SlideShare a Scribd company logo

Pleural effusion.pptx cme march

Pleural effusion may be defined figuratively as the juice, oozing from the leaky lingerie of the lung. However the text book definition is the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space due to disturbances in the forces that keep the pleural fluid economy in equilibrium...

1 of 72
Download to read offline
PLEURAL EFFUSION
THE JUICE, OOZING FROM THE LEAKING
LINGERIE OF LUNGS
DR.RISHIKESAN K.V MD,DNB,
SPECIALIST PHYSICIAN,
VENNIYIL MEDICAL CENTRE,
SHARJAH
DEFINITION
•Pleural effusion is an abnormal collection
of fluid in the pleural space resulting from
excess fluid production or decreased absorption
or both.
•It is the most common manifestation of pleural
disease.
•Etiologies range from cardiopulmonary
disorders to symptomatic inflammatory or
malignant diseases.
BASICS
The pleural space is bordered
by the parietal and visceral
pleurae.
PARIETAL PLEURA - covers the
inner surface of the thoracic
cavity, including the
mediastinum, diaphragm, and
ribs.
VISCERAL PLEURA - envelops all
lung surfaces, including the
inter lobar fissures.
BASIC ANATOMY
• Parietal Pleura Covers the
inner surface of chest wall
• Blood supply: intercostal
arteries
• Lymphatics drain the pleural
space
• Pain fibers are present from
intercostal nerves
• Mesothelial cells are
immunoreactive
• 5 to 15 mL fluid present in
space
• Normally high fluid flux 1Liter
/day
• Venous drainage : the superior
vena cava
• Visceral Pleura
Envelops entire surface of
both lungs
• The two pleural cavities
are separate
• Composed of
mesothelial cells
• Artery Supply: bronchial
arteries
• Lymphatics drain the
pulmonary parenchyma
• No nerve fibers
• The venous drainage is
pulmonary vein
Both linings subject to disease and disorders
PLEURA : VISCERAL AND PARIETAL
BASICS ……
The pleural space plays an important role in respiration
by coupling the movement of the chest wall with that of
the lungs in 2 ways.
First, a relative vacuum in the space keeps the
visceral and parietal pleurae in close proximity.
Second, the small volume of pleural fluid, which has
been calculated at 0.13 mL/kg of body weight under
normal circumstances, serves as a lubricant to
facilitate movement of the pleural surfaces against each
other in the course of respirations

More Related Content

What's hot

What's hot (20)

Pleural effusion
Pleural effusionPleural effusion
Pleural effusion
 
Dyspnea
DyspneaDyspnea
Dyspnea
 
Dyspnea
DyspneaDyspnea
Dyspnea
 
PLEURISY BY TARIQ GILL
PLEURISY BY TARIQ GILLPLEURISY BY TARIQ GILL
PLEURISY BY TARIQ GILL
 
Dyspnea
DyspneaDyspnea
Dyspnea
 
Pulmonary edema
Pulmonary edemaPulmonary edema
Pulmonary edema
 
Pleural effusion
Pleural effusionPleural effusion
Pleural effusion
 
pulmonary embolism
pulmonary embolismpulmonary embolism
pulmonary embolism
 
Pulmonary Embolism
Pulmonary EmbolismPulmonary Embolism
Pulmonary Embolism
 
Respiratory failure
Respiratory failureRespiratory failure
Respiratory failure
 
10.Pneumothorax
10.Pneumothorax10.Pneumothorax
10.Pneumothorax
 
Pneumothorax
PneumothoraxPneumothorax
Pneumothorax
 
Pericardial effusion
Pericardial effusionPericardial effusion
Pericardial effusion
 
Pleural empyema dr.tinku joseph
Pleural empyema  dr.tinku josephPleural empyema  dr.tinku joseph
Pleural empyema dr.tinku joseph
 
Pulmonary embolism ppt
Pulmonary embolism pptPulmonary embolism ppt
Pulmonary embolism ppt
 
Pulmonary embolism
Pulmonary embolismPulmonary embolism
Pulmonary embolism
 
Pleural effusion
Pleural effusionPleural effusion
Pleural effusion
 
Acute pulmonary edema
Acute pulmonary edema Acute pulmonary edema
Acute pulmonary edema
 
Approaches to pleural effusion
Approaches to pleural effusionApproaches to pleural effusion
Approaches to pleural effusion
 
Cor pulmonale
Cor pulmonaleCor pulmonale
Cor pulmonale
 

Viewers also liked (6)

Empiema
Empiema Empiema
Empiema
 
PLEURA EFFUSION
PLEURA EFFUSIONPLEURA EFFUSION
PLEURA EFFUSION
 
La Pleura
La PleuraLa Pleura
La Pleura
 
56 mediastinum
56 mediastinum56 mediastinum
56 mediastinum
 
Pneumomediastinum
PneumomediastinumPneumomediastinum
Pneumomediastinum
 
Thoracic cavity & mediastinum
Thoracic cavity & mediastinumThoracic cavity & mediastinum
Thoracic cavity & mediastinum
 

Similar to Pleural effusion.pptx cme march

Similar to Pleural effusion.pptx cme march (20)

Pleural Effusion lecture
Pleural Effusion lecturePleural Effusion lecture
Pleural Effusion lecture
 
Pleuresy
PleuresyPleuresy
Pleuresy
 
L5 pleural effusion
L5 pleural effusionL5 pleural effusion
L5 pleural effusion
 
Pleural diseases
Pleural diseasesPleural diseases
Pleural diseases
 
Pleural effusion
Pleural effusionPleural effusion
Pleural effusion
 
Pleural Effusion for Undergraduates
Pleural Effusion for UndergraduatesPleural Effusion for Undergraduates
Pleural Effusion for Undergraduates
 
Pleural effusion
Pleural effusionPleural effusion
Pleural effusion
 
LCP Pleural Effusion Group Report March 12 2014
LCP Pleural Effusion Group Report March 12 2014LCP Pleural Effusion Group Report March 12 2014
LCP Pleural Effusion Group Report March 12 2014
 
PLEURAL EFFUSION.pptx
PLEURAL EFFUSION.pptxPLEURAL EFFUSION.pptx
PLEURAL EFFUSION.pptx
 
Pleural effusion
Pleural effusion Pleural effusion
Pleural effusion
 
Pleural effusion ppt
Pleural effusion pptPleural effusion ppt
Pleural effusion ppt
 
Pleural Diseases..pptx
Pleural Diseases..pptxPleural Diseases..pptx
Pleural Diseases..pptx
 
6.Pleural Effusions
6.Pleural Effusions6.Pleural Effusions
6.Pleural Effusions
 
Approach to a case of pleural effusion
Approach to a case of pleural effusionApproach to a case of pleural effusion
Approach to a case of pleural effusion
 
Pleural effusion (dr. mahesh)
Pleural effusion (dr. mahesh)Pleural effusion (dr. mahesh)
Pleural effusion (dr. mahesh)
 
Pleural effusion & nursing care
Pleural effusion & nursing carePleural effusion & nursing care
Pleural effusion & nursing care
 
PLEURAL EFFUSION BY Mr. AKRAM KHAN
PLEURAL EFFUSION BY Mr. AKRAM KHANPLEURAL EFFUSION BY Mr. AKRAM KHAN
PLEURAL EFFUSION BY Mr. AKRAM KHAN
 
