the plant by bucket. 3.2 The Slurr y Dispos al Cle ver a nd rea listic p lan nin g of the s ite of s lurr y ut iliz atio n is the ke y to an econo m ica l b io gas unit. Insuff ic ient slurr y disp osa l leads bloc ka ge of the out let and r isin g gas press ure ins ide the f ixed do me pla nt. T he va lu e of d igested slurr y is ab out t wic e as mu ch as that of fresh dun g. Slurr y man ure must rea ch the crops witho ut loos in g too m uch of its fertilizer va lue. Whe ne ver poss ible, slurr y sh ou ld be d istr ibuted 9
  10. 10. Belize Biogas Extension Programme, Central Farm, Cayo District direct ly to the crop b y gra vit y. T he best wa y is us in g irr igat ion channe ls for slurr y d istr ibut ion . If fertilizer follo ws the crop p in g patte rn, space for a liqu id stora ge tan k of suffic ie nt s ize must be pro vided be side t he po int of o verflo w. 3.2 Use of Li quid Slurr y An y use of s lurr y is a go od use . T herefore when e ver poss ible , slurry shou ld be use d in liqu id for m after lea vin g th e o verflo w of the p lant. A s lope is req uire d for s hort d istance d istribut ion . D istrib ution of liqu id s lurr y n eeds mana ge ment. Un contro lled distr ib u tion ma y create s wa mps or thic k la yer s or dried s lurr y sea lin g off the roots of c rops or trees from necessar y o x yge n sup ply. T he most lab our sa vin g slurr y ut iliz a tion is for fodd er grass. It sh ou ld be encoura ged when co ntrolle d fertilizin g is unlikely a nd pla nted near to the stable (and b io gas p lant) wher e it is used . Fodder grass sho u ld be cut when it is only 8 0 cm h igh . Slurr y is led a lwa ys to Photo No. 3: Vegetable garden near the freshly c ut area. P er co w 5 00 m ² of the biogas plant, fertilized with liquid fodder grass are a gu id in g figure. slurry, in Bullet Tree, Cayo District 3.3 Use of Slur r y for C om post T he preparation of co m post is best if d istribution b y gra vit y is not possib le. In vest ment and labo ur inp u t are reasonable and the nutr ition va lu e of the man ure is pres er ved. Co mpo stin g is a for m of storin g the slurr y o ver so met ime without lo os in g to o muc h n itro gen . C o mpost is also a m ethod of increas in g th e a mou nt of or ga n ic manure , wh ich stabilizes the so il structure and for lon g-ter m impro vem ent of so il fertilit y. 10
  11. 11. Belize Biogas Extension Programme, Central Farm, Cayo District 3.4 Recom m endation fo r the use of slur ry - CO R N (M ai ze) Corn is a spec ies of h igh ly re qu ired nutrit ion . W ith so ils p oor in phosph orus, it is nec essar y t o fertiliz e with th is n utrients . An adeq uate doses of s lurr y corresp onds to quant ity of nitro gen of a bout 90 t o 1 60 lb/acre, which is e qu iva lent to 4.5 00 t o 8.0 00 gal of s lurr y /acre . A dos es of s lurr y can be ap plie d to 1 6.000 ga l/acre (or more). But the slurr y s hou ld be a pp lied before p la ntin g, it will jo in the so il q u ic kly. At the farm, various app licat ions wit h buc kets are reco m men ded. T he first app licat ion is don e on the ro w b efore p lant in g, on a ration of one (1) buc ket t o one (1) meter for e ach r o w. W hen the c orn has rea ched a he ight of 50 c m, it needs a n app licat ion of one (1) buc ket per cluster (3 – 4 p lants). Dur in g t he rain y seaso n, a third a pp lication ca n be perfor med of flo wer in g period. - SO R GH UM O R M IL LE T Can be fertilize d like cor n - P AST U R E CU T TI N G Im med iate ly after cutt in g an a pp lication of 4.0 00 – 8 000 gal/acre of slurr y is nee ded. T h is correspo nds t o quant it y of 90 – 1 60 lb/acre of nitro ge n. For app licat ion wit h buc kets a ration of o ne (1) unt il t wo (2) ga l p er m² is necessar y; th is mea ns o ne (1) or t wo (2) buc kets of five (5) ga llon for 10 s q.ft. - C ASS A V A Cassa va is a cu ltivation, which a bsor bs gr eat quant it ies of nutr ients from the soil. T herefore h igh app licat ion of slurr y is reco m men ded. An adequate app licat ion cou ld be t wo bu ckets of s lurr y per pla nt for ea ch mont h, d urin g the rain y seas on. - LIM ES, O R A N GE S a nd T A N GE RI N ES Reco m men ded are app lic at ions of thr ee (3) buckets of slurr y per tree ever y t wo (2) wee ks dur in g the ra in y seas on. Lar ger ap plicat io ns of slurr y s hou ld be acc o mpan ie d b y f ertilizat io n a lon g with phos phoru s and p otasio, for in crease the yie ld an d for a go od qua lit y of the fru its. 11
