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Saratoga	
  Water	
  Mee+ng	
  
Sunday,	
  August	
  14th	
  2016	
  
2:30pm	
  to	
  4pm	
  
City	
  of	
  Saratoga	
  
A...
OBJECTIVES:	
  Discuss	
  Saratoga’s	
  Water	
  
Challenges	
  
•  An	
  opportunity	
  for	
  amicable	
  dialogue	
  
•...
Par+cipa+ng	
  Team	
  
•  Ci+zens	
  of	
  Saratoga	
  
•  -­‐-­‐John	
  Tang	
  |	
  VP	
  of	
  Government	
  Rela+ons	...
AGENDA	
  
•  Overview	
  of	
  Water	
  by	
  Councilmember	
  Rishi	
  
Kumar,	
  rate	
  seing	
  process,	
  par+es	
 ...
Department	
  of	
  Water	
  Resources	
  
(DWR)	
  
•  The	
  Department	
  of	
  Water	
  Resources	
  (DWR)	
  is	
  
r...
US	
  Bureau	
  of	
  Reclama+on	
  (USBR)	
  
•  USBR	
  federal	
  agency	
  under	
  the	
  
U.S.	
  Department	
  of	
...
ROLE	
  OF	
  SANTA	
  CLARA	
  WATER	
  
DISTRICT	
  
•  A	
  Government	
  organiza+on	
  
•  The	
  mission	
  of	
  th...
ROLE	
  OF	
  SAN	
  JOSE	
  WATER	
  COMPANY	
  
•  San	
  Jose	
  Water	
  Company	
  is	
  an	
  investor	
  owned	
  	...
Role	
  of	
  CPUC	
  
•  The	
  California	
  Public	
  U8li8es	
  Commission	
  
regulates	
  privately	
  owned	
  elec...
CAN	
  SJWC	
  apply	
  their	
  own	
  rates? 	
  	
  
•  Which	
  government	
  body	
  regulates	
  SJWC	
  a	
  
priva...
COUNCILMEMBERS	
  on	
  the	
  SANTA	
  
CLARA	
  VALLEY	
  WATER	
  DISTRICT	
  
COMMISSION	
  
•  Saratoga’s	
  Mayor	
 ...
Decisions:	
  SANTA	
  CLARA	
  VALLEY	
  
WATER	
  DISTRICT	
  BOARD	
  
•  A	
  five	
  member	
  board	
  makes	
  decis...
RISHI’S	
  YES	
  vote	
  explained	
  below;	
  
approved	
  19%	
  Ground	
  Water	
  Surcharge	
  for	
  
Santa	
  Clar...
RISHI	
  KUMAR	
  DID	
  NOT	
  VOTE	
  FOR	
  ANY	
  
INCREASE	
  IN	
  SJWC	
  CHARGES	
  
•  Saratoga	
  Councilmembers...
SCVWD	
  COMMISSION	
  VOTE	
  WAS	
  A	
  
RECOMMENDATION	
  
The	
  SCVWD	
  BOARD	
  IS	
  THE	
  AUTHORITY	
  
•  So	
...
SARATOGA’S	
  WATER	
  BILL	
  
Four	
  components	
  of	
  increase	
  we	
  will	
  see	
  
COMPON
ENT	
  
PERCENTAGE	
 ...
MATH	
  
•  If	
  your	
  water	
  bill	
  was	
  $100	
  last	
  year	
  and	
  you	
  
consumed	
  the	
  exact	
  same	...
SURCHARGE	
  
•  So	
  the	
  only	
  reason	
  it	
  goes	
  to	
  $2,000	
  it	
  would	
  
be	
  due	
  to	
  the	
  dr...
LINK	
  TO	
  SJWC	
  MAILER	
  
•  This	
  informa+on	
  was	
  sent	
  out	
  to	
  all	
  SJWC	
  
customers	
  (the	
 ...
We	
  protested	
  the	
  surcharge	
  (2015)	
  
•  As	
  the	
  representa+ve	
  of	
  our	
  city	
  on	
  the	
  Santa...
COMPONENT	
  #1:	
  6.7%	
  
