ABIOTIC EFFECTS AND ADAPTATIONS Jonathan S. Rubio BSD DLSU-D
Objectives <ul><li>Determine the properties and effects of light, temperature, water, wind, fire and soil. </li></ul><ul><...
Light <ul><li>is a form of  electromagnetic radiation  with a  wavelength  perceived by humans as the  colour  of the ligh...
Electro Magnetic Spectrum
Importance of Light <ul><li>Needed in photosynthetic reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Forms the vision </li></ul><ul><li>Forms t...
Effects of Light <ul><li>Light is 10% reflected and 90% absorbed in aquatic while it is reflected as thermal infrared in t...
Effects of Light cont… <ul><li>In Animals- pigmentation, photokinesis or taxis, circadian rhythm. </li></ul>
Temperature <ul><li>degree or amount of heat or coldness measured by thermometer. </li></ul>
Importance of Temperature <ul><li>Regulates the metabolism, morphology and physical activities of plants and animals e.g. ...
Global Temperature Classification <ul><li>Megatherms- refers to tropics with long period of seasons e.g. Tropical Rain For...
Temperature in Animals <ul><li>Animals are either warm blooded (homoiotherm) or cold blooded  </li></ul><ul><li>(poikiloth...
Effects of Temperature to Plants <ul><li>Plants are classified according to their energy synthesis and temperature such as...
Effects of Temperature to Animals <ul><li>Animals-  are classified as  </li></ul><ul><li>warm blooded vs. cold blooded;  <...
Effects of Temperature to Microorganisms <ul><li>Microorganisms are classified as  </li></ul><ul><li>thermophiles (can tol...
Water <ul><li>most abundant substance inside the  organisms and environment.  </li></ul><ul><li>75% of the earth surface i...
Ecological Types of Water   <ul><li>Atmospheric water- water vapor in humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation-rain, snow,...
Importance and Properties  of Water <ul><li>Importance Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates temperature   High specific ...
Importance of Water <ul><li>suitable habitat for various aquatic  </li></ul><ul><li>organisms </li></ul><ul><li>- has surf...
Types of plants based on water requirements : <ul><li>Xerophytes  -  grow on areas with little  amount of water  </li></ul...
Hydrogen bonding
Ice, water, vapor
Hydrogen bonding (electric attraction) Ice Liquid
Water-soluble protein
“ Dissociation” of water
pH pH = – log [H+] Log scale means 10X change per unit! [H+]= 10 -1 M [H+]= 10 -9  M
Effects of Water  <ul><li>Plants and Animals in minimal water tend to become: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>water storer- succulen...
Wind <ul><li>Nature of Wind </li></ul><ul><li>-horizontal or vertical movement of air or gases on the surface of the groun...
Sources of Wind <ul><li>-formed due to uneven heating of land and water causing vertical movement of gases  </li></ul><ul>...
Importance of Wind <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serve as medium for the transport of materials e.g. pollination, cloud transport, r...
Effects of Wind <ul><ul><li>Plants  in windy places are often shaped by wind forming a wind –brushed or flag tree; have st...
Wind Speed <ul><li>expressed in kilometers per hour. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong breeze   40-60 kph </li></ul><ul><li>Gales (...
Fire Factor <ul><li>natural fire caused by lightning, volcanic eruptions, or friction of dried twigs and burning of dried ...
Fire can burn at three levels <ul><li>Ground fires burn the litter and herbaceous plants in the  soil.  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Effects of Fire <ul><ul><li>Destroys the vegetation by burning down all vegetation and drive all away animals. </li></ul><...
Ecological Importance of fire <ul><li>Removes competition of surviving plants, pests, parasitism and diseases. </li></ul><...
Soil <ul><li>Nature of Soil </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>natural product formed from weathering of rocks by the action of cli...
Soil Types <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be classified as : </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>residual s...
Soil Profile <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>refers to the horizon or vertical layering of soil. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul...
Soil Particles-refers to the texture or size of the particles   <ul><li>clay-particles with diameter less than 0.002 mm </...
