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Introducing HTML


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Short introduction into basic HTML tags.

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Introducing HTML

  1. 1. ICT11Introducing HTML Rita Ester
  2. 2. What is HTML? Hypertext Markup Language Specifies the structure of a web page: Contents How the page is displayed Platform independent Can be interpreted by any computer regardless of the hardware or operating system.18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 2
  3. 3. How to find HTML?  Open IE  Open a web page e.g. http://www.biblegateway. com/  Use the command View  Source  Notepad opens with the HTML code of the web page18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 3
  4. 4. Tags Example: Words/ characters in angled brackets <p> Opening Tag This is a paragraph. <p> </p> Closing Tag </p> Enclose what has to be formatted18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 4
  5. 5. Structure of an HTML Document <html> <head> </head> <body> </body> </html>18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 5
  6. 6. Document Tags <html> <head> <title> Document Title </title> </head> <body> Content of the page </body> </html>18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 6
  7. 7. Demo 1: Your First Web Page <html> <head> <title>My First Home Page</title> </head> <body> <!--Here is the text for display --> Hi folks, my name is Chris Brown. </body> </html>18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 7
  8. 8. Tags and Attributes  Attributes are added to tags  Example <body bgcolor = “red” text = “#0000FF”> This shows blue text on red background </body>18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 8
  9. 9. Demo 2: Change Page Colours <html> <head> <title>My First Home Page</title> </head> <body bgcolor = “yellow” text = “#000033 “> <!--text dark blue on yellow background --> Hi folks, my name is Chris Brown. </body> </html>18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 9
  10. 10. Tags for Header Formatting <h1> Heading 1 </h1> ... Smaller font <h6> Heading 6 </h6>  Define the font size  Define space above and below  Example: <h1> My Vacation to Mexico </h1> Browser display: My Vacation to Mexico18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 10
  11. 11. Demo 3: Use Heading Tags <html> <head> <title>My Vacation Page</title> </head> <body> <h1> My Vacation to Mexico </h1> </body> </html>18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 11
  12. 12. Tags for Paragraph Formatting  Paragraph Tag <p>  <p> This is a paragraph </p>  Text of the paragraph wraps  After the paragraph: blank line  Break Tag <br>  Line Break, like ENTER key  No closing tag18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 12
  13. 13. Paragraph Alignment  Default: left aligned  Attribute added to the paragraph tag <p align="center"> This is a centered paragraph </p> <p align="right"> This is a right aligned paragraph </p>18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 13
  14. 14. Demo 4: Paragraph Tags <html> <head> <title>My Vacation Page</title> </head> <body> <h1> My Vacation to Mexico </h1> <p> Last summer I travelled to Mexico. </p> <br> </body> </html>18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 14
  15. 15. Change Fonts: An Example <p> <font face="arial, helvetica, tahoma" size = "4" color="red"> This paragraph is shown in Arial, size 4, color red </font> </p>18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 15
  16. 16. Tag for Font Setting <font face="face1[,face2][,face3]" size="n | +n | -n" color="color value"> text to be displayed </font> Default Font: Times New Roman, size 3 (point 12) Sizes from 1..718/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 16
  17. 17. More Tags for Text Formatting Physical Logical Style Meaning Style <b> ... </b> <strong>...</strong> bold <i> ... </i> <em> ...</em> italic Examples <strong> These words are bold </strong> <i> These words are italic </i> Use logical styles rather than physical18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 17
  18. 18. Demo 5: Text Formatting <body> <h1> My Vacation to Mexico </h1> <p> <font face = “Verdana”> Last summer I travelled to <strong>Mexico</strong>. </font> </p> <br> </body>18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 18
  19. 19. Unordered Lists with HTML  Example ∙ Photos ∙ Videos  In HTML <ul> <li>Photos</li> <li>Videos</li> ... </ul>18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 19