•  The	
  19%	
  water	
  rate	
  hike	
  that	
  the	
  BOARD	
  of	
  
SCVWD	
  approved	
 ...
COMPONENT	
  #2:	
  8.6%	
  
•  SJWC	
  put	
  together	
  a	
  rate	
  hike	
  package	
  in	
  2015	
  
(for	
  a	
  rat...
COMPONENT	
  #3:	
  3%	
  
•  Since	
  the	
  vote	
  was	
  delayed,	
  the	
  8.6%	
  was	
  
retroac+ve	
  from	
  Jan	...
COMPONENT	
  #4:	
  SURCHARGE	
  
•  Surcharge	
  
•  When	
  we	
  exceed	
  our	
  quota	
  –	
  	
  we	
  pay	
  a	
  
...
SOLUTION	
  OPTIONS:	
  
HOW	
  DO	
  WE	
  MOVE	
  FORWARD?	
  
APPEAL	
  TO	
  CPUC	
  
•  **	
  Informa+on	
  on	
  how	
  to	
  contact	
  the	
  CPUC	
  is	
  
available	
  at	
  	
 ...
ECONOMIC	
  HARDSHIP	
  
•  ***	
  Link	
  to	
  Water	
  Rates	
  Assistance	
  Program	
  at	
  
hfps://www.sjwater.com/...
Alloca+on	
  Appeal	
  	
  
•  hfps://www.sjwater.com/content/alloca+on-­‐
appeal-­‐form	
  
•  See	
  Comprehensive	
  Dr...
How	
  many	
  are	
  impacted?	
  
What	
  is	
  the	
  extent	
  of	
  impact?	
  
•  Please	
  submit	
  your	
  inform...
Access	
  to	
  2013	
  Bill	
  
•  Email	
  
•  customer.service@sjwater.com	
  	
  
•  	
  contact	
  SJWC	
  call	
  ce...
COUNCIL	
  AGENDA	
  TO	
  STRATEGIZE 	
  	
  
•  Councilmember	
  Rishi	
  Kumar	
  will	
  seek	
  to	
  place	
  it	
  ...
Rishi	
  Kumar’s	
  water	
  bill	
  –	
  June+July	
  
2016	
  
•  My	
  bill	
  is	
  $192.40	
  for	
  June+July	
  201...
Quo+ng	
  Lloyd	
  –	
  a	
  Saratoga	
  resident	
  
•  "How	
  much	
  does	
  it	
  cost,	
  long-­‐term,	
  to	
  capt...
SARATOGA	
  CITIZEN	
  WATER	
  
COMMITTEE	
  
•  Submit	
  your	
  interest	
  at	
  	
  
– www.Tinyurl.com/ExorbitantBil...
MINUTES+ACTION	
  ITEMS	
  	
  
MINUTES:	
  
–  -­‐	
  Rishi	
  walked	
  through	
  an	
  high	
  level	
  overview	
  of...
Reading	
  Links	
  sent	
  over	
  by	
  SJWC	
  
•  hfp://www.mercurynews.com/drought/
ci_29868853/california-­‐drought-...
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Water meeting

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Saturday August 14th 2016
2:30pm to 4pm
City of Saratoga
Administrative Room With Saratoga Citizens, SJWC, SCVWD and Councilmember Rishi Kumar