Soil Porosity - refers to the spaces or cavities between soil particles that contain air. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There ar...
Importance of Soil <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Source of anchorage, water, and minerals. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul>...
Topography <ul><li>concerned with the physical geography of the surface of the earth caused by diastrophism.  </li></ul><u...
Types of Topography <ul><li>Altitude </li></ul><ul><li>Steepness of slope </li></ul><ul><li>exposure to sunlight </li></ul...
Importance of Topography <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Influence the vegetation by producing variations in the climate of geographic...
Effects of Topography <ul><ul><li>Forms the tree line (edge of the forest at high altitude or latitude beyond which no tre...
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Abiotic Effects(2)

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Abiotic Effects(2)

  1. 1. ABIOTIC EFFECTS AND ADAPTATIONS Jonathan S. Rubio BSD DLSU-D
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Determine the properties and effects of light, temperature, water, wind, fire and soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the adaptations of biotic factors as exposed to extreme abiotic factors </li></ul>
  3. 3. Light <ul><li>is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength perceived by humans as the colour of the light ( visible light ) or, non-visible light such as: X-rays , gamma rays , ultraviolet light , microwaves , and radio waves . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Electro Magnetic Spectrum
  5. 5. Importance of Light <ul><li>Needed in photosynthetic reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Forms the vision </li></ul><ul><li>Forms the visual color </li></ul><ul><li>Main source of global temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Source of solar energy e.g. solar cells </li></ul><ul><li>Affects the morphological, behavioral and physiological characteristics of organisms. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Effects of Light <ul><li>Light is 10% reflected and 90% absorbed in aquatic while it is reflected as thermal infrared in the terrestrial. </li></ul><ul><li>In Plants- photosynthetic reaction, photoperiodism, transpiration, pigmentation, stomatal movement, nasty movement. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Effects of Light cont… <ul><li>In Animals- pigmentation, photokinesis or taxis, circadian rhythm. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Temperature <ul><li>degree or amount of heat or coldness measured by thermometer. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Importance of Temperature <ul><li>Regulates the metabolism, morphology and physical activities of plants and animals e.g. Plant-transpiration, absorption, germination, growth; Animals- Allen’s rule, pigmentation, growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Interacts with other environmental factors such as altitude, color of the ground. </li></ul><ul><li>Affects the distribution of plants and animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Source of thermal or heat energy. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Global Temperature Classification <ul><li>Megatherms- refers to tropics with long period of seasons e.g. Tropical Rain Forest </li></ul><ul><li>Mesotherms- refers to temperate countrieswith alternating high and low temperatures. </li></ul><ul><li>Microtherms- low temperatures prevail and vegetation is coniferous e.g. Taiga </li></ul><ul><li>Hekistotherms- areas with very low temperatures e.g tundra, polar ice caps. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Temperature in Animals <ul><li>Animals are either warm blooded (homoiotherm) or cold blooded </li></ul><ul><li>(poikilotherm) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Effects of Temperature to Plants <ul><li>Plants are classified according to their energy synthesis and temperature such as: </li></ul><ul><li>C4- plants adapted to hot, bright and fairly dry climate e.g. corn, sugarcane; </li></ul><ul><li>C3 plants adapted to cool moist and shady environment e.g. herbs, shrubs, trees </li></ul><ul><li>Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM)- plants adapted to very dry climates e.g. cactus </li></ul>
  13. 13. Effects of Temperature to Animals <ul><li>Animals- are classified as </li></ul><ul><li>warm blooded vs. cold blooded; </li></ul><ul><li>Homeotherm vs. poikilotherm implies an animal that can maintain a specific body temperature versus an animal that has a body temperature that varies with the ambient temperature; </li></ul><ul><li>Endotherm vs. ectotherm implies an animal that produces its own heat from within versus one that does not. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Effects of Temperature to Microorganisms <ul><li>Microorganisms are classified as </li></ul><ul><li>thermophiles (can tolerate 40 to 90 o C; </li></ul><ul><li>mesophiles (10-45 o C); </li></ul><ul><li>psychrophiles(-5 – 40 o C). </li></ul>
  15. 15. Water <ul><li>most abundant substance inside the organisms and environment. </li></ul><ul><li>75% of the earth surface is covered with water </li></ul><ul><li>97% Marine water, </li></ul><ul><li>2% solid water in glaciers and snow </li></ul><ul><li><1% liquid water in lakes,rivers and streams </li></ul>