Pleural effusion - Etiopathogenesis, Clinical features, Advances in Management
Pleural effusion - Etiopathogenesis, Clinical features, Advances in ManagementPleural effusion - Etiopathogenesis, Clinical features, Advances in Management
Pleural effusion - Etiopathogenesis, Clinical features, Advances in Management
 
Pleural effusion
Pleural effusionPleural effusion
Pleural effusion
 
Pleural Effusion
Pleural EffusionPleural Effusion
Pleural Effusion
 

More from RISHIKESAN K V

Peptic ulcer and gastritis
Peptic ulcer and gastritisPeptic ulcer and gastritis
Peptic ulcer and gastritisRISHIKESAN K V
 
The illusive irritable illness of the intestine
The illusive irritable illness of the intestineThe illusive irritable illness of the intestine
The illusive irritable illness of the intestineRISHIKESAN K V
 
What to do after 3x pm
What to do after 3x pmWhat to do after 3x pm
What to do after 3x pmRISHIKESAN K V
 
TAMING THE PC YES CANINE
TAMING THE PC YES CANINETAMING THE PC YES CANINE
TAMING THE PC YES CANINERISHIKESAN K V
 
Systemic vasculitis 2016 shj
Systemic vasculitis 2016 shjSystemic vasculitis 2016 shj
Systemic vasculitis 2016 shjRISHIKESAN K V
 
Joint pain DR.RISHIKESAN K.V
Joint pain DR.RISHIKESAN K.VJoint pain DR.RISHIKESAN K.V
Joint pain DR.RISHIKESAN K.VRISHIKESAN K V
 
Antiviral therapy nov.2015
Antiviral therapy nov.2015Antiviral therapy nov.2015
Antiviral therapy nov.2015RISHIKESAN K V
 
The global epidemic and the d lightful vitamin
The global epidemic and the d lightful vitaminThe global epidemic and the d lightful vitamin
The global epidemic and the d lightful vitaminRISHIKESAN K V
 
Hypertensive heart disease
Hypertensive heart diseaseHypertensive heart disease
Hypertensive heart diseaseRISHIKESAN K V
 
Acute pressure syndromes
Acute pressure syndromesAcute pressure syndromes
Acute pressure syndromesRISHIKESAN K V
 
The Wxyz Of Cardiodiab Risk
The  Wxyz Of Cardiodiab RiskThe  Wxyz Of Cardiodiab Risk
The Wxyz Of Cardiodiab RiskRISHIKESAN K V
 

More from RISHIKESAN K V (16)

GDM REVISIT
GDM REVISITGDM REVISIT
GDM REVISIT
 
Peptic ulcer and gastritis
Peptic ulcer and gastritisPeptic ulcer and gastritis
Peptic ulcer and gastritis
 
The illusive irritable illness of the intestine
The illusive irritable illness of the intestineThe illusive irritable illness of the intestine
The illusive irritable illness of the intestine
 
What to do after 3x pm
What to do after 3x pmWhat to do after 3x pm
What to do after 3x pm
 
Approach to dyspnoea
Approach to dyspnoeaApproach to dyspnoea
Approach to dyspnoea
 
TAMING THE PC YES CANINE
TAMING THE PC YES CANINETAMING THE PC YES CANINE
TAMING THE PC YES CANINE
 
Systemic vasculitis 2016 shj
Systemic vasculitis 2016 shjSystemic vasculitis 2016 shj
Systemic vasculitis 2016 shj
 
Joint pain DR.RISHIKESAN K.V
Joint pain DR.RISHIKESAN K.VJoint pain DR.RISHIKESAN K.V
Joint pain DR.RISHIKESAN K.V
 
Antiviral therapy nov.2015
Antiviral therapy nov.2015Antiviral therapy nov.2015
Antiviral therapy nov.2015
 
NIDM Vs NIDDM
NIDM Vs NIDDMNIDM Vs NIDDM
NIDM Vs NIDDM
 
The global epidemic and the d lightful vitamin
The global epidemic and the d lightful vitaminThe global epidemic and the d lightful vitamin
The global epidemic and the d lightful vitamin
 
Hypertensive heart disease
Hypertensive heart diseaseHypertensive heart disease
Hypertensive heart disease
 
Acute pressure syndromes
Acute pressure syndromesAcute pressure syndromes
Acute pressure syndromes
 
The Wxyz Of Cardiodiab Risk
The  Wxyz Of Cardiodiab RiskThe  Wxyz Of Cardiodiab Risk
The Wxyz Of Cardiodiab Risk
 
Kiss
KissKiss
Kiss
 
GESTATIONAL DIABETES
GESTATIONAL DIABETESGESTATIONAL DIABETES
GESTATIONAL DIABETES
 

Recently uploaded

Operation Theatre LED Surgical Light MI Nova
Operation Theatre LED Surgical Light MI NovaOperation Theatre LED Surgical Light MI Nova
Operation Theatre LED Surgical Light MI NovaMorbros India
 
Top Antifungal Creams in India - Hariet Healthcare
Top Antifungal Creams in India - Hariet HealthcareTop Antifungal Creams in India - Hariet Healthcare
Top Antifungal Creams in India - Hariet Healthcaredehawebhopers
 
Respiratory Emergencies and CPR -FON.pptx
Respiratory Emergencies and CPR -FON.pptxRespiratory Emergencies and CPR -FON.pptx
Respiratory Emergencies and CPR -FON.pptxdhivbhar91
 
HEALTH, ILLNESS, DISEASE, AND WELLNESS
HEALTH,  ILLNESS, DISEASE,  AND WELLNESSHEALTH,  ILLNESS, DISEASE,  AND WELLNESS
HEALTH, ILLNESS, DISEASE, AND WELLNESSRommel Luis III Israel
 
2023 Kangen Water Presentation By Edwin Mamaril
2023 Kangen Water Presentation By Edwin Mamaril2023 Kangen Water Presentation By Edwin Mamaril
2023 Kangen Water Presentation By Edwin MamarilEdwin Mamaril
 
'Quick Wellness,' your shortcut to a healthier, happier you!
'Quick Wellness,' your shortcut to a healthier, happier you!'Quick Wellness,' your shortcut to a healthier, happier you!
'Quick Wellness,' your shortcut to a healthier, happier you!akashdashjsr99
 
Air Pollution.pptx
Air Pollution.pptxAir Pollution.pptx
Air Pollution.pptxleptopmarket
 
Breast cancer awareness by Dr. Dodul Mondal
Breast cancer awareness by Dr. Dodul MondalBreast cancer awareness by Dr. Dodul Mondal
Breast cancer awareness by Dr. Dodul MondalDr Dodul Mondal
 
CRO Audit & Monitoring Quality Perspectives.pdf
CRO Audit & Monitoring Quality Perspectives.pdfCRO Audit & Monitoring Quality Perspectives.pdf
CRO Audit & Monitoring Quality Perspectives.pdfDr Prashant Bodhe
 
RED EYE Public health Publication for IPC
RED EYE Public health Publication for IPCRED EYE Public health Publication for IPC
RED EYE Public health Publication for IPCStephenKigotho
 
How to become more attractive in 2 weeks
How to become more attractive in 2 weeksHow to become more attractive in 2 weeks
How to become more attractive in 2 weeksrachidrachido450
 