Deck Prepared by
Councilmember Rishi Kumar
Saratoga CA

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Water meeting

  1. 1. Saratoga  Water  Mee+ng   Sunday,  August  14th  2016   2:30pm  to  4pm   City  of  Saratoga   Administra+ve  Room   With  Saratoga  Ci+zens,  SJWC,  SCVWD  and   Councilmember  Rishi  Kumar       Deck  Prepared  by   Councilmember  Rishi  Kumar   Saratoga  CA  
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES:  Discuss  Saratoga’s  Water   Challenges   •  An  opportunity  for  amicable  dialogue   •  Arrive  at  Common  Understanding   •  Understand  the  Engagement  process   •  Consider  op+ons  for  a  solu+on  
  3. 3. Par+cipa+ng  Team   •  Ci+zens  of  Saratoga   •  -­‐-­‐John  Tang  |  VP  of  Government  Rela+ons  and  Corporate   Communica+on  |  San  Jose  Water  Company  |  110  West  Taylor  St.  |   San  Jose,  CA  95110   |  Tel:  +1  408  279-­‐7933  |  Fax:  +1  408  279-­‐7934   •  -­‐-­‐RACHAEL  GIBSON   Local  &  Regional  Government  Rela+ons   Office  of  Government  Rela+ons   Direct:  (408)  630-­‐2884   www.valleywater.org   •  -­‐-­‐Rishi  Kumar,  City  Councilmember,  Saratoga   Join  my  community  ac+vi+es  hfp://www.rishikumar.com/Events   Email:  rkumar@saratoga.ca.us   PHONE  408  805  5993  ||  Facebook.com/VoteRishi  ||  @rishikumar1   Monthly  City  Council  update  hfp://www.rishikumar.com/newslefer  
  4. 4. AGENDA   •  Overview  of  Water  by  Councilmember  Rishi   Kumar,  rate  seing  process,  par+es  involved  etc   •  Santa  Clara  Valley  Water  District  explana+on  of   the  19%  hike   •  San  Jose  Water  Company  explana+on  of  their   rate  hikes   •  Q&A   •  Op+ons  for  Solu+on/  how  do  we  move  forward   •  Saratoga  Water  Ci+zen  Commifee  
  5. 5. Department  of  Water  Resources   (DWR)   •  The  Department  of  Water  Resources  (DWR)  is   responsible  for  managing  and  protec+ng   California’s  water  resources.  DWR  works  with   other  agencies  (like  SANTA  CLARA  VALLEY   WATER  DISTRICT)  to  benefit  the  State’s  people   and  to  protect,  restore  and  enhance  the   natural  and  human  environments.  
  6. 6. US  Bureau  of  Reclama+on  (USBR)   •  USBR  federal  agency  under  the   U.S.  Department  of  the  Interior,  which   oversees  water  resource  management,   specifically  as  it  applies  to  the  oversight  and   opera+on  of  the  diversion,  delivery,  and   storage  projects  that  it  has  built  throughout   the  western  United  States  for  irriga+on,   water  supply,  and  afendant  hydroelectric   power  genera+on.    
  7. 7. ROLE  OF  SANTA  CLARA  WATER   DISTRICT   •  A  Government  organiza+on   •  The  mission  of  the  district  is  to  provide  Silicon   Valley  safe,  clean  water  for  a  healthy  life,   environment,  and  economy.   •  Water  procured  from  DWR  and  USBR  
  8. 8. ROLE  OF  SAN  JOSE  WATER  COMPANY   •  San  Jose  Water  Company  is  an  investor  owned     public  u+lity,  and  is  one  of  the  largest  and   most  technically  sophis+cated  urban  water   system  in  the  United  States   •  SJWC  serves  Saratoga  and  we  are  SJWC’s   customers  
  9. 9. Role  of  CPUC   •  The  California  Public  U8li8es  Commission   regulates  privately  owned  electric,  natural  gas,   telecommunica+ons,  water,  railroad,  rail  transit,   and  passenger  transporta+on  companies,  in   addi+on  to  authorizing  video  franchises.     •  Their  five  Governor-­‐appointed  Commissioners,   as  well  as  staff,  are  dedicated  to  ensuring  that   consumers  have  safe,  reliable  u)lity  service  at   reasonable  rates,  protec)ng  against  fraud,  and   promo+ng  the  health  of  California's  economy.      