  16. 16. Ecological Types of Water <ul><li>Atmospheric water- water vapor in humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation-rain, snow, glaciers etc. </li></ul><ul><li>soil water- water on the surface and ground (water table) </li></ul><ul><li>Bodies of water (e.g. ponds, lakes, streams, rivers, seas and ocean) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Importance and Properties of Water <ul><li>Importance Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates temperature High specific heat and vaporization </li></ul><ul><li>Universal solvent Presence of H+ and OH- </li></ul><ul><li>Medium for transport Cohesiveness, </li></ul><ul><li>of materials cohesion, less viscous </li></ul><ul><li>Source of energy High density </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. hydroelectric. </li></ul><ul><li>Raw materials for Chemical bond of H </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis and O </li></ul><ul><li>Breaks down materials Acts as polar and e.g. e.g. hydrolysis slightly acidic and basic </li></ul>
  18. 18. Importance of Water <ul><li>suitable habitat for various aquatic </li></ul><ul><li>organisms </li></ul><ul><li>- has surface tension causing the organism to stay in surface </li></ul>
  19. 19. Types of plants based on water requirements : <ul><li>Xerophytes - grow on areas with little amount of water </li></ul><ul><li>Mesophytes - grow on areas with moderate amount of water </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrophytes – more than enough requirement of water </li></ul><ul><li>Halophytes - water with salt </li></ul>
  20. 20. Hydrogen bonding
  21. 21. Ice, water, vapor
  22. 22. Hydrogen bonding (electric attraction) Ice Liquid
  23. 23. Water-soluble protein
  24. 24. “ Dissociation” of water
  25. 25. pH pH = – log [H+] Log scale means 10X change per unit! [H+]= 10 -1 M [H+]= 10 -9 M
  26. 26. Effects of Water <ul><li>Plants and Animals in minimal water tend to become: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>water storer- succulent leaves and stem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water escaper- resurrecting plants, estivate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water conserver- water metabolism, fat dissolver </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plants and Animals in abundance of water tend to become: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>water regulator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adapt an osmotic processes </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Wind <ul><li>Nature of Wind </li></ul><ul><li>-horizontal or vertical movement of air or gases on the surface of the ground. </li></ul><ul><li>-depends on the topography, vegetation masses, position of seashores, and major wind paths and region of calms </li></ul>
  28. 28. Sources of Wind <ul><li>-formed due to uneven heating of land and water causing vertical movement of gases </li></ul><ul><li>-large temperature differences between the equator and the poles </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rotational movement of earth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coriolis effect </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Importance of Wind <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serve as medium for the transport of materials e.g. pollination, cloud transport, rainfall, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affects all diffusion of gases between organisms and atmosphere. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affects the morphology and habit of organisms. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Effects of Wind <ul><ul><li>Plants in windy places are often shaped by wind forming a wind –brushed or flag tree; have stunted growth and leaf damage, lodging (process being laid flat on the ground), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals- tend to have thick hides, hair, and shelter in caves or under the rock. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land and Aquatic- wind causes abrasion, erosion and salt spray </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Wind Speed <ul><li>expressed in kilometers per hour. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong breeze 40-60 kph </li></ul><ul><li>Gales (Strong wind) 60-90 kph </li></ul><ul><li>Storms 90-120 kph </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricanes or Typhoons >120 kph </li></ul>
  32. 32. Fire Factor <ul><li>natural fire caused by lightning, volcanic eruptions, or friction of dried twigs and burning of dried leaves due to thermal heat. </li></ul><ul><li>-anthropogenic caused of fire can be accidental or controlled application of fire in the ecosystem. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Fire can burn at three levels <ul><li>Ground fires burn the litter and herbaceous plants in the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Surface fires -burn the shrubs, herbs and bases of trees. </li></ul><ul><li>Crown fires- burn the canopy of trees and most destructive. </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystems may experience mostly one level of fire or a mix of the three. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Effects of Fire <ul><ul><li>Destroys the vegetation by burning down all vegetation and drive all away animals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants with scars caused by fire will be prone to disease and parasites attacked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminates diseases and pest such as fungi, nematodes. insects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Favors the growth of fire resistant plants e.g. cogon grass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Returns the organic materials to the soil and atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerate the soil with carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alters the light intensity, precipitation and nutrient cycle once the area is cleared by fire </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Ecological Importance of fire <ul><li>Removes competition of surviving plants, pests, parasitism and diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Increases light intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Modifies the pH, elements and organic materials of the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Controls the weeds, and maintains the grassland and sugarcane plantation </li></ul>