Foot Care Cream For Cracks & Dryness Feet
Foot Care Cream For Cracks & Dryness FeetFoot Care Cream For Cracks & Dryness Feet
Foot Care Cream For Cracks & Dryness FeetUniqaya Lifestyle
 
Cyberattacks in Healthcare Outpaced Other Industries.pdf
Cyberattacks in Healthcare Outpaced Other Industries.pdfCyberattacks in Healthcare Outpaced Other Industries.pdf
Cyberattacks in Healthcare Outpaced Other Industries.pdfJasper Colin
 
NAA NORLEY BROCHURE.pdf
NAA NORLEY BROCHURE.pdfNAA NORLEY BROCHURE.pdf
NAA NORLEY BROCHURE.pdfKweku Zurek
 
Postgraduate Diploma in Hospital Management and Operational Excellence - Broc...
Postgraduate Diploma in Hospital Management and Operational Excellence - Broc...Postgraduate Diploma in Hospital Management and Operational Excellence - Broc...
Postgraduate Diploma in Hospital Management and Operational Excellence - Broc...د حاتم البيطار
 
Different Types of Heart Surgery Offered at Gokuldas Hospital Exploring Treat...
Different Types of Heart Surgery Offered at Gokuldas Hospital Exploring Treat...Different Types of Heart Surgery Offered at Gokuldas Hospital Exploring Treat...
Different Types of Heart Surgery Offered at Gokuldas Hospital Exploring Treat...Gokuldas Hospital
 
vitreous_anatomy__AND_SUBSTITUTE DHB.pptx
vitreous_anatomy__AND_SUBSTITUTE DHB.pptxvitreous_anatomy__AND_SUBSTITUTE DHB.pptx
vitreous_anatomy__AND_SUBSTITUTE DHB.pptxdhbketan
 
Private Contracting for Universal Health Coverage Short version.pdf
Private Contracting for Universal Health Coverage Short version.pdfPrivate Contracting for Universal Health Coverage Short version.pdf
Private Contracting for Universal Health Coverage Short version.pdfAlaa Hamed
 
Understanding Peptic Ulcers Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Options at Gokuld...
Understanding Peptic Ulcers Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Options at Gokuld...Understanding Peptic Ulcers Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Options at Gokuld...
Understanding Peptic Ulcers Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Options at Gokuld...Gokuldas Hospital
 
Employee Wellness Program, New Wellness Program
Employee Wellness Program, New Wellness ProgramEmployee Wellness Program, New Wellness Program
Employee Wellness Program, New Wellness ProgramBartolomeDimautangan
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Operation Theatre LED Surgical Light MI Nova
Operation Theatre LED Surgical Light MI NovaOperation Theatre LED Surgical Light MI Nova
Operation Theatre LED Surgical Light MI Nova
 
Top Antifungal Creams in India - Hariet Healthcare
Top Antifungal Creams in India - Hariet HealthcareTop Antifungal Creams in India - Hariet Healthcare
Top Antifungal Creams in India - Hariet Healthcare
 
Respiratory Emergencies and CPR -FON.pptx
Respiratory Emergencies and CPR -FON.pptxRespiratory Emergencies and CPR -FON.pptx
Respiratory Emergencies and CPR -FON.pptx
 
HEALTH, ILLNESS, DISEASE, AND WELLNESS
HEALTH,  ILLNESS, DISEASE,  AND WELLNESSHEALTH,  ILLNESS, DISEASE,  AND WELLNESS
HEALTH, ILLNESS, DISEASE, AND WELLNESS
 
2023 Kangen Water Presentation By Edwin Mamaril
2023 Kangen Water Presentation By Edwin Mamaril2023 Kangen Water Presentation By Edwin Mamaril
2023 Kangen Water Presentation By Edwin Mamaril
 
'Quick Wellness,' your shortcut to a healthier, happier you!
'Quick Wellness,' your shortcut to a healthier, happier you!'Quick Wellness,' your shortcut to a healthier, happier you!
'Quick Wellness,' your shortcut to a healthier, happier you!
 
Air Pollution.pptx
Air Pollution.pptxAir Pollution.pptx
Air Pollution.pptx
 
Breast cancer awareness by Dr. Dodul Mondal
Breast cancer awareness by Dr. Dodul MondalBreast cancer awareness by Dr. Dodul Mondal
Breast cancer awareness by Dr. Dodul Mondal
 
CRO Audit & Monitoring Quality Perspectives.pdf
CRO Audit & Monitoring Quality Perspectives.pdfCRO Audit & Monitoring Quality Perspectives.pdf
CRO Audit & Monitoring Quality Perspectives.pdf
 
RED EYE Public health Publication for IPC
RED EYE Public health Publication for IPCRED EYE Public health Publication for IPC
RED EYE Public health Publication for IPC
 
How to become more attractive in 2 weeks
How to become more attractive in 2 weeksHow to become more attractive in 2 weeks
How to become more attractive in 2 weeks
 
Foot Care Cream For Cracks & Dryness Feet
Foot Care Cream For Cracks & Dryness FeetFoot Care Cream For Cracks & Dryness Feet
Foot Care Cream For Cracks & Dryness Feet
 
Cyberattacks in Healthcare Outpaced Other Industries.pdf
Cyberattacks in Healthcare Outpaced Other Industries.pdfCyberattacks in Healthcare Outpaced Other Industries.pdf
Cyberattacks in Healthcare Outpaced Other Industries.pdf
 
NAA NORLEY BROCHURE.pdf
NAA NORLEY BROCHURE.pdfNAA NORLEY BROCHURE.pdf
NAA NORLEY BROCHURE.pdf
 
Postgraduate Diploma in Hospital Management and Operational Excellence - Broc...
Postgraduate Diploma in Hospital Management and Operational Excellence - Broc...Postgraduate Diploma in Hospital Management and Operational Excellence - Broc...
Postgraduate Diploma in Hospital Management and Operational Excellence - Broc...
 
Different Types of Heart Surgery Offered at Gokuldas Hospital Exploring Treat...
Different Types of Heart Surgery Offered at Gokuldas Hospital Exploring Treat...Different Types of Heart Surgery Offered at Gokuldas Hospital Exploring Treat...
Different Types of Heart Surgery Offered at Gokuldas Hospital Exploring Treat...
 
vitreous_anatomy__AND_SUBSTITUTE DHB.pptx
vitreous_anatomy__AND_SUBSTITUTE DHB.pptxvitreous_anatomy__AND_SUBSTITUTE DHB.pptx
vitreous_anatomy__AND_SUBSTITUTE DHB.pptx
 
Private Contracting for Universal Health Coverage Short version.pdf
Private Contracting for Universal Health Coverage Short version.pdfPrivate Contracting for Universal Health Coverage Short version.pdf
Private Contracting for Universal Health Coverage Short version.pdf
 
Understanding Peptic Ulcers Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Options at Gokuld...
Understanding Peptic Ulcers Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Options at Gokuld...Understanding Peptic Ulcers Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Options at Gokuld...
Understanding Peptic Ulcers Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Options at Gokuld...
 