  20. 20. Ordered Lists with HTML Example 1. Cut out the shapes 2. Assemble the shapes In HTML <ol> <li>Cut out the shapes</li> <li>Assemble the shapes</li> ... </ol>18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 20
  21. 21. Tables in HTML: Example <table> <tr> <td> Sugar </td> <td> Salt </td>Sugar Salt Peppper <td> Pepper </td> </tr>Sucre Sel Poivre <tr> <td> Sucre </td> <td> Sel </td> <td> Poivre </td> </tr> </table> 18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 21
  22. 22. Table Tags <table>...</table> for the entire table <tr>...</tr> for a row <td>...</td> for the cells, or columns, in each row table data tags18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 22
  23. 23. Tables for Page Layout To design the layout structure of a web page Table without the borders showing Text stays inside it„s column borders Example18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 23
  24. 24. HTML Code of the Example <table border="1" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%" height="550"> <tr> <td valign="top" colspan="2" height="75"> <!--Here goes the page title-> <h1> Title </h1> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" width="10%"> <!--This is the navigation pane, the buttons--> <b> Buttons </b> </td> <td valign="top" width="90%"> <!--This is content--> <b> Here goes the content</b> </td> </tr> </table>18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 24
  25. 25. Hyperlinks Example: GOOGLE to any other Web page Locally - in the web site, the page belongs to Globally - on the entire Web to text on the same page to other documents to e-mail18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 25
  26. 26. Links to Global Web Pages Example <a href=“”> GOOGLE GOOGLE </a> In general <a href="URL"> name of the link </a>18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 26
  27. 27. Links to Local Web Pages Pages in the same folder Link to the homepage <a href="index.html"> index.html Home lastpage.html </a> Link to the last page <a href="lastpage.html"> Go to last page </a>18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 27
  28. 28. Links to Email Example <a href=“"> Email to your teacher </a> In general <a href="mailto:email@address"> link name </a>18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 28
  29. 29. Link to an Anchor Point: Example For more information<a href=“#tips”> jump to the Useful Tips Section </a> …………………………………… …………………………………… …………………………………… …………………………………… …………………………<a name=“tips”> Useful Tips </a> Always use closing tags.18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 29
  30. 30. Links to Text on the Same Page  Create the anchor point (target, bookmark) on the same page <a name=“target_name"> target text </a>  Link to the anchor point <a href="#target_name"> name of the link </a>18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 30
  31. 31. Demo 6: Hyperlinks <p> <font face = “Helvetica”> Last summer I travelled to <a href = ""> Mexico </a>. </font> </p> <a href = ""> Email to Webmaster </a>18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 31
  32. 32. Tags for Graphics Horizontal Rule <hr align= "left| center| right" size="n" width= "n | n%" color="color value" > Img Tag18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 32
  33. 33. Adding Images: Examples Example 1 <img src="homer.gif"> Example 2 <img src= "images/switzerland.jpg”> alt= "switzerland" border="2" align= "right">18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 33
  34. 34. The img Tag<img src = "file_path/file_name" alt = "alternative text" border = "n" align = "left|right| top| bottom| center|middle" height = "n" width = "n" >18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 34
  35. 35. Demo 7: Graphics <p> <font face = “Helvetica”> Last summer I travelled to <a href = ""> Mexico </a>. <img src="images/mexicomap.gif" alt=“Mexico Map" align="top"> <hr> </font> </p>18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 35
  36. 36. Graphics and Copyrights  Copyright  No copyright  Graphics on Web  Online freeware pages  Clips from MS  Postcards and other  Your own digital prints photos  Logos18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 36
  37. 37. Sources  Chapter 3 in:  Boulton, J. HTML Tutorial. Presley, Bruce, Beth Feb. 10, 2005 Brown, and Elaine Malfas: A Guide to Web Authoring < using Microsoft Frontpage boulton/webdesign/tutorials 2000. Pennington: /HTML/default.htm> Lawrenceville Press, 2001.  W3Schools Online Web  Reference HTML Tutorials. Mar. 14, 2006 Cheatsheet. Webmonkey. < Feb. 08, 2005 /html/default.asp > <http://webmonkey.wired.c om/webmonkey/reference/h tml_cheatsheet/>18/04/2012 ©WCCS, ICT11: Introducing HTML 37