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Analysing images

At the beginning of
this academic year,
we   start   our   AS
course,      however,
before we carried
Adobe Photoshop basics

Colour filtering

This tool can be useful for my magazine as I will have a set colour
scheme, t...
Adobe Photoshop basics

Editing and enhancing
                            Our focus on this lesson was editing and
Fonts and their usages

            Sans serif is a typeface that does not have the small features

Comparing school magazines

                              In this lesson we were asked to compare two

                                                  In this lesson, I
October 2010

    Welcome to my
Sweet Sixteen

Make your stand
        Are you tired
of always listening
   to teacher ba...
School magazine mock up
                                                  DATE LINE




                                            Before I began to edit my photograph

This tool is appropriate because it erases the areas which are unwanted on the
selected layer. This tool is sig...
First draft
This   is    the   first
draft of my school
magazine. I created
my    magazine      with
referral to my mock
Final magazine front cover

I have abided by the code of convention in comparison to my first
draft. I have undertaken ...
Agency name: Sweet Sixteen
Additional photo-shoot for TOC

Item/Model              Shot type/angle/         Macro/ Flash and        Background      ...
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beginning stages of media...


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beginning stages of media...

  1. 1. Analysing images At the beginning of this academic year, we start our AS course, however, before we carried on through the course, we needed to know the ground basis of studying Media. In the second week of media, we learnt about how to analyse images in greater depth. We learnt about the mise-en-scene. Mise-en-scene is a French terminology for ‘putting on stage’. This term refers to everything that is in the scene. We also learnt about two useful words, Denotation and connotation. Denotation refers to the literal meaning of a word or image- what the audience can visually see. Connotation refers to the association that are connected to a certain word- what the denotation represents. This image is a point of view, long shot which indicates the girl is the main focus of the image. The denotation of this image is a girl jumping in the foreground, in a natural environment, in a green area, with the blue sky and dark green trees in the background. The connotations of this image are that the girl is very cheerful. This is referenced by the body language, as she is jumping in the air. Her costume, dungarees and the primary colours in this image symbolize her age and her youthful characteristics. The clouds in the blue sky links to the girls costume and so we can relate with the character and the situation. The background, the green grass, the blue sky and the dark green trees reflect a natural and tranquil mood. This image has been manipulated by being edited with natural photo filters as the effect of this makes the photo bolder and more valuable.
  2. 2. Adobe Photoshop basics Colour filtering This tool can be useful for my magazine as I will have a set colour scheme, therefore, I can use colour filtering so my scheme colour and main photo correspond with each other. This tool makes the image much more interesting to the viewer and attracts a wider audience. The aim of this lesson was to become familiar with the basic tools in Photoshop. In this lesson we focused on colour filtering. As you can see from these two images, colour filtering adds a colour base to the image. I experimented with this tool in Adobe Photoshop. I took a sample photo of students outside St Marylebone School. I did this on Photoshop by duplicating the photo, in case I made an error and I needed a back up. I created a new layer, where I used different colour paint tool, which I selected from the colour palette. I decided to do a rainbow effect so I used the colours: red, blue, green, purple and yellow. At this point, the paint tool covered the original photo, therefore, to blend the colour with the image, I went on the layer toolbox on the right hand side, and I changed the blending mode to soft light. This meant that when we colour it in using the paint tool, the image is still visible through the colours.