Employee Wellness Program, New Wellness Program
Employee Wellness Program, New Wellness ProgramEmployee Wellness Program, New Wellness Program
Employee Wellness Program, New Wellness Program
 

Pleural effusion.pptx cme march

  • 1. PLEURAL EFFUSION THE JUICE, OOZING FROM THE LEAKING LINGERIE OF LUNGS DR.RISHIKESAN K.V MD,DNB, SPECIALIST PHYSICIAN, VENNIYIL MEDICAL CENTRE, SHARJAH
  • 2. DEFINITION •Pleural effusion is an abnormal collection of fluid in the pleural space resulting from excess fluid production or decreased absorption or both. •It is the most common manifestation of pleural disease. •Etiologies range from cardiopulmonary disorders to symptomatic inflammatory or malignant diseases.
  • 3. BASICS The pleural space is bordered by the parietal and visceral pleurae. PARIETAL PLEURA - covers the inner surface of the thoracic cavity, including the mediastinum, diaphragm, and ribs. VISCERAL PLEURA - envelops all lung surfaces, including the inter lobar fissures.
  • 4. BASIC ANATOMY • Parietal Pleura Covers the inner surface of chest wall • Blood supply: intercostal arteries • Lymphatics drain the pleural space • Pain fibers are present from intercostal nerves • Mesothelial cells are immunoreactive • 5 to 15 mL fluid present in space • Normally high fluid flux 1Liter /day • Venous drainage : the superior vena cava • Visceral Pleura Envelops entire surface of both lungs • The two pleural cavities are separate • Composed of mesothelial cells • Artery Supply: bronchial arteries • Lymphatics drain the pulmonary parenchyma • No nerve fibers • The venous drainage is pulmonary vein Both linings subject to disease and disorders
  • 5. PLEURA : VISCERAL AND PARIETAL
  • 6. BASICS …… The pleural space plays an important role in respiration by coupling the movement of the chest wall with that of the lungs in 2 ways. First, a relative vacuum in the space keeps the visceral and parietal pleurae in close proximity. Second, the small volume of pleural fluid, which has been calculated at 0.13 mL/kg of body weight under normal circumstances, serves as a lubricant to facilitate movement of the pleural surfaces against each other in the course of respirations
  • 7. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY The normal pleural space contains approximately 1 mL of fluid, representing the balance between (1) hydrostatic and oncotic forces in the visceral and parietal pleural vessels and (2) extensive lymphatic drainage. DISRUPTION OF BALANCE
  • 8. PLEURAL EFFUSION •Fluid in pleural space > 20 mL • Two mechanisms • Excessive formation • Fluid resorption is disturbed • Etiology • 40% cardiac causes • 60% other • Pneumonia (48%) • Malignancy(24%) • Pulmonary embolism (18%) • Cirrhosis (6%)
  • 9. PLEURAL EFFUSION • The etiologic spectrum of pleural effusion is extensive. • Most pleural effusions are caused by congestive heart failure, pneumonia, malignancy, or pulmonary embolism. an indicator of an underlying disease process May be pulmonary or non- pulmonary May be acute or chronic
  • 10. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY : MECHANISM # Altered permeability of the pleural membranes ( inflammation, malignancy, pulmonary embolus) # Reduction in intravascular oncotic pressure (hypo albuminemia, cirrhosis) # Increased capillary permeability or vascular disruption ( trauma, malignancy, inflammation, infection, pulmonary infarction, drug hypersensitivity, uremia, pancreatitis , infection, ) # Increased capillary hydrostatic pressure in the systemic and/or pulmonary circulation (congestive heart failure, superior vena cava syndrome)
  • 11. # Reduction of pressure in the pleural space, preventing full lung expansion (extensive atelectasis, mesothelioma) # Decreased lymphatic drainage or complete blockage, including thoracic duct obstruction or rupture (malignancy, trauma) # Increased peritoneal fluid, with migration across the diaphragm via the lymphatics or structural defect (cirrhosis, peritoneal dialysis) # Movement of fluid from pulmonary edema across the visceral pleura # Persistent increase in pleural fluid oncotic pressure from an existing pleural effusion, causing further fluid accumulation THE MECHANISMS…….
  • 12. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Common symptoms associated with pleural effusion may include: • chest pain, • difficulty breathing, • painful breathing (pleurisy), and • cough (either a dry cough or a productive cough). Deep breathing typically increases the pain. • Symptoms of fever, chills, and loss of appetite often accompany pleural effusions caused by infectious agents
  • 13. DIAGNOSIS – PHYSICAL EXAM PHY.EX. in pleural effusion are variable and depend on the volume of the effusion. Generally, there are no physical findings for effusions <300 mL. With effusions >300 mL, findings may include the following: Dullness to percussion, decreased tactile fremitus, and asymmetrical chest expansion, with diminished or delayed expansion on the side of the effusion – MOST RELIABLE FINDINGS Mediastinal shift away from the effusion - effusions of greater than 1000 mL Diminished or inaudible breath sounds Egophony - ("e" to "a" changes) at the most superior aspect of the pleural effusion Pleural friction rub
  • 14. DIAGNOSISCXR: Often the first step identifying a pleural effusion. Pleural effusions appear on chest X-rays as white space at the base of the lung. If a pleural effusion is likely, additional X-ray films may be taken while a person lies on his side. Decubitus X-ray films can show if the fluid flows freely within the chest. Layering of an effusion on lateral decubitus films defines a freely flowing effusion . Effusions of more than 175 mL are usually apparent as blunting of the costophrenic angle on upright posteroanterior chest radiographs.
  • 15. CHEST X RAY On supine CXRs, which are commonly used in the intensive care setting, moderate to large pleural effusions may appear as a homogenous increase in density spread over the lower lung fields. Apparent elevation of the hemidiaphragm, lateral displacement of the dome of the diaphragm, or increased distance between the apparent left hemidiaphragm and the gastric air bubble suggests subpulmonic effusions
  • 16. LEARNING POINTS Most often, pleural effusions are discovered on imaging tests. Common tests used to identify pleural effusions include: CHEST X RAY
  • 17. DIAGNOSIS – CT SCAN Compared to chest X-rays, CT scans produce more detailed information about pleural effusions and other lung abnormalities.
  • 18. CT BILATERAL PLEURAL EFFUSIONS
  • 19. LEARNING POINTS Chest CT scanning with contrast should be performed in all patients with an undiagnosed pleural effusion, to detect Thickened pleura or signs of invasion of underlying or adjacent structures. The two diagnostic imperatives in this situation are pulmonary embolism and tuberculous pleurisy In both cases, the pleural effusion is a harbinger of potential future morbidity. CT angiography should be ordered if pulmonary embolism is strongly suggested.
