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  1. 1. Lijin Golden ELECTORAL POLTICS
  2. 2. Major Areas of this Chapter 1. General Aspects regarding with Election  A Election Report in Haryana Chaudhary Devi Lal Nyaya Yudh Movement Formation of Lok Dal political party  Importance of Election Meaning of Election Choices getting to a voter  Features of Democratic Election  Is it good, a political competition in Democracy
  3. 3. 2. Indian Election System (Process and Prodedures)  How we can called Indian Election are democratic?  General, By, Midterm Election  Electoral Constituencies  Reserved Constituency  Voters List  Nomination of Candidates  Educational qualification of candidates  Election Campaign  Polling and Counting of Votes
  4. 4. 3. How we can call Election in India is a Democratic  Unfair election practices  Independent Election Commission  Participation in the Election  Acceptance of Election Result  Challenges of free and fair elections
  5. 5. Chaudhary Devi Lal & Lok Dal Party  Chaudhary Devi Lal was an opposition leader in Haryana  He started a movement called “Nyaya Yudh”- Struggle for Justice.  He formed a party- Lok Dal  His party joined with other opposition party against the Congress  In the election campaign he gave the promises if they will get a chance to form government would waive loan for farmers and small businessmen.  He promised that this would be the first action of his government.  The people were unhappy in the existing
  6. 6.  In 1987 State Assembly Election- Lok Dal and his party won 76 out of 90, Lok Dal alone won 60, Congress got 5 seats only  The existing chief minister has resigned and Governor invited Devi Lal to be the new Chief Minister  As soon as he became the chief minister, government issued loans of small farmers, agricultural labourers and small businessmen.  Party ruled Haryana in the next four years.  In the next election in 1991, the Congress won the election and formed the government.
  7. 7. What do you mean by Election? The election is a mechanism in which the people can choose their representatives at regular intervals and change them if they wish to do so. This mechanism is called Election
  8. 8. Why do we need Election in Democracy?  The large countries like India, practically it is not possible for people to sit together every day and take all the decisions.  Nor everyone has the time and knowledge to take decisions on all matters.  So in most democracies people rule through their representatives.  Election provides a mechanism by which people can choose their representatives at regular intervals and change them if they wish to do so.  So election are essential in any representative democracy.
  9. 9. Which are the choices getting a Voter during the time of Election 1. They can choose who will make laws for them. 2. They can chose who will form the government and take major decisions. 3. They can choose the party whose policies will guide the government and law making.
  10. 10. What makes an Election Democratic? (Or) Features of Democratic Election 1. Everyone should be able to choose: It means that everyone should have one vote and every vote should have equal value. 2. There should be something to choose: the Parties and Candidate should be free to contest elections and should offer some real choice to the voters.
  11. 11. 3. The Choice should be offered at regular intervals: Election must be held regularly after every few years. 4. The candidate preffered by the people should get elected. 5. Election should be conducted in a free and fair manner: The people can choose as they really wish.
  12. 12. Various forms of Political Competition 1. Competition among several candidates for Party Tickets. 2. Competition for Top Positions in the Party 3. Competition among political Parties 4. Competition between several candidates at Constituency level. (If there is no competition, election will become pointless)
  13. 13. Demerits of Political (Electoral) Competition in India 1. It creates a sense of disunity and factionalism in every locality. 2. Different political parties and leaders often put allegations against one another. 3. Parties and candidates often use dirty tricks to win the election 4. Pressure to win electoral fights does not allow sensible long term policies to be formulated. (But some good people who may wish to serve the country do not enter this field).
  14. 14. Merits of Political (Electoral) Competition 1. Regular electoral competition provides incentives to political parties and leaders. 2. They know that if they raise issues that people want to be raised, their popularity and chance of victory will increase in the next election. If they fail, they can’t to win the next election. 3. If any party is motivated only by desires to be in power, even then it will be forced to serve the people. 4. Political competition may cause divisions and ugliness, but it finally helps to force political parties and leaders to serve people.