  3. 3. Adobe Photoshop basics Editing and enhancing Our focus on this lesson was editing and enhancing an image on Adobe Photoshop, specifically concentrating on the cloning and eraser tool. I used this sample image of a close up of a woman’s face. As you may be able to see, her features are rough and unedited. The aim of this experiment was to remove her blemishes and soothe her face. Firstly, open this image on Photoshop and I duplicated this layer, in case I made any errors whilst editing. I zoomed into her face and I selected the spot healing tool and placed the tool over her blemishes and spots. Her blemishes and spots are replaced with the surrounded background which blends the skin together. Then, I selected filter on the top tool bar and selected gausaim blur. I had to be careful using this tool, as I didn’t want to blur the image too much, otherwise I wouldn’t be able to see her features. Therefore, I adjusted the settings and used blur 1.0. The gausaim blur blend the image to smoothen the face. The next step was to erase the eyes, lips, nose ring and earring from the new layer, so that it appears much sharper. This makes the image more realistic and professional. This was the basic layer completed. I decided to change the colour of her eyes and hair. A similar technique is used to change the colour of her eyes, like we used the colour filtering effect. A created a new layer and I selected the brush tool. I chose the colour which I wanted to use and I had to adjust the brush to the size of her pupil. Once I selected the colour and size, I clicked the brush over her eyes. However, this tends to cover her eyelashes so I erased the brush so I was able to see her eyelashes. I changed the blending mode to soft light and I adjusted the opacity to make the eyes look realistic and transparent. In order to change her hair colour I create an adjustment layer and selected on hue/saturation layer. I grouped this layer with the previous layers and selected the tick box which read colourize. I adjusted the hue and saturation bar to get the right colour.
  4. 4. Fonts and their usages Sans serif is a typeface that does not have the small features A called ‘serifs’ at the end of strokes. An example is this font called Gill Sans Mt. A sans serif font is suitable for writing essays and annotations. Sans serif fonts are good for bold headings and master-heads. This typeface can be light or heavy, depending on the emphasis of the text. A A serif font is a type of font with short, light lines or curves called serifs projecting from the top or bottom of a main stroke of a letter. Serif typefaces are used for body text because it is more legible than sans-serif fonts. Serif fonts give a professional finish to a magazine. An example of a serif font is this current font, called Cambria. Script typefaces are based upon the varied and often fluid stroke A created by handwriting. This font is called Monotype Corsiva which is an example of a script typeface. Script typefaces add elegance to the product, for example, script fonts are often used to create a sense of luxury on product packaging. However, they are unclear when the font size is small. Therefore, script typefaces are appropriate for short and big phrases or words. Grunge font refers to eroded font. For example, A Hurry Up is a grunge font as this typeface is neither serif nor a sans serif font. Users use a grunge font to advertise a particular subject. Grunge fonts can also be used depending on the theme and content of the magazine, for example, a grunge typeface would work well with a music magazine.
  5. 5. Comparing school magazines In this lesson we were asked to compare two school magazines. I chose these two magazines because both magazines contrast each other which makes it an interesting analysis. This magazine is has a formal layout which addresses that the school is posh and well established. The mood translated in this shot is tranquil and soothing. The image used on the front cover of this magazine is a point of view long camera shot. A point of view shot shows a view from the subjects’ perspective, therefore we can seduce that the subject are the parent or guardian of the pupils at this school. The colours used in this shot relate to the colours of the school logo which creates an impact as the page design complements one another. This image has been edited, and the brightness has been adjusted so the logo and the master-head stand out from the page. The effect of this is that users are attracted to the magazine. All the text has been aligned to the centre, so as the eyes flows the ‘C’ or ‘S’ shape on the page, the eyes are naturally drawn to the name and logo of the school, which is their first impression. The text ‘royal’ is bigger in size than the rest of the text, this is significant as ‘royal’ relates to the royal family, who are posh. The colours blue and red symbolise wealth, and these colours have been tinted in the image. The font used is Serif which communicates that this magazine is formal and intellectual. However, my magazine will be informal as the target audience is different. The majority of students will choose a magazine which is vibrant and informal which will grab their attention. The second magazine I chose, contrasted the first one I selected. This magazine is informal and therefore attracts youths. The shot used to capture this frame is a low angle close up camera shot. A low angle shot is a camera angle that looks up at a subject or an object. This can be used to create an impression of higher status and authority. Specifically in this shot, we can suggest that students want their voices to be heard. Therefore, this shot attracts the users because being