  • 20. DIAGNOSIS - ULTRASOUND Ultrasound can help guide drainage; identify whether pleural effusions are free flowing. USS can aid in the differentiation of transudates from exudates: those with septated and homogenously echogenic patterns are always exudates, whereas hypoechoeic effusions may be either
  • 21. •Should thoracentesis be performed? •If thoracentesis is done •Is the fluid a transudate or exudate? •If the fluid is an exudate •What is the etiology? Pleural Effusion Confirmed
  • 22. DIAGNOSTIC ALGORITHM WHEN PLEURAL EFFUSION IS DETECTED TWO QUESTIONS NEED TO BE ANSWERED IS IT A TRANSUDATE ( DUE TO SYSTEMIC DISEASES) OR AN EXUDATE ( DUE TO DISEASE OF PLEURA ITSELF)? IF THE EFFUSION IS EXUDATE WHAT IS THE DISEASE RESPONSIBLE FOR IT? EXAMINING THE PLEURAL FLUID MAY GIVE AN ANSWER TO THESE QUESTIONS NEARLY EVERY PATIENT WITH PLEURAL EFFUSION SHOULD HAVE A DIAGNOSTIC THORACENTESIS
  • 23. DIAGNOSIS - THORACENTESIS Should be done in almost all patients who have pleural fluid that is ≥ 10 mm in thickness on CT, ultrasonography, or lateral decubitus x-ray and that is new or of uncertain etiology. In general, the only patients who do not require thoracentesis are those who have heart failure with symmetric pleural effusions and no chest pain or fever; in these patients, diuresis can be tried, and thoracentesis avoided unless effusions persist for ≥ 3 days.
  • 24. LEARNING BITES : THORACENTESIS •Most patients should be tapped • Newly recognized effusion • Two exceptions • Small Effusions ( < 1 cm on decubitus, US ) • Congestive Heart Failure • Thoracentesis required only if bilateral effusions not equal ie ASYMMETRICAL EFFUSION • Fever • Pleuritic chest pain • Impending respiratory failure
  • 25. ANALYSIS GROSS APPEARANCE GROSS • BLOODY • WHITE MILKY • BLACK • YELLOW GREEN • DARK GREEN • ANCHOVY SAUCE PASTE • PUS (FETID ODOUR) • CLEAR • AMBER COLOR (SMELL OF URINE) DIAGNOSIS • MALIGNANCY,ASBESTOSIS,PUL.INFARCT -ION,POST CARD.SURGERY SYNDROME • CHYLOTHORAX,PSEUDOCHYLOTHORAX • ASPERGILLUS NIGER • RA PLEURISY: TEST GLUCOSE • BILOTHORAX • AMOEBIC LIVER ABSCESS • EMPYEMA • CENTRAL LINE • URINOTHORAX :CHECK UREA AND CREATINE OF THE PLEURAL FLUID
  • 26. PLEURAL FLUID ANALYSIS • Divide the fluid and routinely undertake the following: • Send one sterile pot and a fluoride tube (for glucose measurement) to biochemistry for protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose • Send an EDTA vial for a differential white cell count either to cytology or haematology, depending on the local hospital policy • Send a sterile pot of fluid to microbiology if you suspect pleural infection • If malignancy is a possibility, send a sterile sample for cytology • You should measure the pH of pleural fluid whenever you suspect pleural infection
  • 27. CELLS AND DIFFERENTIAL COUNTS • Volume 0.2 mL/kg • Cells/ mm3 1000 – 5000 • Mesothelial cells 60% • Monocytes 30% •Lymphocytes 5% • PMN’s 5% • Protein 1-2 g/d L • LDH <50% plasma level • Glucose  plasma level • pH ≥ plasma level Cell Count: PMN predominates in parapneumonic effusions. Pleural fluid lymphocytosis, with values >85% , suggests TB, CABG, lymphoma, sarcoidosis, chronic RA pleurisy, yellow nail syndrome, and chylothorax.
  • 28. PLEURAL FLUID EOSINOPHILIA Pleural fluid eosinophilia (PFE), with values greater than 10% of nucleated cells, is seen in approximately 10% of effusions. No correlation with peripheral blood eosinophilia. PFE is most often caused by air or blood in the pleural space. PFE may be the result of pulmonary embolism with infarction or benign asbestos pleural effusion. PFE may be associated with CSS, nonmalignant diseases, including parasitic disease , fungal infection and a variety of medications.
  • 29. LEARNING BITES The presence of PFE makes tuberculous pleurisy as well as empyema unlikely. Mesothelial cells > 5% of total nucleated cells makes a diagnosis of TB less likely. Markedly increased numbers of mesothelial cells, suggests PE as the cause of effusion.
  • 30. You see a 68 year old man in clinic who has a three week history of increasing breathlessness. His chest x ray shows a large left pleural effusion. You perform a diagnostic pleural aspiration. The pleural fluid analysis shows: Protein 50 g/l Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) 457 (blood LDH 124) Glucose 3.8 (blood glucose 4.8) pH 7.32. Which of the following statements is correct? The fluid is an exudate A pleural fluid protein of 50 g/l is consistent with an exudative effusion.
  • 31. Classically, if the patient's serum protein is normal, a pleural fluid protein less than 30 g/l usually indicates a transudate and a pleural fluid protein greater than 30 g/l usually indicates an exudate. Light's criteria allow a more accurate differentiation and should be the practical standard. In practice, the criteria are often used if the pleural fluid protein is between 25 and 35 g/l.
  • 33. LIGHT’S CRITERIA DIFFERENTIATES TRANSUDATES FROM EXUDATES IF ATLEAST ONE OF THE FOLLOWING IS MET, THEN EXUDATE TRANSUDATIVE PLEURAL EFFUSION MEETS NONE PLEURAL FLUID PROTEIN/SERUM PROTEIN >.5 PLEURAL FLUID LDH/ SERUM LDH >.6 PLEURAL FLUID LDH > 2/3 THE UPPER LIMITS OF SERUM LDH
  • 34. SERUM PLEURAL FLUID PROTEIN GRADIENT
  • 35. TRANSUDATIVE EXUDATIVE EFFUSION • Congestive Heart Failure. The most common cause of pleural effusion is LVF • Nephrotic syndrome • Cirrhosis • Meig’s Syndrome • Hydronephrosis • Peritoneal Dialysis • Para pneumonic (The most common exudative pleural effusion) • Malignancy • Pulmonary Embolism (either transudate or exudate) • Tuberculosis • Traumatic • Collagen Vascular Disease(SLE,RA…) • Drug Induced, Uraemia, Dressler’s Syndrome…….
  • 36. DIAGNOSIS Transudate - produced through pressure filtration without capillary injury Exudate - "inflammatory fluid" leaking between cells. Transudative pleural effusions - caused by systemic factors that alter the pleural equilibrium, or Starling forces. The components of the Starling forces–hydrostatic pressure, permeability, oncotic pressure Exudative pleural effusions - caused by alterations in local factors that influence the formation and absorption of pleural fluid
  • 37. LDHPROTEIN • MOST TRANSUDATES HAVE A TOTAL PROTEIN OF <3 GM/DL • TB PLEURAL EFFUSION GRATER THAN 4GM/DL • IF THE PROTEIN CONCENTRATION IS > 7-8 GM/DL, CONSIDER THE DIAGNOSIS OF WALDENSTROMS MACROGLUBULINAEMIA OR MULTIPLE MYELOMA LDH • ONE OF THE KEY CRITERIA FOR LIGHT’S CRITERIA • LDH MORE THAN 1000, COMMONLY SEEN IN Empyema, Rheumatoid pleurisy and Malignancy Pneumocystis jirovecci PLEURAL EFFUSION PLEURAL FLUID LDH/ SERUM LDH : >1 PLEURAL FLUID PROTEIN/SERUM PROTEIN : < .5
  • 38. PLEURAL FLUID GLUCOSE • A LOW PLEURAL FLUID GLUCOSE CONCENTRATION <30-50 MG/DL OR PLEURAL FLUID/SERUM GLUCOSE <.5 NARROWS THE DIFFERENTIAL CAUSES: • Malignant effusion, • Tuberculous pleuritis, • Esophageal rupture, or • Lupus pleuritis. A very low pleural glucose concentration (i.e.< 30 mg/d L) further restricts diagnostic possibilities, to rheumatoid pleurisy or empyema
