British cuisines


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British cuisines

  1. 1. British cuisineFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from British Cuisine) This article is part of a series on British cuisine Regional cuisines[show] Overseas/Fusion cuisine[show] Britain portal  v  d  eSunday roast consisting of roast beef, roastpotatoes, vegetables and Yorkshire pudding
  2. 2. Fish and chips, a popular take-away food of the United Kingdom.The custom of afternoon tea and scones has its origins in Imperial Britain.British cuisine is the specific set of cooking traditions and practices associated with the United Kingdom. Britishcuisine has been described as "unfussy dishes made with quality local ingredients, matched with simple sauces toaccentuate flavour, rather than disguise it."[1] However, British cuisine has absorbed the cultural influence of those thathave settled in Britain, producing hybrid dishes, such as the Anglo-Indian chicken tikka masala."[2][3]Celtic agriculture and animal breeding produced a wide variety of foodstuffs for indigenous Celts and Britons. Anglo-Saxon England developed meat and savoury herb stewing techniques before the practice became common in Europe.The Norman conquest introduced exotic spices into England in the Middle Ages.[4]The British Empire facilitated aknowledge of Indias elaborate food tradition of "strong, penetrating spices and herbs".[4] Food rationing policies, putin place by the British government during wartime periods of the 20th century,[5] are said to have been the stimulus forBritish cuisines poor international reputation.[4]Contrary to popular belief, the modern British now consumemore garlic per capita than the French.[6]British cuisine has traditionally been limited in its international recognition to the full breakfast and the Christmasdinner.[4] Other famous British dishes includefish and chips, the Sunday roast, steak and kidney pie, and bangers andmash. British cuisine has many regional varieties within the broader categories ofEnglish, Scottish and Welsh cuisine.Each have developed their own regional or local dishes, many of which are geographically indicated foods suchas Cornish pasties, the Yorkshire pudding, ArbroathSmokie, and Welsh cakes. Contents
  3. 3. [hide]1 History2 Modern British cuisine3 Varieties o 3.1 Anglo-Indian cuisine o 3.2 English cuisine o 3.3 Northern Irish cuisine o 3.4 Scottish cuisine o 3.5 Welsh cuisine4 Dates of introduction of various foodstuffs and methods to Britain o 4.1 Prehistory (before 43 AD) o 4.2 Roman era (43 to 410) o 4.3 Sub-Roman period to the discovery of the New World (410 to 1492) o 4.4 1492 to 1914 o 4.5 After 19145 See also6 References7 External links[edit]HistoryRomano-British agriculture, highly fertile soils and advanced animal breeding produced a wide variety of very highquality foodstuffs for indigenousRomano-British people. Anglo-Saxon England developed meat and savoury herbstewing techniques and the Norman conquest reintroduced exotic spices and continental influences back into GreatBritain in the Middle Ages[4] as maritime Britain became a major player in the transcontinental spice trade for manycenturies after. Following the Protestant Reformation in the 16th and 17th centuries "plain and robust" food remainedthe mainstay of the British diet, reflecting tastes which are still shared with neighbouring north European countriesand traditional North American Cuisine. In the 18th and 19th centuries, as the Colonial British Empire began to beinfluenced by Indias elaborate food tradition of "strong, penetrating spices and herbs", theUnited Kingdom developeda worldwide reputation[7] for the quality of British beef and pedigree bulls were exported to form the bloodline ofmajor modern beef herds in the New World.[4] Developments in plant breeding produced a multiplicity of fruit andvegetable varieties, with British disease resistantrootstocks still used around the world for fruits such as apples.During the World Wars of the 20th century difficulties of food supply were countered by official measures whichincluded rationing. The problem was worse in the second World War and the Ministry of Food was established toaddress the problems. (See Rationing in the United Kingdom for more details.) Due to the economic problemsfollowing the war, rationing continued for some years afterwards and in some aspects was actually more strict than itwas during wartime. Rationing was not fully lifted until almost a decade after war ended in Europe, so that a whole
  4. 4. generation was raised without access to many previously common ingredients. These policies, put in place by theBritish government during wartime periods of the 20th century, [5] are often claimed as the stimulus for the decline ofBritish cuisine in the 20th century.In common with many advanced economies, rapid urbanisation and the early industrialisation of food production aswell as female emancipation have resulted in a highly modern consumer society with reduced connection to the ruralenvironment and adherence to traditional household roles. Consequently food security has increasingly become amajor popular concern.[8] Concerns over the quality and nutritional value of industrialised food production led to thecreation of the Soil Association in 1946. Its principles of organic farming are now widely promoted and accepted asan essential element of contemporary food culture by many sections of the UK population, and animal welfare infarming is amongst the most advanced in the world. The last half of the 20th century saw an increase in theavailability of a greater range of good quality fresh products and greater willingness by many sections of the Britishpopulation to vary their diets and select dishes from other cultures such as those of Italy and India.[edit]Modern British cuisineKippers for breakfast in England. This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2011)Modern British (or New British) cuisine is a style of British cooking which fully emerged in the late 1970s, and hasbecome increasingly popular. It uses high-quality local ingredients, preparing them in ways which combine traditionalBritish recipes with modern innovations, and has an affinity with the Slow Food movement.It is not generally a nostalgic movement, although there are some efforts to re-introduce pre-20th-century recipes.Ingredients not native to the islands, particularly herbs and spices, are frequently added to traditional dishes (echoingthe highly spiced nature of much British food in the mediaeval era).Much Modern British cooking also draws heavily on influences from Mediterranean cuisines, and morerecently, Middle Eastern, South Asian, East Asian and Southeast Asian cuisines. The traditional influenceof northern and central European cuisines is significant but fading.