  36. 36. Soil <ul><li>Nature of Soil </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>natural product formed from weathering of rocks by the action of climate and living organisms. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>composition of soil: water- 25%, gases- 25%, minerals- 40%(e.g. silicon, aluminum, calcium), organic materials -10%. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Soil Types <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be classified as : </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>residual soil- formed where weathering takes place) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>transported soil-moved from the place by the action of wind, gravity, water etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Example of Transported soil: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>alluvial-soil deposited by river flow; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>colluvial- deposited by gravity or landslide; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>glacial- deposited by glaciers; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>eolian- deposited by wind. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Soil Profile <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>refers to the horizon or vertical layering of soil. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>O horizon- organic layer partly decomposed debris </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A Horizon- topsoil with maximum humus layer dark colored </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B Horizon- subsoil next layer where maximum leaching takes place. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C horizon- last mineral layer composed of incomplete fragment of rocks . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Soil Particles-refers to the texture or size of the particles <ul><li>clay-particles with diameter less than 0.002 mm </li></ul><ul><li>silt- particles with diameters between 0.002 and 0.02 mm </li></ul><ul><li>sand- particles with diameter between 0.02 to 2mm. </li></ul><ul><li>Loam- is used to describe mixtures of different size classes of soil particles. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Soil Porosity - refers to the spaces or cavities between soil particles that contain air. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are two types: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Micropores- space diameter up to 20 μm can hold water and known as capillary pores </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Macropores- space diameter up to 20 –50 μm cannot hold water and known as non-capillary pores </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soil Water- refers to the water trapped by the soil </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Importance of Soil <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Source of anchorage, water, and minerals. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Influence plant activities such as germination of seeds, woodiness of stem, vigor of vegetative parts. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serve as shelter of animals, storage of waste and source of food. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Topography <ul><li>concerned with the physical geography of the surface of the earth caused by diastrophism. </li></ul><ul><li>- diastrophism is the movement of the solid portion of the earth caused by volcanic activities or rock deformation due to thermal pressure. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Types of Topography <ul><li>Altitude </li></ul><ul><li>Steepness of slope </li></ul><ul><li>exposure to sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>direction of mountain chains and valleys </li></ul>
  44. 44. Importance of Topography <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Influence the vegetation by producing variations in the climate of geographical region. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>affects the climatic factors e.g. increase in altitude causes low temperature (1o C lower per 100 meter above sea level), increase moisture and high wind velocity, higher insulation, local mountain and valley breezes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Effects of Topography <ul><ul><li>Forms the tree line (edge of the forest at high altitude or latitude beyond which no tree can grow) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>degree of slope influences the soil structure and behavior, swift run-off water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunfacing slope with moist wind has mesophylous plant (plant requiring moderate amount of water) while nonsunfacing slope with dry has xerophylous plant (requiring small amount of water) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountains chains interfere drastically with continental air circulation. </li></ul></ul>

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