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# Boolean- Search Basics

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### Boolean- Search Basics

1. 1. Basics of Search- Boolean Logic Rithesh Nair http://researchersecrets.com www.linkedin.com/in/rithesh http://researchersecrets.com 1
2. 2. http://researchersecrets.com 2 KPMG DELOITTE In this search, we will retrieve records in which AT LEAST ONE of the search terms is present. We are searching on the terms KPMG AND DELOITTE since documents containing either of these words might be relevant. The shaded circle with the word KPMG representing all the records that contain the word "kpmg" and the shaded circle with the word DELOITTE representing all the records that contain the word "deloitte" The shaded overlap area representing all the records that contain both "kpmg" and "deloitte" OR logic retrieves all the unique records containing one term, the other, or both. Boolean Logic Boolean logic refers to the logical relationship among search terms, and is named for the British-born Irish mathematician George Boole. There are three main operators: OR AND NOT OR
3. 3. http://researchersecrets.com 3 KPMG DELOITTE The more terms or concepts we combine in a search with OR logic, the more records we will retrieve. For Example PWC AND In this search, the records in which BOTH of the search terms are present The shaded area overlapping the two circles representing all the records that contain both the word "KPMG" and the word "DELOITTE”. The more terms or concepts we combine in a search with AND logic, the fewer records we will retrieve.
4. 4. http://researchersecrets.com 4 NOT KPMG NOT PWC We retrieve records in which ONLY ONE of the terms is present This is illustrated by the shaded area with the word KPMG representing all the records containing the word “KPMG”. No records are retrieved in which the word "PWC" appears, even if the word "KPMG" appears there too
5. 5. http://researchersecrets.com 5 Using Boolean Logic on the Internet 1. When I need Information about KPMG or Deloitte KPMG OR Deloitte KPMG | Deloitte 2. When I need Information about KPMG and Deloitte and PWC KPMG AND Deloitte AND PWC KPMG Deloitte PWC (Most search doesn’t require you to add the word AND) 3.When I need Information about KPMG but not about accounting KPMG NOT accounting KPMG –accounting (Minus) KPMG AND NOT accounting (for AltaVista) 4.When I need information about KPMG or Deloitte’s Accounting (KPMG OR Deloitte) AND accounting (KPMG | Deloitte) accounting
6. 6. There are number of ways to modify query terms. These can be very valuable techniques to you as a searcher. They enable you first to cast a fairly broad query, and then successively hone in on desired results. http://researchersecrets.com 6 Term Modifiers Modifiers include: Quotation Marks Parentheses • asterisks • tildes To create strong or robust queries, you can incorporate operators and modifiers to the query syntax but their use is optional.
7. 7. http://researchersecrets.com 7 “Phrase” Searching The use of quotation marks will allow you to restrict a search so that the keywords must appear consecutively in a phrase. The order of keywords in a query is important but not the be all and end all. Searching for search commands returns pages which simply mention search and commands. The search for "search commands" returns different results as only pages which mention search commands as a complete phrase are listed. Note: The spaces between words are as important as any other character. If you include a double space between any two words and the phrase typically has only one, the search will fail.
8. 8. http://researchersecrets.com 8 Parentheses Parentheses group words to establish or reinforce theParentheses group words to establish or reinforce the intended order of processing. Search terms andintended order of processing. Search terms and operators within parentheses are processed separatelyoperators within parentheses are processed separately as a unit and then combined with the remaining searchas a unit and then combined with the remaining search strategy.strategy. This can be very useful if you want to control theThis can be very useful if you want to control the booleanboolean logic for a query.logic for a query. Example Resume auditor (07645 OR montvale)
9. 9. Visit http://researchersecrets.com http://researchersecrets.com 9
10. 10. Visit http://researchersecrets.com http://researchersecrets.com 9