  5. 5. The Modern British style of cooking emerged as a response to the depressing food rationing that persisted for severalyears after the Second World War, along with restrictions on foreign currency exchange, making travel difficult. Ahunger for exotic cooking was satisfied by writers such asElizabeth David, who from 1950 produced evocative bookswhose recipes (mostly French and Mediterranean) were then often impossible to produce in Britain, where even oliveoil could only normally be found in chemists rather than food stores. By the 1960s foreign holidays, and foreign-stylerestaurants in Britain, further widened the popularity of foreign cuisine. Recent Modern British cuisine has been verymuch influenced and popularised by TV chefs, all also writing books, such as Fanny Cradock, Robert Carrier, RobertIrvine, Delia Smith,Gordon Ramsay, Nigella Lawson and Jamie Oliver, alongside the Food Programme, madeby BBC Radio 4.[edit]Varieties[edit]Anglo-Indian cuisineMain article: Anglo-Indian cuisineSee also: Balti (food)Kedgeree, an example of an Anglo-Indian dishSome Anglo-Indian dishes derive from traditional British cuisine, such as roast beef, modified by the additionof Indian-style spices, such as cloves and red chillies. Fish and meat are often cooked in curry form withIndian vegetables. Anglo-Indian food often involves use of coconut, yogurt,and almonds. Roastsand curries, rice dishes, and breads all have a distinctive flavour.[edit]English cuisineMain article: English cuisineSee also: Cornish cuisineEnglish cuisine is shaped by the climate of England, its island geography and its history. The latter includesinteractions with other European countries, and the importing of ingredients and ideas from places such as NorthAmerica, China and southern Asia during the time of the British Empire[edit]Northern Irish cuisineMain articles: Irish cuisine and Culture of Northern Ireland
  6. 6. The cuisine of Northern Ireland is largely similar to that of the rest of the island of Ireland. In this region, the UlsterFry is particularly popular and the Old Bushmills Distillery, one of the worlds oldestwhiskey producers,[9] is basedin Bushmills, County Antrim.[edit]Scottish cuisineMain article: Scottish cuisineScottish cuisine: Haggis, neeps andtattiesScottish cuisine is the specific set of cooking traditions and practices associated with Scotland. It shares much withEnglish cuisine, but has distinctive attributes and recipes of its own. Traditional Scottish dishes such as haggis andshortbread exist alongside international foodstuffs brought about by migration. Scotland is known for the high qualityof its beef, lamb, potatoes, oats, and sea foods. In addition to foodstuffs, Scotland produces a variety ofwhiskies.[edit]Welsh cuisineMain article: Welsh cuisineSee also: Cornish cuisineWelsh cuisine has influenced, and been influenced by, other British cuisine. Although both beef and dairy cattle areraised widely, especially inCarmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire, Wales is best known for its sheep, and thus lamb isthe meat traditionally associated with Welsh cooking.[edit]Dates of introduction of various foodstuffs and methods to Britain[edit]Prehistory (before 43 AD) bread from mixed grains: around 3700 BC[10]  wheat: around 500 BC[10] dog: possibly a ritual food [11]  rabbit: late Iron Age/early Roman[12] oats: around 1000 BC[10][edit]Roman era (43 to 410) apple (?)  coriander[16]  onion  plum [13] asparagus  cucumber  parsnip  rosemary cherry[14]  garlic  pears  spearmint[17] celery  grape  pea  turnip
  7. 7.  chives[15]  leek  pheasant [5]  wine  marjoram  marrow (squash)[edit]Sub-Roman period to the discovery of the New World (410 to 1492) kipper: 9th century (from Denmark or Norway)  orange: 1290[19] rye bread: Viking era,[18] around 500 AD[10]  sugar cane: 14th century[20] peach (imported): Anglo-Saxon  carrot: 15th century[21][edit]1492 to 1914A jar of British Marmite turkey: 1524[22]  sandwich: named in 18th century  tea: 1610 or later[27] cayenne  curry: first appearance on a menu  banana (from pepper,[23] parsley:[24] 1548 1773; first Indian restaurant 1809[33] Bermuda):[28] 1633 refined sugar: 1540s[19]  rhubarb (as food): early 19th  coffee: 1650[29] lemon: 1577 (first recorded century[34]  chocolate: 1650s cultivation)[25]  three-course meal: about 1850  ice cream: first recorded peach (cultivated): 16th (developed from service à la serving in 1672.[30] century [25] Russe)[13] [31]  broccoli: before 1724 potato: 1586  fish and chips: 1858 or 1863[19] [32]  tomato (as food): 1750s horseradish:[26] 16th century  Marmite: 1902[35][edit]After 1914 sugar beet: 1914-1918 sliced bread: 1930[19] Chinese restaurant: 1937?[33][edit]See also Food portal
  8. 8.  Cuisine of the Thirteen Colonies Culture of the United Kingdom Rationing in the United Kingdom