  12. 12. Belize Biogas Extension Programme, Central Farm, Cayo District - VE G E T AB L E GA R D EN S A N D F AM IL Y O R CH A RD S T omatoes can be fertilized with s lurr y on a ratio n of one (1) or two (2) buc kets for 10 sq.ft, with ap plic ations e ver y t wo (2) or three (3) wee ks dur in g ve getat ive per iod . Vegetables suc h as lea ves (e. g. lettuc e) should not be fertilized with slurr y, but c an b e cu lt ivated on s o ils, wh ich ha ve bee n pre vious ly fertilize d wit h s lurr y at a n ear lier seas on. Le gu mes , like be ans, s hou ld not re ceive h igh doses of s lurr y. T he applic atio n is done before p lant in g o n a ratio of not m ore than t wo (2) buc kets p er 10 sq.ft. - P AP AY A S AN D O TH ER F R UIT S Can be fertilized with unt il four (4) buckets of slurr y per mo nth durin g ra in y seaso n. - B AN A N AS A N D P L A NT AI NS Dur in g the h u mid season , unt il three ( 3) or four (4) buc kets per p lant could be app lied , e ver y t wo or three wee ks. 4.0 Use of G as 4.1 Gener al Bio gas is a le an gas that can in pr in cip le be us ed like an y othe r com bust ib le gas . As b io gas burns wit h an open fla me , the place of gas consu mpt ion sho uld be vent ilated b ut free of draft d irect ly to the f la me. 4.2 Com m ercial Dom estic B urners to O perate with B iog as An ybod y who a lread y tr ied to do this will ha ve found that it is s o metimes a c halle n gin g enterpr ise. T he most ad visab le so lut ion to con vert especia lly butane gas b urners is to – incre ase the fuel jet dia meter an d to c lose off the primar y a ir com pletely. T his c an be done with a lu m inu m fo il or other inflam ma b le mater ial. T he fuel jet diam eter for dom estic use of b io gas Photo No. 4: The fuel jet of burners shou ld be : B et wee n 1.6 – 2 m m for a a commercial burner drilled F loating Dr um bio gas P lant up to 1.6 mm and bet ween 1.4 – 1.6 m m for F ixed Dom e P lants. If combust io n is perfect, the fla me is dark b lue an d almo st in vis ib le in da ylight. If there is to o m uch a ir sup ply the f la me will be yello w, the fla me c oo ls off and thus pro lon gin g t he coo kin g time and increase t he gas de man d. 12
  13. 13. Belize Biogas Extension Programme, Central Farm, Cayo District 4.3 Gas Lam ps T he princ ip le of a gas la m p is s im ilar to that of the stove. T he secret beh ind a gas la mp is to adjust the fla me in such a wa y that the hotte st part of the fla me exact ly matches the for m of th e mant le, T he burn in g gas heats the mant le un til is glo ws brightly. P roper air mixture a nd a ppropr iate siz e of the mant le p la ys the b iggest roles . T he m ethane content (or the gas pressure on fix ed d o me p la nts) of b io gas somet imes c han ges. T herefore, the br ightness of the light will also ch an ge . Photo No. 5: The bright T he meta llic parts of the la mp can corrode ver y light of a Biogas Lamp fast, T his d e mands frequent ly la m p c leanin g. in San Antonio/Cayo T he bright light given off b y gas la m ps is the resu lt of in candes cence, e. g. the intense heat induc ed lu m in osit y of s pec ia l m etals s o ca lled “rare earth” like thor iu m, cer iu m etc . After b urn in g the se meta ls will chan ge a nd c ons ist of 9 0% T horiu m Rad ioa ctive (T horiu m 232) and that gives the br ight light. For the radio active conte nt of the gas mant le, p lease fo llo w our sec urit y ad vises under th e next po int. 4.4 Securit y A dvises fo r yo ur health wh en ch angi ng Gas M antles  Be ware when you re p lace gas mant les : M a ke sure, that p artic les don ’t blo w a wa y; enter your eyes an d do not in hale  P ut a wet p last ic or pap er ba g u nd er the gas mant le whe n ch an gin g. M a ke sure tha t all ash es go into the ba g.  If ashes still re ma in , rem o ve it with a piece of wet pa per an d p lace it in the ba g.  D ispose the ba g in a pla ce where it will not be Photo No. 6: Change of disturb ed b y an imals (e. g. hens), or in cas e of gas mantle, placing a plastic wind. bag under the mantle  Was h your han ds proper ly after handlin g gas mant les  P lace ne w u nuse d gas ma ntles a wa y f rom foo d and out of ch ildren ’s reach  Be ver y carefu l th e first f ive minutes after light in g the mant le  P lace your la mp, where it will not be disturbed b y win d and where you ca n eas ily c han ge the mant le 13