  15. 15. 2. Indian Election System (Process and Prodedures)  How we can called Indian Election are democratic?  General, By, Midterm Election  Electoral Constituencies  Reserved Constituency  Voters List  Nomination of Candidates  Educational qualification of candidates  Election Campaign  Polling and Counting of Votes
  16. 16. How we can called Indian Election are Democratic? 1. Universal Adult Franchise: All the adult citizens they are getting a right to vote and each persons they have “One vote must carry one Value”. 2. Electoral Choice: Competition between political parties and between various candidates. One party system is opposed the spirit of democracy 3. Elections at Regular Intervals: There are periodic elections in democracy 4. Free and fair Election: In a democracy voters are not subject to pressure or fear. They can choose the candidate according to their own wish
  17. 17. Different Types of Election in India (Or) Difference between- General, By and Midterm Election General Election The Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha (State Assembly) election are held regularly every five years. The Lok Sabha or Vidhan Sabha stands dissolved. Election are held in all constituencies at the same time, either on the same day or within few days. First General Election was held in : 1952 15th Lok Sabha Election held in : April- May 2009.
  18. 18. By- Election The election is held only for one constituency to fill the vacancy caused by death or resignation of a member. This is called By- Election Midterm Election The Lok Sabha or State Assembly may be dissolved before its term of five years is before, midterm poll is required to constitute a new House. In fact the expression midterm Election has no legal significance, because election to the Lok Sabha is invariably called a General Election
  19. 19. Meaning- Electoral Constituencies In India we are following an area based system of representation. For this purpose Country is divided into different areas for the purpose of election. These areas are called Electoral Constituencies. For Lok Sabha election, the country is divided into 543 Constituencies. The representative elected from each constituency is called a Member of Parliament or MP
  20. 20. Each state is divided into a specific number of Assembly Constituencies. The elected representative is called the Member of Legislative Assembly or MLA In the Municipal and Panchayat election, each village or town is divided into several wards like constituencies. Some times these constituencies are counted as ‘Seats’, Each constituency represent one seat in the assembly Eg: Lok Dal won 60 seats in Haryana, it means that candidate of Lok Dal won in 60 assembly constituencies.
  21. 21. What is the meaning of Reserved Constituency? In India some Constituencies are reserved for people who belong to the Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST). In a SC reserved constituency only someone who belongs to the Scheduled castes can stand for election. Similarly those who are belonging to the Scheduled Tribes can stand for election Scheduled Caste reservation: 79 Seats (84) Scheduled Tribe Constituency: 41 Seats (47)
  22. 22. Why do we need Reserved Constituencies? Indian Constitution ensures every citizen to elect its representatives and to be elected as a representative. Indian Constitution makers made a special system of reserved constituencies for Weaker Section to get elected to the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assembly. Because they have of lack of resources, education and contacts to contest and win election against others. So some constituencies are reserved for Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST). In many states seats in local bodies (Village and Municipalities) are reserved for Other Backward
  23. 23. Meaning of Voters’ List and its importance in Democratic Election In a democratic election the list of people eligible to vote is prepared much before the election. This list is officially called the Electoral Roll and is commonly known as the Voter’s List. This is the important step and linked to the first condition of democratic election. The electoral roll is normally revised every year to add the names of those who are to turn 18 on the 1st January of that year or have moved into a constituency and to remove the names of those who have died or moved out of the constituency. A
  24. 24. Election Photo Identity Card (EPIC) This is a new system introduced by the Election Commission. The government has tried to give this card to every person on the Voters List. The Voters are required to carry this card when they go out to vote. So that no one can vote for someone else. But the card is not yet compulsory for voting. For voting, the voters can show many other proofs of identity like ration card or driving license.