  • 39. PLEURAL FLUID PH • Pleural fluid pH is highly correlated with pleural fluid glucose levels • A pleural fluid pH of less than 7.30 with a normal arterial blood pH level is caused by the same diagnoses as listed above for low pleural fluid glucose. • In parapneumonic effusions a pleural fluid pH of less than 7.1-7.2 indicates the need for urgent drainage of the effusion, while a pleural fluid pH of more than 7.3 suggests that the effusion may be managed with systemic antibiotics alone. • In malignant effusions, a pleural fluid pH of less than 7.3 has been associated in some reports with more extensive pleural involvement, higher yield on cytology, decreased success of pleurodesis, and shorter survival times < 30 days
  • 40. PLEURAL FLUID AMYLASE •PLEURAL FLUID AMYLASE MORE THAN ULN FOR SERUM AMYLASE •PLEURAL FLUID AMYLASE/SERUM AMYLASE > 1 DIFFERENTIALS • CHRONIC PANCREATIC PLEURAL EFFUSION • ESOPHAGEAL RUPTURE • ACUTE PANCREATITIS • MALIGNANCY
  • 41. ADENOSINE DEAMINASE • High levels of ADA are commonly seen in tuberculous effusions, but false positives (especially with empyema, rheumatoid effusions, and lymphomas) do occur. • Routine measurement of ADA is not encouraged in non- endemic areas such as the UK. In endemic areas, however, a low pleural fluid ADA effectively excludes pleural tuberculosis. SINCE LESS THAN 40% OF TB PLEURAL EFFUSION HAVE POSITIVE PLEURAL FLUID CULTURE ALTERNATIVE MEANS SUCH AS THE LEVEL OF ADA, GAMMA INTERFERON OR PCR ARE USED TO ESTABLISH THE DIAGNOSIS
  • 42. OTHER USEFUL TESTS •Brain Natriuretric Peptide Normal <1000 p g/mL ; >1000 in CHF •Triglycerides > 110 mg/d L • Chylothorax •Microbiology (bacterial and mycobacterial culture) If clinically indicated, send samples for Gram staining and culture. Inoculation of blood culture bottles may improve yield. •Cytology Request cytology if you suspect malignancy - it provides the diagnosis in 60% of all malignant effusions. The diagnostic yield increases with a second sample, but not with further samples
  • 43. IS IT WORTH DOING ? Tumour markers • There is no routine clinical role for these at present. Rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, complement • Pleural fluid values mirror serum levels and are of little additional benefit. Bronchoscopy • The majority of pleural effusions seen in clinical practice are not associated with a lung parenchymal abnormality as the cause. Bronchoscopy is therefore only advised if the patient has symptoms such as haemoptysis or CT features suggesting endobronchial involvement.
  • 44. PARAPNEUMONIC EFFUSION • ANY PLEURAL EFFUSION ASSOCIATED WITH BACTERIAL PNEUMONIA, LUNG ABSCESS , OR BRONCHIECTASIS • GRAM STAIN AND BACTERIAL CULTURE WILL IDENTIFY INFECTED PLEURAL FLUIDS • EFFECTIVE ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY IS THE KEY ISSUE FOR CONTROLLING INFECTION WHEN PLEURAL FLUID ANALYSIS MEETS ANY OF THE FOLLOWING CRITERIA ICTD SHOULD BE DONE IMMEDIATELY 1.EMPYEMA 2.PLEURAL FLUID CULTURE IS POSITIVE 3.PLEURAL FLUID GLUCOSE IS LESS THAN 40 MG% 4.PLEURAL FLUID P H <7.0
  • 45. TUBERCULOUS PLEURAL EFFUSION • MOST PATIENTS PRESENT WITH PLEURITC CHEST PAIN • TUBERCULOSIS TOXIC SYNDROME : DRY COUGH,LOW GRADE FEVER, NIGHT SWEAT AND LOSS OF WEIGHT. • POSITIVE TUBERCULIN- PPD- TEST, SIGNIFICANTLY HIGH ADA LEVEL IN PLEURAL FLUID (ADA ACTIVITY OF > 43 U/ML) • EXUDATIVE EFFUSION WITH MARKEDLY ELEVATED PROTEIN LEVEL >50 GM/L. • IFN GAMMA CONCENTRATION >140 p g/ml SUPPORT THE DIAGNOSIS • DIFFERENTIAL WHITE CELL COUNT SHOWS > 80% LYMPHOCYTES. • PLEURAL BIOPSY HAS GOT THE GRATEST UTILITY IN ESTABLISHING THE DIAGNOSIS. • DEMONSTRATION OF CASEATING GRANULOMA AS WELL AS ACID FAST BACILLI AS THE CONFIRMATORY PROOF
  • 46. WHY DO WE TREAT TB EFFUSION? Tuberculous pleuritis is typically self- limited. If not treated the effusion will resolve but pulmonary or extra pulmonary tuberculosis subsequently develops in >65% of patients within five years. Empiric ATT is the option, pending culture results when sufficient clinical suspicion is present, such as an unexplained exudative or lymphocytic effusion in a patient with a positive PPD finding
  • 47. MANAGEMENT OF TUBERCULOUS PLEURAL EFFUSION • ATT : ADEQUATE THERAPY IS NINE MONTHS TREATMENT WITH RIFAMPICIN AND INH DAILY • PERFORMANCE OF THERAPEUTIC THORACENTESIS IS HIGHLY RECOMMENDED • HIGHLY SYMPTOMATIC PATIENTS SHOLUD BE PUT ON PEDNISOLONE 40MG.DAILY AND THEN GRADUALLY TAPERED OVER SEVERAL WEEKS • THE ADMINISTRATION OF CORTICOSTEROIDS WILL RAPIDLY RELEIVE THE SYMPTOMS OF FEVER,CHEST PAIN AND MALAISE. • IT DOESN’T DISSEMINATE THE DISEASE
  • 48. DRESSLER’S SYNDROME • POST CARDIAC INJURY SYNDROMES . •POST CABG EFFUSIONS ARE COMMON. • EXAGGERATED IMMUNE RESPONSE TO CARDIACANTIGENS •PLEURITIC CHEST PAIN ,FEVER,HIGH ESR, LEUCOCYTOSIS, ANTI MYOCARDIAL ANTIBODIES. • PMN LEUCOCYTOSIS <30 DAYS;LATER LYMPHOCYTOSIS •NSAIDS AND STEROIDS AS TREATMENT • 1-12 MONTHS AFTER SURGERY, AVERAGE 3 WEEKS
  • 49. MALIGNANT PLEURAL EFFUSION MALIGNANT PLEURAL EFFUSIONS SIGNIFY INCURABLE DISEASE . THE SECOND MOST COMMON TYPE OF EXUDATIVE EFFUSION. THE 3 TUMORS THAT CAUSE approx. 75% OF MALIGNANT EFFUSIONS ARE LUNG, BREAST & LYMPHOMA MEAN SURVIVAL < 1 YEAR. RECURRENT MASSIVE EFFUSIONS MAY NEED REPEATED THORACENTESIS, PLEURODESIS OR PLACEMENT OF INDWELLING TUNNELED CATHETERS WHICH PROVIDES GOOD PALLIATION
  • 50. HEART FAILURE WITH ASYMMETRICAL EFFUSION A 78 year old woman presents with a 3 week h/o increasing breathlessness, orthopnoea, and peripheral oedema. She had an AWMI 2 months ago. Her CXR shows venous congestion and bilateral pleural effusions, with the right sided effusion larger than the left. What would you do? •Start therapy for heart failure and observe • This woman gives a typical history of heart failure, which you should treat before you perform further investigations. Asymmetrical pleural effusions are recognised in heart failure. You should only attempt a pleural aspiration if the patient fails to respond to treatment for the heart failure.
  • 51. IDIOPATHIC EXUDATIVE EFFUSIONS • DESPITE REPEATED DIAGNOSTIC THORACENTESES APPROX. 20% OF EXUDATIVE EFFUSIONS REMAIN UNDIAGNOSED. • MAY BE BENIGN ASBESTOSIS ( EXPOSURE TO ASBESTOSE 10-20 YEARS BACK) • DRUG INDUCED ( NITROFURANTOIN, AMIODARONE,PHENYTOIN,METHOTREXATE ) • DRUG INDUCED LUPUS OR • HEPATIC HYDROTHORAX WITH MINIMAL OR UNDETECTABLE ASCITES. In practice, many patients with undiagnosed effusions turn out to have malignancy.
  • 52. NO FURTHER EVALUATION IF…. •PATIENT CLINICALLY STABLE •NO WEIGHT LOSS •ADA AS WELL AS PPD NORMAL •NO FEVER •THE EFFUSION OCCUPIES LESS THAN 50% OF THE HEMITHORAX ONE SHOULDN’T BE TOO AGGRESSIVE IF THE PATIENT IMPROVING CLINICALLY
  • 53. MANAGEMENT OF PLEURAL EFFUSION Medical Management: Antibiotics Analgesics  Diuretics Cardiotonic Drugs Thoracentesis CTT Pleurodesis
  • 54. Thoracentesis aspiration of fluid or air from the pleural cavity. instillation of medication into the pleural space MEDICAL/SURGICAL MANAGEMENT, DRUGS, AND TREATMENT
  • 55. If mesothelioma is likely, you should tattoo the site of aspiration with Indian ink. This will enable prophylactic radiotherapy to be given if the diagnosis is confirmed. Repeated aspiration attempts are not recommended, but if more than one pleural puncture is made, you need to mark both sites.
