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  • Idealized diagram illustrating photosynthesis for a green plan (tree) and generalized reaction.
  • There are two general types of nitrogen fixers Cyanobacteria – primary producers, e.g., blue/green algae – fix their own carbohydrates Bacteria that require a source of carbohydrates Get it from dead organic matter in soil Get it directly from plants in a symbiotic relationship - mychorhizae
  • Biogeochemical

    1. 1. BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES Jonathan S. Rubio
    2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Differentiate the biogeochemical processes </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the processes involve in different biogeochemical cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the disturbance that will disrupt the natural cycle </li></ul>
    3. 3. Chemicals Cycle <ul><li>Biogeochemical Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The complete path a chemical takes through the four major components – or reservoirs – of Earth’s systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lithosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biosphere </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. D. T. Krohne, General Ecology
    5. 5. Chemical Reactions <ul><li>Ch emical reaction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process in which new chemicals are formed from elements and compounds through chemical change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All chemical reactions will follow the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Law of Conservation of Mass and Energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Law of Entropy </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Biogeochemical Cycles and Life: Limiting Factors <ul><li>Macronutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements required in large amounts by all life about 96% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include the “big six” elements that form the fundamental building blocks of life: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>carbon oxygen sulfur </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hydrogen phosphorus nitrogen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Micronutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements required either in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>small amounts by all life or moderate amounts by some forms of life and not all by others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Trace elements -Al, B, Cr, Co, Cu, F, Mn, Mo, Se, Si, Sn, Va, Zn - some organisms (0.1%) </li></ul><ul><li>Principal of Limiting factor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When chemical elements are not available at the right time, in the right amount, and in the right concentration relative to each other </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. The Geologic Cycle <ul><li>The Geologic Cycle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The processes responsible for formation and change of Earth materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best described as a group of cycles: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tectonic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrologic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rock </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Tectonic Cycle <ul><li>Tectonic cycle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves creation and destruction of the solid outer layer of Earth, the lithosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plate tectonics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The slow movement of these large segments of Earth’s outermost rock shell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boundaries between plates are geologically active areas </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. The Hydrologic Cycle <ul><li>The Hydrologic Cycle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The transfer of water from the oceans to the atmosphere to the land and back to the oceans. Includes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Condensation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Runoff from streams, rivers, and sub-surface groundwater </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>storage </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Hydrologic cycle
    11. 11. The Rock Cycle <ul><li>The rock cycle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous processes that produce rocks and soils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on other cycles: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tectonic cycle for energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrologic cycle for water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rock is classified as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Igneous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sedimentary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metamorphic </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. The Rock Cycle
    13. 13. The Carbon-Oxygen Cycle <ul><li>Carbon is the element that anchors all organic substances </li></ul><ul><li>The carbon cycle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon combines with and is chemically and biologically linked with the cycles of oxygen and hydrogen that form the major compounds of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes that reduce CO 2 : Photosynthesis and Diffusion to the bodies of water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes that add CO 2: Respiration, Combustion, Burning, decomposition </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. The Carbon Oxygen Cycle
    15. 15. Fig 5.15 © 2005 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Respiration C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O +energy
    16. 16. Modified from D. T. Krohne, General Ecology 15%/year CO 2 & CH 4
    17. 17. The Nitrogen Cycle <ul><li>The nitrogen cycle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycle responsible for moving important nitrogen components through the biosphere and other Earth systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely important because nitrogen is required by all living things </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen fixation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of converting inorganic, molecular nitrogen in the atmosphere to ammonia or nitrate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Denitrification: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of releasing fixed nitrogen back to molecular nitrogen </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. The Nitrogen Cycle
    19. 19. Modified from D. T. Krohne, General Ecology 50% fertilizer (Bacteria)
    20. 20. Biological Nitrogen Fixers <ul><li>Cyanobacteria – blue-green algae </li></ul><ul><li>Free living soil bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Mycorrhizae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbiotic bacteria living in root nodules </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. The Phosphorus Cycle <ul><li>The phosphorus cycle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves the movement of phosphorus throughout the biosphere and lithosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important because phosphorus is an essential element for life and often is a limiting nutrient for plant growth. </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. The Phosphorus Cycle
    23. 23. D. T. Krohne, General Ecology D. T. Krohne, General Ecology Modified from D. T. Krohne, General Ecology Gaseous phase
    24. 24. Sulfur Cycle <ul><li>Process involved in the transport of sulfur: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Acid Precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>b. Volcanic sulfide </li></ul><ul><li>c. Sulfur fixation </li></ul><ul><li>d. Combustion </li></ul><ul><li>e. Decomposition </li></ul><ul><li>f. Sedimentation </li></ul>
    25. 25. The Sulfur Cycle
    26. 27. Energy <ul><li>Capacity to do work </li></ul><ul><li>Follows the two laws of thermodynamics </li></ul><ul><li>- Law of conservation of mass and energy- mass and energy cannot be created nor destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>- Law of entropy- increasing degeneration of matter and energy </li></ul>
    27. 28. Energy Types <ul><li>According to the nature </li></ul><ul><li>1. potential energy- due to gravity or distortion of shape </li></ul><ul><li>2. kinetic energy- due to movement </li></ul><ul><li>3. Rest or Mass energy- due to matter moving twice the speed of light. </li></ul>
    28. 29. Energy types cont… <ul><li>Based on source or origin </li></ul><ul><li>1. non-renewable energy </li></ul><ul><li>2. renewable energy </li></ul><ul><li>3. inexhaustible energy </li></ul>
    29. 30. Energy Flow <ul><li>Only 2% of the sun’s energy is used by the plants and the rest is immediately converted to heat </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 10% of the energy can transfer to next higher trophic level. </li></ul>
    30. 31. <ul><li>Food chain-process of eating and being eaten </li></ul><ul><li>types of food chain </li></ul><ul><li>1. Grazing food chain </li></ul><ul><li>2. detritus food chains </li></ul><ul><li>Food web- interlinks of several food chains </li></ul>
    31. 32. Student Activity <ul><li>Identify one interruption in each biogeochemical cycles and give the cause and mitigation: </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrologic cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Rock cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>C-O cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen Cycle </li></ul>