  10. 10. CAN  SJWC  apply  their  own  rates?     •  Which  government  body  regulates  SJWC  a   private  corpora+on?     Answer:  CPUC   •  Who  approved  the  surcharge?     Answer:  CPUC  (in  2015)   •   Do  we  have  a  Saratoga  Councilmember  on  the   CPUC  board?     Answer:  No!!  Saratoga’s  Councilmembers  have   nothing  to  do  with  the  CPUC  approvals.    SJWC  is  out   of  Saratoga’s  jurisdic+on.  
  11. 11. COUNCILMEMBERS  on  the  SANTA   CLARA  VALLEY  WATER  DISTRICT   COMMISSION   •  Saratoga’s  Mayor  appoints  a  council   representa+ve  to  Santa  Clara  Valley  Water   District   •  It  is  a  Commission  –  with  limited  decision   making  authority,  mostly  recommenda+on   and  voice  out  city  opinion   •  Rishi  Kumar  has  been  the  city  representa+ve   since  December  2014  
  12. 12. Decisions:  SANTA  CLARA  VALLEY   WATER  DISTRICT  BOARD   •  A  five  member  board  makes  decisions  for  the   Santa  Clara  Valley  Water  District   •  Nai  Hsueh  a  Saratoga  resident  is  elected   member  on  the  board  represen+ng  our   district  on  the  board  
  13. 13. RISHI’S  YES  vote  explained  below;   approved  19%  Ground  Water  Surcharge  for   Santa  Clara  Valley  Water  District   •  As  a  member  of  the  SCVWD  Commision,  I  voted  to  ensure  Santa  Clara  Valley   Water  District  will  con+nue  to  provide  Saratoga  good  quality  drinking  water  for   the  next  few  years,  with  considera+on  for  the  state  of  the  drought  and  it's   impact.     •  SCVWD  is  a  county  organiza+on  and  have  expenses  for  ground  water  produc+on   charges.  Here  are  the  expenses  they  were  asking  funding  for:   #1  Pay  for  construc+on,  maintenance  and  opera+on  of  produc+on  facili+es   #2  Pay  for  imported  water  purchase   #3  Pay  for  construc+ng  maintaining,  and  opera+ng  facili+es  which  will  conserved  or   distribute  water  including  facili+es  for  ground  water  recharge,  distribu+on,  purifica+on   and  treatment   #4  Pay  for  any  debt  we  incur  for  all  above   •  I  supported  this  -­‐  as  I  think  that  support  was  needed  for  Saratoga's  (and  Silicon   Valley)  water  needs  for  the  future.     •  Click  on  this  hfp://www.slideshare.net/rishi59/the-­‐rate-­‐seing-­‐process  to  read   the  gory  details  of  the  19%  SCVWD  rate  hike     But  our  vote  was  only  a  RECOMMENDATION.  The  Board  is  the  ul+mate  authority  
  14. 14. RISHI  KUMAR  DID  NOT  VOTE  FOR  ANY   INCREASE  IN  SJWC  CHARGES   •  Saratoga  Councilmembers  cannot  vote  to   approve  any  SJWC  charges   •  Saratoga  Councilmembers  do  not  have  the   authority  or  the  posi+on  
  15. 15. SCVWD  COMMISSION  VOTE  WAS  A   RECOMMENDATION   The  SCVWD  BOARD  IS  THE  AUTHORITY   •  So  why  wasn't  the  Commission's  vote  binding  for  staff?   Ul+mately,  the  commission  Council  is  on  only  makes   recommenda+on  when  we  vote,  we  are  called  a   "Commission"  -­‐  we  are  NOT  board  members.  We  are  NOT  a   decision  making  authority.     •  It  is  the  Santa  Clara  Water  District  Board  members  that   make  the  final  decision  which  they  did  soon  axer     •  This  vote  was  conducted  on  May  10th    Agenda  Item  2.9   •  hfps://scvwd.legistar.com/Mee+ngDetail.aspx? ID=459787&GUID=990BC7C8-­‐8851-­‐489D-­‐9FA1-­‐ C87E7AD681BF&Op+ons=&Search=   •  You  can  see  it  was  unanimously  voted  AYE  –     •  And  it  was  only  then  it  was  binding.  
  16. 16. SARATOGA’S  WATER  BILL   Four  components  of  increase  we  will  see   COMPON ENT   PERCENTAGE  INCREASE   WHO   APPROVED?   #1   6.7%  related  to  the  19%  SCVWD  ground  produc+on  charges  –   voted  by  SCVWD  Board   CPUC   #2   8.6%  CPUC  approved  them  for  8.6%  star+ng  Jan  1st  that  went   live  on  June  14th  –  based  on  a  rate  increase  package  submifed   by  SJWC   CPUC   #3   3%  for  the  Arrears  associated  with  above  approval   CPUC   #4   Surcharge  (approved  by  CPUC  in  2015)     CPUC   CPUC  regulates  SJWC  –  any  changes  needs  CPUC  approval  