  • 56. You are told to remove "a good litre or so" of pleural fluid from a stoical 82 year old man who has presented to clinic with a large pleural effusion. During the procedure, after you have removed 900 ml, he develops chest discomfort but says he can bear it. What would you do? Stop the procedure You should stop the procedure if a patient develops chest discomfort or a cough, or if resistance to the aspiration is felt. These may indicate the development of re-expansion pulmonary oedema. Aspiration of 900 ml should achieve symptomatic relief, and so it would be appropriate to stop.
  • 57. RE EXPANSION PULMONARY EDEMA It is serious and can be fatal. The exact pathophysiology is not fully understood. Alteration of endothelial permeability and disruption of the alveolar-capillary membrane, are probably involved. Re-expansion pulmonary oedema may either resolve spontaneously or result in hypoxic respiratory failure with catastrophic circulatory collapse. Draining a large amount of fluid (usually more than 1.5 l) too rapidly, especially if the lung has been collapsed for several weeks, may lead to re-expansion pulmonary oedema.
  • 58. NURSING MANAGEMENT-THORACENTESIS Verify a signed informed consent Assist client to an appropriate position Instruct client not to move during the procedure including no coughing or deep breathing. Provide comfort Maintain asepsis Monitor vital signs during the procedure – also monitor pulse oximetry if client is connected to it
  • 59. @Apply a dressing over a puncture and position the client on the unaffected side. Instruct the client to stay in this position for at least 1 hour. @During the first several hours after thoracentesis frequently assess and document vital signs, oxygen saturation, respiratory status including respiratory excursion, lung sounds, cough and hemoptysis and puncture site for bleeding or crepitus. @Obtain a chest x-ray NURSING MANAGEMENT – Thoracentesis
  • 60. On the ward round, you see a 55 year old man with COPD was admitted with an AECB three days ago. He continues to have fevers and raised inflammatory markers following treatment. His CXR shows a small to moderate pleural effusion. You request an USG pleural aspiration. The aspirate yields frank pus, which is sent for microscopy and culture. How would you manage him? Continue with antibiotics and arrange for a guided chest drain insertion He requires drainage of the pleural fluid with ongoing antimicrobial treatment. The addition of anaerobic cover is appropriate, if not already started. As he has an underlying lung disease and a small collection, this should be done under imaging guidance.
  • 61. Done to drain fluid, blood and air from the space around the lungs. Whether the accumulation is the result of rapid traumatic filling or insidious malignant seepage, placement of a chest tube allows for continuous, large volume drainage until the underlying pathology can be more formally addressed. CHEST TUBE THORACOSTOMY
  • 62. TRIANGLE OF SAFETY • The British Thoracic Society guidelines define a triangle of safety for needle insertion, bordered by: • The anterior border of latissimus dorsi • The lateral border of pectoralis major muscle and • The line superior to the horizontal level of the nipple with the apex based within the axilla.
  • 63. POSITION A suggested position is SEMI-DECUBITUS ON THE BED AT 45 degrees WITH THE ARM BEHIND THE HEAD SO AS TO EXPOSE THE AXILLARY AREA. The drain should ideally be inserted in the SAFE TRIANGLE which is delineated by the lateral border of the pectoralis major , the anterior border of the latissimus dorsi and a line horizontal with the nipple. Most clinicians insert the tube via an incision at this space in the ANTERIOR AXILLARY or 4th or 5th intercostal MIDAXILLARY LINE
  • 64. Ensure a signed consent for chest tube insertion Position as indicated for the procedure Assist with chest tube insertion as needed Assist respiratory status at least every 4 hours. Maintain a closed system. Ensure tubing with no kinks or not compressed Check the water seal frequently. Palpate the area around the chest tube site for subcutaneous emphysema or crepitus. Encourage client for coughing and deep breathing Assist with frequent position changes ,sitting and ambulation as allowed NURSING MANAGEMENT – CLOSED TUBE THORACOSTOMY
  • 65. LEARNING BITES Your consultant asks you to perform a therapeutic pleural aspiration on a woman who is taking warfarin for atrial fibrillation. She has presented with a large right pleural effusion on her chest x ray and is increasingly distressed as a result of her breathlessness. Her INR is 2.0.
  • 66. GUIDELINES •Aspirate 1 litre of fluid for symptomatic relief and diagnostic purposes • This common clinical scenario often raises difficult management questions. There are no published data to suggest an increased risk of bleeding following a pleural aspiration or insertion of a chest drain in patients with an underlying coagulopathy or thrombocytopenia In clinical practice, therapeutic and diagnostic pleural aspiration are generally performed when the INR is less than or equal to 2. • For elective insertion of a chest drain, the British Thoracic Society guidelines recommend that time is given for the anticoagulation effects to resolve. • Guidelines suggest that percutaneous lung or pleural biopsies are not performed with an INR greater than 1.4.
  • 67. Pleurodesis is performed to prevent recurrence of pneumothorax or recurrent pleural effusion also known as Pleural Sclerosis. Involves instilling an irritant into the pleural space to cause inflammatory changes that result in bridging fibrosis between the visceral and parietal pleural surfaces. PLEURODESIS
  • 68. Ensure informed consent Record baseline vital signs Consider the use of pre medication  Position patient comfortably  An existing effusion should be completely drained before the procedure Ensure a recent chest x-ray  Observe for excessive pain and breathlessness  Patient ambulation is possibly helpful to ensure good spread of the slurry NURSING MANAGEMENT – PLEURODESIS
  • 69. Q AND A •Cytological analysis of two separate samples of pleural fluid from a man with an undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion, who presented with worsening dyspnoea in the absence of other symptoms, reveals no malignant cells. •Initial Gram and Ziehl-Nielsen stains are negative. What would you do next ?
  • 70. ………….THORACOSCOPY •Medical thoracoscopy would be an appropriate next step. •This would allow pleural biopsies to be taken under direct vision and therapeutic drainage of pleural fluid. •If appearances suggested pleural malignancy, pleurodesis with talc poudrage could be done.
  • 71. TAKE HOME MESSAGE ASYMPTOMATIC OR MILDLY SYMPTOMATIC EFFUSIONS MAY JUST BE LEFT AND OBSERVED. A LARGE PLEURAL EFFUSION THAT MAKES YOU BREATHLESS CAN BE DRAINED. UNLESS THE UNDERLYING CAUSE CAN BE TREATED, AN EFFUSION IS LIKELY TO RETURN. REPEATED DRAINING, PERMANENT ICTD, PLEUROPERITONEAL SHUNT, AND PLEURECTOMY ARE DIFFERENT OPTIONS FOR RECURRENT EFFUSIONS. PLEURODESIS IS MOST OFTEN USED IN THE TREATMENT OF REPEATED EFFUSIONS CAUSED BY CANCER.