students; we are portrayed as dominant and intimidating. The importance of using a sepia effect on the image suggests a flashback or past memory which is being reflected on. The sepia tone creates a warm, antique feeling which will attracts users because sepia or black and white images call a larger voice than colour images. In addition, the white master-head is bold and stands out. The kickers in this magazine are aimed at different audiences. For example, the kicker ‘got the holy spirit’ will aim at religious people, however, the title is unusual, therefore this addresses to a wider audience. On the other hand, the kicker, ‘music review’, will attract musicians and those who are interested din the music industry. The date line is written on the top right hand corner as this is the standard formatting in most magazines. The reason for this is that the eyes start from the right hand corner and flows down in a ‘C’ shape and stop in the bottom right hand corner. Therefore, the date is crucial as the users will want the latest issue. The overall design and layout of this front cover is flowing and appeals to a greater audience.
  6. 6. Photo-shoot In this lesson, I took multiple photos for my school magazine front cover. My original idea was to have a shot of four students jumping in the air with their GCSE results. However, I realised that if my school magazine will be portrait, this frame shot would not work. So instead I decided to stick with two students in my shot. As you can see in my first shootout, the frame is not interesting and it does not attract to a wide audience. Furthermore, if I was to place that image in a magazine, I would not be able to add an attractive layout as the focus is in the middle of the shot. Therefore I considered a shot which would appeal and of which the focus point is right aligned. I decided to have two students jumping in the, one with a book and the other with her results. Is image is more effective as I have chosen a better scenery. This shot is a high angle long shot. The denotations of this image are two students jumping in the air with books and results on the road, near a park and school. The connotation of this if you study hard then good results are waiting. Also, the book symbolises that you need access to different resources to help you gain more knowledge. I felt that this task was rather successful, however, there were some aspects which I intend to change in the future. Next time, I would consider the costume, for example if the girls wore uniform or smart clothing, the connotation would be spread stronger and the image would be bolder. However, I like the scenery as the background is walking into the distance.
  7. 7. October 2010 Welcome to my Sweet Sixteen Make your stand Are you tired of always listening to teacher babble? Well now is your chance to seek sweet revenge One step higher After passing through the summer exams, are you struggling to cope with a-level life? Want your voice to be heard? MOCK UP
  8. 8. School magazine mock up DATE LINE MASTERHEAD KICKER EXPLANTORY TEXT KICKER EXPLANTORY TEXT LEFT THIRD ALIGNED MAIN COVER LINE When I create my magazine cover, I will use one font only but I will use different sizes and formats with the font to keep the audience engaged. The master-head will be bold and will be size 41. I do not want it to be really big otherwise it will cover the main picture. However, I need to ensure that the master-head sticks out so the users know what magazine they are purchasing. The date-line will be in the top right hand side, when I did my research most magazine use the standard format, therefore, if I use it, it will make my work look professional. I will have two kickers. ‘Make your stand’ will be size 16. ‘Your’ is bold and underlined because it addresses and engages the audience. Therefore, this will attract them to read my magazine. Underneath the kicker I have written an explanatory text. I have briefly summarized what the article will be about. I have used a rhetorical question to grab the attention of the user so they purchase this magazine. This will be size 11. My second kicker is ‘one step higher’. I have used an unusual kicker to attract my target audience. I have underlined ‘one’ because I want to reassure students not to stress. The size of this kicker will be size 20 and the explanatory text will be size 11. Again, I have used a rhetorical question to address students. I have used a logical question which applies to all students, regardless of age, religion or sex. My main cover line will be size 20 because it needs to stand out. I have highlighted ‘your’ to communicate to students so I can make the text believable. The main picture, in the background, will be black and white. However, the main focus is on the two students in the foreground. Therefore, I will make them stand out by having colour on the focus point. I have chosen Lucida Console as my main font because it is an interesting typeface which not many people would use, therefore this will make my magazine unique. I have used code of convention such as the left alignment and the classical ‘C’ shape eye flow technique. This will make my magazine successful and appealing to my target audience.