  14. 14. Belize Biogas Extension Programme, Central Farm, Cayo District 5.0 Sim ple P lant M alfunctions a nd Rem edial m easures P roble m P ossib le Cause Cou nter M easures Sudden Loss of Gas - broken gas line Repair - blo w off wat er t rap Fill up wit h wat er - open gas cock close Pulsat ing gas pressure Wat er in t he gas pipe Pu mp out t he pipe Relo cat e t he sect io ns o f pip e St uck gas cocks Co rrosio n - Apply o il - Operat e repeat ed ly - Change t he t ype o f gas cocker (gas cocks) P lu cked-up inlet p ipe Fibro us su bst rat e Use rod t o unp lug t he pip e St uck gas ho lder Flo at ing scum - Turn t he gas ho lder (Flo at ing Drum P lant s) - Take o ff t he gas ho lder and remo ve scum S mall Fla me Insuffic ient pressure I f t he plant has enough pressure, t he valves must been checked Yello w Flame Incorrect air supp ly Close t he air supp ly at your st ove 5.1 P otential Re pair Sit uations for sim ple B iogas P lants Da ma ge Detect ion Re med ia l M e asures Damag e masonr y and Inspect io n of o pen Inspect t he plant and render ing plant , su bsiding slurr y repair any damage, t ear level do wn t he plant if large cracks are fou nd Damag e or broken - See abo ve Rep lace p ipe, repair in let /o ut let pipe connect io n t o maso nr y Damag e/ leaky Gas seal t est Repair render ing Fixed Do me P lant Visua l insp ect io n o f Renew seals coat ing open plant 14
  15. 15. Belize Biogas Extension Programme, Central Farm, Cayo District 6.0 Safet y M easur es Bio gas is a co mb ustible, ex p lo s ive ga s. It’s s afe han d lin g is necessar y. T herefore, you must learn f ollo win g b asic r ules : - Ne ver lea ve a n ope n f la me u nattended - Alwa ys c lose the gas a nd safet y va lves of each app liance after eac h use Exper ienc e sho ws that lea k and o pen gas co c ks can and will be detected ver y q uic kly, b y s me llin g of th e sus piciou s o dor of unb urned b io gas i.e. before ex plosive m ixture f orms . As lo n g as the abo ve safet y aspects are achie ved, s mall b io gas pla nts require fe w or no s pec ia l safet y de vices , the m a yor except io n be in g applia nces that operate on the ir o wn , i.e. refr igerators, in which case the use of safet y p ilots are ob ligator y. 6.2 Safe Resid ue Discha rging W hen d isch ar gin g the d igester do not enter im med iate ly after d ischar ge and n e ver wor k a lo ne. Do not a llo w open fires an d a vo id s mo kin g around the open digester. Keep the t o p of the ma in ho le open for one or t wo da ys . In the course of d isc har gin g, one p erson is not a llo wed to operate the digester ! T he follo win g biog as pla nt o wn ers ar e willin g to s hare the ir e xpert ise : Toledo District: - M r. Alfred o Villor ia, San P edro Co lo mb ia V illa ge Corozal District - M r. Justo Cob b, San P edro V illa ge Cayo District - M r. Ebra l M ai - M r. Be njam in T zib - M r. Arturo & Sa lvador M esh - T oh-O la M e n’s Gr oup 15
  16. 16. Belize Biogas Extension Programme, Central Farm, Cayo District Following Biogas Constructors and Masons are working: In Orange Walk District: Leo nell Guerra, Co nst ruct or, Orange Walk Town (Tel: 03 – 227 11) Gabr iel Perez, Maso n, Orange Walk Town Francisco Sanchez, Chair men o f OBTC, Orang e Walk Town (Tel: 03 -2214 9) In Cayo District: Valent ine Vasquez, Mechanic for biogas eng ines, San Ignacio (Tel: 092-2980) Ricardo Rejo n, Bio gas Tecnican at Cent ral Far m Manu el Balo na, Mason, San Ant onio Village The personnel of the biogas program are always at your disposal: Drop in at the office in Central Farm, Cayo District . If it is too far, contact your Extension Officer or phone the Biogas-Office at Central Farm 092-2131, Ext. 106, and ask for the biogas technician . Selected Lit eratu re - Uli Wer ner, Biogas P lant s in Animal Husbandr y, g at e/Eschbo rn 1989 - Ludwig Sasse, I mpro ved Bio gas Unit for Develo ing Count r ies, Gt z, Eschborn 1992 - Difu sió n de la t ecno logía del Bio gas en Colo mb ia, Gt z, Cali, 1987 - Int ernat io nal Biogas Training Workshop Paper, Car mat ec, Gt z, Aru sha/Tanzania, 1990 - Biogas E xt ensio n Pro gramm e, Tanzania, The Desig n o f I nject ors Bur ner s for Do mest ic Biogas St o ves, May 1988 16

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