  17. 17. MATH   •  If  your  water  bill  was  $100  last  year  and  you   consumed  the  exact  same  this  year   •  Assump+on:  Surcharge  remains  the  same   •  $100  +  $8.6  (CPUC  approved)  +  6.7%  (SCVWD   approved)  +  3%  (CPUC  approved  hike  arrears  for   January  1st  through  June  13th  2016)  =  APPROX $118.30   So  now  if  your  bill  was  $1,000,  and  you   consumed  the  same,  your  bill  would  be  $1,180.     •  Why  did  bills  go  2x  and  3x?  
  18. 18. SURCHARGE   •  So  the  only  reason  it  goes  to  $2,000  it  would   be  due  to  the  drought  surcharge.     •  Ques+on  to  you:  Are  we  going  to  get  stuck   with  the  8%  number  or  the  6%  number  or  look   at  why  my  bill  went  from  $1000  to  $2000  due   to  surcharge?  
  19. 19. LINK  TO  SJWC  MAILER   •  This  informa+on  was  sent  out  to  all  SJWC   customers  (the  PDF  doc  was  uploaded  to   slideshare)   •  hfp://www.slideshare.net/rishi59/sjwc-­‐lefer-­‐ to-­‐customer-­‐july-­‐2016  
  20. 20. We  protested  the  surcharge  (2015)   •  As  the  representa+ve  of  our  city  on  the  Santa  Clara   Valley  Water  District,  Councilmember  Rishi  Kumar  has   NOT  voted  in  favor  of  the  surcharge   •  In  fact  some  of  us  have  protested  at  the  public  rally  in   San  Jose  in  May  2015  along  with  Councilmember   Howard  Miller  and  Boardmember  Nai  Hsueh   •  The  CPUC  approved  the  surcharge  that  is  impac+ng   our  community   •  The  Math  for  the  Surcharge  does  not  help  Saratoga   with  our  large  lots,  and  how  the  surcharge  has  been   rolled-­‐out,  as  the  reasoning  behind  the  surcharge  is  to   promote  conserva+on  
  21. 21. COMPONENT  #1:  6.7%   •  The  19%  water  rate  hike  that  the  BOARD  of   SCVWD  approved  (not  us  on  the  commission)   resulted  in  a  a  6.7%  hike  for  SJWC’s  customers     •  This  was  approved  by  CPUC  based  on  the   ground  water  produc+on  charges  (19%)  that   the  SCVWD  Board  approved   – Councilmember  Rishi  Kumar  did  not  approve/vote   for  the  6.7%  hike  –  he  was  NOT  directly  involved  
  22. 22. COMPONENT  #2:  8.6%   •  SJWC  put  together  a  rate  hike  package  in  2015   (for  a  rate  hike  in  2016)   •  CPUC  voted  for  it  in  a  publicly  agendized   mee+ng   •  CPUC  approved  SJWC  for  8.6%  star+ng  Jan  1st,   2016  that  went  live  on  June  14th,  2016   •  The  rate  hike  should  have  been  done  before   January  1st,  but  it  got  delayed  
  23. 23. COMPONENT  #3:  3%   •  Since  the  vote  was  delayed,  the  8.6%  was   retroac+ve  from  Jan  1st,  2016  through  June   13th,  2016   •  3%  for  the  Arrears  associated  with  that  (from   CPUC)  -­‐  we  will  see  that  delta  increase  for  a   year,  starts  July  2016  
  24. 24. COMPONENT  #4:  SURCHARGE   •  Surcharge   •  When  we  exceed  our  quota  –    we  pay  a   penalty   •  Exponen+al  fines   •  John  Tang  to  explain  details  
  25. 25. SOLUTION  OPTIONS:   HOW  DO  WE  MOVE  FORWARD?  
  26. 26. APPEAL  TO  CPUC   •  **  Informa+on  on  how  to  contact  the  CPUC  is   available  at     •  hfps://www.sjwater.com/for_your_home/ home_customer_care/rates_regula+ons/ general_rate_informa+on/ customer_complaint_process  
  27. 27. ECONOMIC  HARDSHIP   •  ***  Link  to  Water  Rates  Assistance  Program  at   hfps://www.sjwater.com/for_your_home/ home_customer_care/rates_regula+ons/ water_rate_assistance_program_wrap  
  28. 28. Alloca+on  Appeal     •  hfps://www.sjwater.com/content/alloca+on-­‐ appeal-­‐form   •  See  Comprehensive  Drought  info  here   •  hfps://www.sjwater.com/news/topic/ comprehensive-­‐drought-­‐informa+on  
