How to make friends with False Friends


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How to make friends with False Friends

  1. 1. Who are “False friends”andhow to make friends with them?<br />Konov Mark,<br />a pupil of the 4th form,<br />lyceum 4, Ryazan<br />Korotkova<br />Irina Ivanovna,<br />an English teacher,<br />doctor of science<br /><br />
  2. 2. The main aim of my project:<br />To study the phenomenon of “False friends” by the example of Russian and English, to find out its sources and to decide how to avoid mistakes dealing with them.<br /><br />
  3. 3. The hypothesis:<br />?<br />Though “False friends” are a very difficult phenomenon and can be translated incorrectly, there are some special features, which can help us to recognize them.<br /><br />
  4. 4. The goals of my project:<br />1. To find and select the necessary information on my topic;<br />2. To analyze and systematize this information;<br />3. To test if it is possible to find out the difference between unfamiliar “False Friends” and “True Friends”;<br /><br />
  5. 5. The goals of my project:<br />4. To make conclusions;<br />5. According to the conclusions to decide how we can avoid mistakes.<br /><br />
  6. 6. Misleading words<br /> (false friends – (Fr. Faux amis), interlinguistic homonyms) are words from different languages, similar or almost similar in spelling and pronunciation, but completely different in meaning. The term was created in 1928 by <br /> M. Koessler.<br /><br />
  7. 7. Misleading words<br />Magazine<br /><br />
  8. 8. КОМПОЗИТОР<br />The first type:<br /> These are homonyms which have absolutely different meanings. They can be confused only because of their similar pronunciation.<br />Compositor<br />наборщик<br /><br />
  9. 9. АНГИНА<br />The second type:<br /> These are homonyms which have related meanings, or meanings belonging to one sphere of use.<br />Angina<br />(quinsy)<br />стенокардия<br /><br />
  10. 10. The third type:<br /> Some scientists (linguists) call polysemantic words (multiple-meaning words) “False friends” as they also cause a lot of mistakes in translation.<br />Monitor<br />монитор<br />староста класса<br /><br />
  11. 11. A special case of “Misleading words”:<br />Pseudo-international words are interlinguistic homonyms which are confused with international words (because of their spelling or pronunciation).<br />Occupation<br />род занятий, профессия<br />оккупация<br />оккупация (invasion)<br /><br />
  12. 12. Why do “False friends” appear?<br />There are several reasons:<br /><br />
  13. 13. 1. Coincidence:similar forms of words are purely accidental<br />Replica – точная копия (а не реплика - retort)<br />Crest – гребень, грива или шлем (а не крест – cross)<br />More – более (а не море – sea)<br /><br />
  14. 14. 2. Independentdevelopment of languages:<br />The similarity of words is caused by a common word existing in the ancestor language of the two. There are no such cases among Russian – English misleading words as they have different ancestor languages.<br />ARTISTA<br />(from It.)<br />мастер своего<br />дела<br />(художник)<br />ARTIST<br />АРТИСТ<br /><br />
  15. 15. 3. Some words change their meaning after borrowing:<br />The word «док» was borrowed to name dockage facility (помещение для ремонта кораблей), though in English it means the whole wharf.<br />Poem (стихотворение) and поэма;<br />Sympathy (сочувствие) and симпатия.<br /><br />
  16. 16. 4. Parallel borrowing:<br />Two different languages can borrow the same words from one language but in different meanings. In case of Russian – English “False friends” the ancestor language is mainly Latin.<br />DARE<br />Latin word<br />(to given)<br />DATUS<br />(given)<br />DATUM<br />(a thing given)<br />ДАТА<br />(date)<br />DATA<br />(данные)<br /><br />
  17. 17. My experiment:<br /><ul><li>revolution = революция
  18. 18. spectacles = спектакли
  19. 19. politics = политика
  20. 20. replica = реплика
  21. 21. data = дата
  22. 22. concentration = концентрация
  23. 23. economics = экономика
  24. 24. more = море
  25. 25. cabin = кабина
  26. 26. crest = крест
  27. 27. magazine = магазин
  28. 28. music = музыка
  29. 29. occupation = оккупация
  30. 30. list = лист
  31. 31. fabric = фабрика.</li></ul>To prove the difficulty of misleading words and to find probable special features of “False Friends” I offered my classmates to test their intuition and say whether these words have similar meanings:<br /><br />
  32. 32. Resultsof myexperiment.<br /><br />
  33. 33. Conclusions:<br />1. Every translator (interpreter) has “friends” and “enemies” in English. These are words which can help to translate or mislead.<br />2. False friends are words from different languages, similar or almost similar in spelling and pronunciation, but completely different in meaning.<br />3. False friends can be of different types (according to the most frequent mistakes).<br /><br />
  34. 34. Conclusions:<br />4. Sometimes even the whole idioms may be misleading.<br />5. False friends appear because of: coincidence, independent development of related languages, change of meaning after borrowing or parallel borrowing.<br />6. There are no bright signs which can help to tell the difference, between “true” and “False friends” of a translator. But there is some advice how to make it easier.<br /><br />
  35. 35. Some advice:<br /><ul><li>Better safe than sorry: don’t hurry to make a decision about the translation of a word if it resembles you a Russian one;
  36. 36. Take into account the word’s form (English adjective can’t correspond to a Russian noun: electric ≠ электрик);
  37. 37. Think of possible words which contain the same root and can show you the true meaning of the word under question (multiplication ≠ мультипликация, multiple = множественный -> multiplication = умножение);
  38. 38. If you are not sure, consult a dictionary. This will guarantee you the correctness of your translation.</li></ul><br />
  39. 39. Bibliographic list:<br /><ul><li>Акуленко В. “О "ложных друзьях переводчика", М., 1969г
  40. 40. А к у л е н к о В. В., “Существует ли интернациональная лексика? "Вопросы языкознания", 1961, № 3
  41. 41. Англо-руссский словарь ложных друзей переводчика
  42. 42. Фасмер Макс Этимологический словарь русского языка (онлайн версия)
  43. 43. Longman Dictionary of contemporary English on-line
  44. 44. Online Etimology Dictionary</li></ul><br />