  9. 9. Photoshop Before I began to edit my photograph on Photoshop, I duplicated the layer, so I had a back-up in case I made any errors. By having a back-up, this saves me time from redoing all the edits on the photo, therefore, this saves time and work. I saved my work regularly, to avoid having to waste time on lost work. I changed the page orientation to A4, as this will be the size of my magazine, as it is easy to carry around and the size will be suitable for the users. I started editing my duplicate layer by using the brush tool. This tool is used to paint on the photo which has been selected, on the chosen layer. This tool can be used to fill in a layer with a colour chosen from the palette or it can be used to paint brush strokes with different colours which have to select individually from the paint palette. I used the paint palette to select what I colour I wanted to use, I clicked on set foreground colour and I selected white. I then had to choose to select which type of paint brush I wanted to use- each brush had a different technique. As I wanted a normal brush, I chose to use the blending brush. And I changed the settings so I had a big brush so the strokes were big as this was a quick method. I decided to use this tool instead of the paint bucket because I was able to control where the white paint went on the image. Therefore, I had control over the image. This tool is effective because there are different dynamics which can be applied and for different purposes, therefore it is convenient for everyone, and it can be used for any purpose. In the bottom right hand corner, there is a box where you can edit the layers. I selected on the layer which I was currently using and I changed the blending modes to see a preview of how my photo would look like with those effects. I decided to use saturation. This turned my image from colour to black and white. However, I changed the opacity so that the photo wasn’t fully black and white, as I wanted a hint of colour to attract my target audience. I used the eraser tool to erase the two girls jumping in the foreground. I chose to do this effect because it would bring more focus to the foreground which will appeal to the audience and it will bring emphasis to my magazine.
  10. 10. Photoshop This tool is appropriate because it erases the areas which are unwanted on the selected layer. This tool is significant and I used it because I could change the size of the eraser and I could select different dynamics. For this particular image, I used the blending eraser because I wanted the colour to blend into the background rather than using the block eraser which will mark a line around the areas I have erased. Therefore, this tool creates an impact on my production, because it makes my magazine cover look more professional and appealing for my target audience. I have finished editing my background image, so the next stage was to add the text for my magazine. The text indicates and represents the genre and content of the magazine. These are illustrated by the code of conventions, such as the master head, kickers and explanatory text. The add text to my front cover of my magazine, I used the horizontal type tool. I created a new layer, as if I wanted to move the text around, I wouldn’t move the previous layer as well. I clicked on where I wanted the text to be positioned and I started to type my master head- the name of my magazine. I highlighted the text so I could change the formatting of the text. This toolbar includes all the font facilities I need. This is useful as I will remember to check all these settings before I carry on creating my magazine front cover. I changed the font to Lucida Console as shown in my mock up which I created to plan my magazine. I changed the font size and I made the typeface bold so it was bolder. This made it easier to read and understand. I used the eyedropper tool to select the shade of pink I wanted. This tool is significant as it allows the user to select a particular colour which exists on the image chosen. I used this tool by highlighting the text and using the eyedropper tool to find the colour I wanted from my background layer. I selected the shade of pink I wanted from the pink folder shown in the girls’ hand. I decided to use this tool because I wanted the colours to match; therefore the master head colour complements the pink folder.
  11. 11. First draft This is the first draft of my school magazine. I created my magazine with referral to my mock up plan. I got feedback from my peers to see what I could improve to make my school magazine more appealing and professional. I received both positive and negative criticism. The feedback I received from my test buddy was significant as it helped me make my magazine more efficient. And it also helped me acknowledge was my target audience are attracted by, so I can appeal to my target audience. Improvements: 1. Avoid the text covering the focal point in the background. 2. Add hint of colour to trees to make the photograph realistic 3. Make kicker size bigger than explanatory text 4. Make the text clearer and more visible 5. Limit the colour usage Positives: 1. The focal point of the image is appealing 2. There is good eye flow 3. Greyscale effect is interesting and attracts a wide audience 4. Photograph relates to master-head, which reflects genre