  29. 29. How  many  are  impacted?   What  is  the  extent  of  impact?   •  Please  submit  your  informa+on  at   – www.Tinyurl.com/ExorbitantBill    
  30. 30. Access  to  2013  Bill   •  Email   •  customer.service@sjwater.com     •   contact  SJWC  call  center  at  408-­‐279-­‐7900    
  31. 31. COUNCIL  AGENDA  TO  STRATEGIZE     •  Councilmember  Rishi  Kumar  will  seek  to  place  it   on  the  agenda  of  September  7th  for  discussion.   He  will  bring  it  up  at  the  August  17th  mee+ng   –  Place  it    on  the  Saratoga  Council  agenda,  put  together   a  plan  of  ac+on  as  a  group   •  Depending  on  Council  Direc+on  we  have  the   op+on  to  seek  help  from  other  elected   representa+ves  of  our  district  e.g   Congresswoman  Anna  Eshoo  etc  
  32. 32. Rishi  Kumar’s  water  bill  –  June+July   2016   •  My  bill  is  $192.40  for  June+July  2016.  Our   family  has  conserved!     •  Alloca+on  was  29.  We  hit  the  20  number  
  33. 33. Quo+ng  Lloyd  –  a  Saratoga  resident   •  "How  much  does  it  cost,  long-­‐term,  to  capture   and  deliver  clean,  healthy  water  to  our   houses?  That's  no  small  feat,  and  in  many   parts  of  the  world  it's  considered  a  luxury.  No   one  likes  a  big  water  bill  especially  axer  years   of  paying  so  lifle  for  water.  But  maybe  it's   necessary  in  order  for  people  to  understand   the  value  of  clean,  safe  water;  a  scarce   resource  that  maybe  shouldn't  be  wasted  on   sod  and  landscaping"  
  34. 34. SARATOGA  CITIZEN  WATER   COMMITTEE   •  Submit  your  interest  at     – www.Tinyurl.com/ExorbitantBill   •  Join  the  Facebook  group,  open  for  Saratoga   Ci+zens   •  hfps://www.facebook.com/groups/ SaratogaWater/  
  35. 35. MINUTES+ACTION  ITEMS     MINUTES:   –  -­‐  Rishi  walked  through  an  high  level  overview  of  the  rate  seing  process    and  the  current  %   increase  in  rates,  along  with  roles  and  responsibili+es  of  each  party  involved  in  the  process  -­‐  bring   everyone  to  the  same  page  and  arrive  at  common  understanding   –  SJWC  (John)  and  SCVWD  (Rachael)  provided  their  insights  on  rates.  John  spent  a  majority  of  the   +me  white  boarding  and  answering  ques+ons   –  APPEAL  PROCESS  link  was  provided      Link  to  Water  Rates  Assistance  Program  at   hfps://www.sjwater.com/for_your_home/home_customer_care/rates_regula+ons/ water_rate_assistance_program_wrap   –  Informa+on  on  how  to  contact  the  CPUC  is  available  at     hfps://www.sjwater.com/for_your_home/home_customer_care/rates_regula+ons/general_rate_informa+on/customer_complaint_process   ACTION  ITEMS:   •  SJWC  to  send  the  lefer,  Paul  Rogers  ar+cle  (see  next  slide)   •  SJWC  to  provide  the  online  2013  bill  (work  in  progress)   •  Rishi  to  send  the  deck    hfp://www.slideshare.net/rishi59/water-­‐mee+ng   •  Everyone  impacted  submits  informa+on    to  TINYURL  link  –  like  to  collect  data  on  the  extent  of  the   problem   •  Rishi  will  seek  to  put  this  on  the  city  council  agenda  by  discussion  on  August  17th  –  put  it  on  council   agenda  on  September  7th  to  forge  an  ac+on  plan  how  we  can  help  ci+zens  or  make  recommenda+ons   (.Depending  on  Council  decision,  seek  help  from  local  elected  leaders  and  poten+ally  collaborate  with   Saratoga  Water  Ci+zens  Commifee)  
  36. 36. Reading  Links  sent  over  by  SJWC   •  hfp://www.mercurynews.com/drought/ ci_29868853/california-­‐drought-­‐water-­‐ was+ng-­‐rules-­‐made-­‐permanent-­‐under   •  hfp://www.mercurynews.com/drought/ ci_30197773/california-­‐drought-­‐residents-­‐cut-­‐ water-­‐use-­‐21-­‐5  

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