This presentation on our final year project whose topic is :
“ INVERTER ”
has become reality due to the dedicated help of some respected
so first of all we would like to thank our respected ANIRBAN
SIR for helping & guide us every time we required……
our heartiest thanks to prof. Bikash Dey sir for sharing his
knowledge with us……..
We would also like to thank some of classmates & friends for
providing us with a lot of information's &
2.1. parts list.
2.2. Brief Description Of Parts.
3. Circuit diagram and Working Principle.
3.2.working principle of the circuit.
6. Future Prospects.
Now the application of inverters are enormous in day to
day’s life . During the power cuts we generally see its use in
both rural & urban areas.
In our project we made a simple “DC to AC inverter”
using 555 timer IC .
The astable multivibrator mode operation of 555 timer
IC utilized here for AC oscillation.
It is a low cost simple “12v to 220v” inverter circuit.
Inverters are very useful electronics products for
compensating emergency power failure.
More advancement can also be made in circuit design to
make it work more efficiently & in large scale.
O In the designing of this circuit we have mainly used
different types of linear & nonlinear electronics
components . Some of the few components of our
inverter are listed & described in the below
O 555 TIMER IC(NE555N)
O VOLTAGE REGULATOR(CD7805)
O STEP UP TRANSFORMER(9-0-9)
O RECHARCHABLE BATTERY(12V)
O SMPS(BATTERY CHARGER)
O HEAT SINK
O SINGLE STAND WIRES
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PARTS
555 TIMER IC (NE555N)
The 555 Timer IC is highly stable for generating accurate time
delays or oscillation. Additional terminals are provided for triggering
or resetting if desired. In the time delay mode of operation, the time
is precisely controlled by one external resistor and capacitor.
RECHARGABLE BATTERY (12v)
• A rechargeable battery, storage battery or accumulator is a type
of electrical battery. it compromises one or more
electrochemical cells and is a type of energy accumulator used
for electrochemical energy storage. It is technically known as a
secondary cell because its electrochemical reactions are
electrically reversible. Rechargeable batteries come in many
different shapes and sizes, ranging from button cells to
megawatt systems connected to stabilize an electrical
distribution network. Several different combinations of
chemicals are commonly used, including: lead-acid, nickel
cadmium (NiCad), nickel metal hydride (NiMH), lithium ion
(Li-ion) and lithium ion polymer (Li-ion polymer).
CL100 i s a g ene r a l purpo s e , medium powe r NPN t r ans i s to r . I t
i s mo s t l y us ed a s swi t ch in c ommon emi t t e r c onf i gur a t ion.
The t r ans i s to r t e rmina l s r equi r e a f i x ed DC vol t a g e to ope r a t e
in the de s i r ed r e g ion o f i t s cha r a c t e r i s t i c s cur v e s . Thi s i s
known a s the bi a s ing . Fo r swi t ching appl i c a t ions , CL100 i s
bi a s ed in such a wa y tha t i t r ema ins ful l y on i f the r e i s a
s i gna l a t i t s ba s e . In the abs enc e o f ba s e s i gna l , i t g e t s turned
o f f c ompl e t e l y .
VOLTAGE REGULATOR (CD7805)
7805 is a voltage regulator integrated circuit. It is a member of 78xx
series of fixed linear voltage regulator ICs. The voltage source in a
circuit may have fluctuations and would not give the fixed voltage
output. The voltage regulator IC maintains the output voltage at a
constant value. The xx in 78xx indicated
the fixed output voltage it
is designed to provide. 7805 provides +5V regulated power
supply. Capacitors of suitable values can be connected at input
and output pins depending upon the respective voltage levels.
An LED lamp is a light-emitting diode product that is
assembled into a lamp (or light bulb) for use in lighting
Like incandescent lamps and unlike most fluorescent
lamps (e.g. tubes and compact fluorescent lamp(CFL)),
LED lights come to full brightness without need for a
warm-up time; the life of fluorescent lighting is also
reduced by frequent switching on and off.
LED chips need controlled direct current (DC)
electrical power; an appropriate power supply is
needed. LEDs are adversely
affected by high
temperature, so LED lamps typically include
heat dissipation elements.
•12V SMPS (BATTERY CHARGER)
A SWITCHED-MODE POWER SUPPLY (SWITCHING-MODE
POWER SUPPLY, SMPS, OR SWITCHER) IS AN ELECTRONIC
POWER SUPPLY THAT INCORPORATES A SWITCHING
REGULATOR TO CONVERT ELECTRICAL POWER
EFFICIENTLY. LIKE OTHER POWER SUPPLIES, AN SMPS
TRANSFERS POWER FROM A SOURCE, LIKE MAINS
POWER, TO A LOAD, SUCH AS PERSONAL COMPUTER,
WHILE CONVERTING VOLTAGE AND CURRENT
A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that
implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. Resistors act to
reduce current flow, and, at the same time, act to lower voltage levels
within circuits. Resistors may have fixed resistances.
The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the
voltage across the resistor terminals.
A CAPACITOR (ORIGINALLY KNOWN AS CONDENSER) IS A
PASSIVE TWO-TERMINAL ELECTRICAL COMPONENT USED
TO STORE ENERGY ELECTROSTATICALLY IN AN ELECTRIC
FIELD. THE FORMS OF PRACTICAL CAPACITORS VARY
WIDELY, BUT ALL CONTAIN AT LEAST TWO PLATES
SEPARATED BY DIELECTRIC. A DIELECTRIC CAN BE
GLASS, AIR, PAPER, MICA, ETC. THE DIELECTRIC ACTS
T O I N C R E A S E T H E C A P A C I T O R ’ S C H A R G E C A P A C I T Y .
CAPACITORS ARE WIDELY USED AS PARTS OF
ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS IN MANY COMMON ELECTRICAL
WORKING PRINCIPAL OF THE CIRCUIT
This is a simple inverter circuit based on 555 timer IC.
Here timer IC wired as an astable multivibrator mode.
The diode IN4007 is used to get 50% duty cycle for the
pulses from 555.
The output pulse from 555 astable multivibrator is
fed to the base of power transistor 2N5192. The
2N5192 transistor used as switch.
Transformer step up the 12V to 220V, thus we got
50Hz, 220V AC supply at the output of transformer
Use a 12V battery along with a battery charger circuit
to power this DC to AC inverter.
After designing our simple DC to AC inverter using 555 timer circuit we have
observed that the converter is converting the 12v DC supply to AC through proper
circuit and then by using 9v to 220v center trapped transformer we are increasing
the voltage and thus we can glow a led for a certain time period.
AC can’t be stored for future use whereas DC can be stored in battery & it can
be converted back to AC by using power inverters when require.
Thus finally we have successfully completed our project & by observing its
results we can say that it’s a very important power cut solution for this era & also
potential material for coming years………
The inverter made by us has no doubt a very handy
& promising future prospects.
We can still make it large by simple using more
complex circuits & large batteries.
For more advancement on this domain research &
development works needs to be done.
so let us hope a world with an
uninterrupted supply of power by using INVERTER
Basic Electronics Books.
Pdf materials provided by our project guide
Prof. Anirban Ghosal.