  12. 12. Final magazine front cover I have abided by the code of convention in comparison to my first draft. I have undertaken the criticism given by my test buddy and I have changed my magazine according to what my target audience may prefer. My texts are aligned on the left margin and I have followed the eye flow ‘C’ shape to make it easier for users to follow. I have limited the colours to pink and yellow. I have also added a date and issue number to make my magazine front cover look more professional. I rearranged the text so the text did not cover the image, I also changed the size of the textboxes, to make it appropriate for a school magazine.
  13. 13. Agency name: Sweet Sixteen Additional photo-shoot for TOC Shoot Date: 11/10/10 Item/Model Shot Macro/ Flash and Background Positioning on front Details of type/angle/ Lighting cover/TOC editing distance Hattie Upton-Dance, Low angle, long Outdoors, therefore The location will be Table of content feature I will add an effect Debbie Onyemelukwe, shot there will be outside of the school article for ‘one step higher’ to the photograph by Tibyaan Nassir, Penny natural lighting. gates, which will read as a-levels is an important changing the Nakan, Jessica Murphy However, if outdoors ‘St Marylebone School’ and rapid step from lower blending mode. is not possible or on the front of the school, therefore students if the weather is school building. A meet new people and bad, I will do my group of students will socialising is a skill which photo-shoot inside be socialising. No has to be improved in order to school at the essential props are learn for coming years and reception area. I needed; however, the stages in life. Therefore, will then use flash costume must be this photo-shoot is relevant to add to give the appropriate and for this article which will be same effect. relevant for school position in the left column. life. Hattie Upton-Dance, Median, over the I will not be using The location will be Table of content feature Photograph will be Tibyaan Nassir shoulder shot artificial lighting inside of school, in article about ‘one step faded using Gaussian for this photograph. the corridors where higher’ which is an article blur, and I will use Lighting will come there are tables and which gives advice for the erase tool to from the window, lockers. This sets a students who have started a- add focal effect on natural sunlight. If school atmosphere. Two levels. Position article on the student flash is necessary, students will be sat left column. studying. Add a calm ensure camera is at at a table studying. mood to the least 1.5 metres Props will include photograph using away from shot, to water bottle, books, colour effect. avoid over exposure paper, glasses and stationery. Camera shot will be taken from shoulder of one of the students. There will be no eye contact with the camera, to make the shot seem realistic.
  14. 14. Additional photo-shoot for TOC Item/Model Shot type/angle/ Macro/ Flash and Background Positioning on Details of distance Lighting front cover/TOC editing Tibyaan Nassir, High angle, long Indoors, flash will The location will be Table of content I will add colour Debbie Onyemelukwe, shot be necessary, indoors. Students feature article for effect to this Penny Nakan however I will need will stand in a ‘make your stand’. Photoshop to enhance to ensure camera is circle and they will Positioned on left the image. at least 1.5 metres be holding hands and column. away from shot, to stretching their avoid over exposure hand in the circle. The background will be simple. A high angle shot will be taken so the floor will only by visible. No props are needed . Tibyaan Nassir Point of view, long Indoors therefore, I Location will be in Table of content, Enhance the image so shot will need flash, the school image positioned on attention is drawn however I need to atmosphere, in the the right alignment on the vibrant ensure the camera is building. Preferably of the page. colour. Adjust 1.5 metres away from leaning against a brightness and the shot to prevent right painted wall shadows. over exposure with furniture if possible. Student will stand with a smile and holding her thumbs up. Possible props could included glasses if possible otherwise not essential. Hattie Upton-Dance High angle shot Indoors, in a In a classroom, with Photo elated to Edited in Photoshop, classroom with desks, chairs, article ‘make your specific editing not natural sunlight whiteboard etc, stand’. Positioned specified yet. coming from the student mimicking on the left column, windows teachers. Student with photo in to the will be teaching and right. sitting at desk. Props include glasses and smart clothing.