Editor's Notes

  1. The pleural space plays an important role in respiration by coupling the movement of the chest wall with that of the lungs in 2 ways. First, a relative vacuum in the space keeps the visceral and parietal pleurae in close proximity. Second, the small volume of pleural fluid, which has been calculated at 0.13 mL/kg of body weight under normal circumstances, serves as a lubricant to facilitate movement of the pleural surfaces against each other in the course of respirations. This small volume of fluid is maintained through the balance of hydrostatic and oncotic pressure and lymphatic drainage, a disturbance of which may lead to pathology.
  2. Pleural effusion is an indicator of an underlying disease process that may be pulmonary or non-pulmonary in origin and may be acute or chronic.
  3. Pleural effusions are generally classified as transudates or exudates, based on the mechanism of fluid formation and pleural fluid chemistry. Transudates result from an imbalance in oncotic and hydrostatic pressures, whereas exudates are the result of inflammation of the pleura or decreased lymphatic drainage. In some cases, the pleural fluid may have a combination of transudative and exudative characteristics. Pleural effusion is not a disease. It results when the production of pleural fluid exceeds the body's ability to reabsorb it. It has many causes (pneumonia, heart failure, blood clots, trauma, bleeding). Fixing the underlying cause with or withourt draining the fluid usually results in "cure". With some exceptions, cancer that causes pleural effusion is not curable, but it it is treatable.
  4. A doctor may suspect a pleural effusion based on a person's symptoms and physical examination. Doctors may use auscultation (listening with a stethoscope), percussion (tapping on the chest), and other maneuvers when a pleural effusion is suspected. Dullness to percussion, decreased tactile fremitus, and asymmetrical chest expansion, with diminished or delayed expansion on the side of the effusion - - the most reliable physical findings of pleural effusion. Mediastinal shift away from the effusion - This is observed with effusions of greater than 1000 mL; displacement of the trachea and mediastinum toward the side of the effusion is an important clue to obstruction of a lobar bronchus by an endobronchial lesion, which can be due to malignancy or, less commonly, to a nonmalignant cause, such as a foreign body.
  5. A CT scanner takes multiple X-rays rapidly, and a computer constructs images of the inside of the chest.
  6. A probe placed against the skin reflects high-energy sound waves off structures in the chest, creating images on a video screen.
  7. Commonly used in medicine, the word decubitus is used to mean 'lying down'. It is derived from the Latin verb decumbere 'to lie down'. In radiology, this term implies that the patient is lying down with the X-ray being taken parallel to the horizon. To know the cause.. Once a pleural effusion is identified on imaging, a fluid sample is usually taken to determine the pleural effusion's character and seriousness. In thoracentesis, a needle is inserted through the back of the chest wall in the sixth, seventh, or eighth intercostal space on the midaxillary line, into the pleural space. Doctor inserts a needle and a catheter between the ribs, into the pleural space. A small amount of fluid is withdrawn for testing; a large amount can be removed simultaneously to relieve symptoms. Other health care professionals may use different criteria to determine the presence of exudate, such as the ratio of pleural fluid to serum protein levels > 0.5, LDH ratio > 0.6 and LDH ratio > 2/3 the upper limits of normal. Other pleural fluid test results (cytology or amylase, for example) may also reveal the source of the effusion.
  8. Diagnosing the cause(s) of a pleural effusion often begins with determining whether the fluid is transudate or exudate. This is important because the results of this fluid analysis may provide a diagnosis and determine the course of treatment. 
  9. Apply a dressing.. – to prevent air from entering the pleural space and to allow the pleural puncture to heal During the first.. – frequent assessment is important to detect possible complications such as pneumothorax Obtain – chest xray is ordered to detect possible pneumothorax
  10. CTT may also be needed when a patient has had a severe injury to the chest wall that causes bleeding around the lungs or accidentally puntured allowing air to gathered outside the lungs causing its collapsed
  11. Position – a suggested position is SEMI-DECUBITUS ON THE BED AT 45 degrees WITH THE ARM BEHIND THE HEAD SO AS TO EXPOSE THE AXILLARY AREA. The drain should ideally be inserted in the SAFE TRIANGLE which is delineated by the lateral border of the pectoralis major (sa may breast part), the anterior border of the latissimus dorsi (saa may likod) and a line horizontal with the nipple. Most clinicians insert the tube via an incision at this 4th or 5th intercostal space in the ANTERIOR AXILLARY or MIDAXILLARY LINE. Assist respiratory status.. – frequent assessment is necessary to monitor respiratory status and the effect of the chest tube. Ensure tubing.. – these could interfere with drainage Check the water seal properly.. – the water level should fluctuate with respiratory effort. If it does not, the system may not be patent or intact. Periodic air tbubbles in the water seal chamber are normal and indicate the trapped air is being removed from the chest. Measure drainage every 8hours and marking the levels on the drainage chamber. Report drainage if it is cloudy, red, warm, free flowing. Red, free flowing drainage indicates hemorrhage and cloudiness may indicate an infection.
  12. performed to prevent recurrence of pneumothorax or recurrent pleural effusion
  13. Consider the use of pre – to alleviate anxiety and reduce pain associated with pleurodesis Position patient comfortably – in SITTING POSITION with good access to the chest drain and the site. Ensure a recent – ensure that the chest drain is correctly positioned and the lung is fully expanded