  25. 25. Nomination of Candidates  In a democratic Election people should have a real choices and there is no restriction to anyone to contest in the election.  Anyone who can be a voter can also become a candidate in election.  The only difference is that in order to be a candidate the minimum age is 25 years, while it is only 18 years for being a voter.  Another one restriction those who are criminals in extreme case can’t contest in the election.  The political parties nominate their candidates who get the party symbols and support.  Party’s nomination is often called- ‘Party Ticket’
  26. 26. Recently Supreme Court declared a new direction for the candidates. Every candidates needs to give a legal declaration about 1. Serious criminal cases pending against the candidates 2. Details of the assets and liabilities of the candidate and his or her family 3. Educational qualification of the candidate This information has to be made public. This provides an opportunity to the voters to make their decision on the basis of the information provided by the candidate
  27. 27. Educational Qualification of the Candidates 1. Educational Qualification are not relevant to all kinds of the job. Similarly the relevant qualification for being an MLA or MP is the ability to understand people’s concerns, problems and to represent their interest. Whether they can do so or not is examined by lakhs of examiners- their voters- every five years. 2. Even if the education was relevant, it should be left to the people to decide how much importance they give to educational qualifications. 3. In India putting an educational qualification would go against the spirit of democracy for yet another reason. It would mean depriving a majority of the country’s citizen the right to contest the election. If any graduate degree
  28. 28. Need of Election Campaign in a Democratic form of Government  In India election campaigns take place for a two week period between the announcement of the final list of candidates and the date of polling.  During this period the candidates contact their voters, political leaders address election meetings and political parties mobilise their supporters. The publicity is done through news papers, television channels, election meetings, posters etc.  In election campaigns, political parties try to focus public attention on some big issues for which usually catchy slogans are created to attract people’s attention
  29. 29. Demerits of Election Campaign 1. It creates a sense of disunity and factionalism in every locality 2. Different political parties and leaders often put allegations against one another. 3. Parties and Candidates often use dirty tricks to win the election 4. Pressure to win electoral fights does not allow sensible long term policies to be formulated 5. Some good people who may wish to serve the country do not enter this field.
  30. 30. Some Catchy Slogans used by some political parties during the time of Election  Garibi Hatao (Remove Poverty)- The Congress party led by Indira Gabdhi in the Lok Sabha Election- 1971.  Save democracy- Janata Party during the Lok Sabha Election in 1977 election. The party promises restore civil liberties happened during the time of emergency.  Land to the Tiller- Left Front in West Bengal State Assembly election- 1977.  Protect the Self Respect of the Telugus- N.T. Rama Rao, the leader of Telugu Desam Party in AP State Assembly Election- 1988
  31. 31. According to the Election Law the Party and Candidates can’t to do……….. In democracy it is best to leave political parties and candidates free to conduct their election campaign the way they want to do. But some times necessary to regulate campaigns to ensure that every political party and candidate gets a fair and equal chance to compete. According to our election law, no party or candidate can’t to do 1. Bribe or threaten voters. 2. Appeal to them in the name of Caste and Religion 3. Use government resources for election campaign 4. Spend more than 25 lakh in a constituency for Lok Sabha electionand 10 lakh in the State
  32. 32. According to the Code of Conduct the Parties and Candidates can’t to do……. In addition to the Election Laws, all the political parties in our country have to agreed to a model Code of Conduct. According to this no party or candidate’s can’t to do 1. Use any place of worship for election propaganda 2. Use government vehicles, aircrafts and officials for elections. 3. Once elections are announced, ministers shall not lay foundation stones of any projects, take any big policy decisions or make any promises of providing public facilities
  33. 33. What Makes Indian Election Democratic? (Or) How we can say Indian Election is free and fair? 1. Independent Election Commission 2. Mass level Popular Participation 3. Acceptance of Election Result 4. Free and Free Election
  34. 34. Independent Election Commission  In India elections are conducted by an independent and powerful autonomous Election Commission.  The president of India appointing the Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) and two other Election Commissioner for a six years of period.  It enjoys the same kind of independence that the judiciary enjoys.  But once appointed the Election commission is not answerable to the president or government.  Even if the ruling party or the government does not like what commission does, it is impossible for to remove the CEC and they need to obey.
  35. 35. Functions of Election Commission in India 1. EC takes decision on every aspect of conduct and control of election from the announcement of election to the declaration of results. 2. It implements the code of conduct and punishes any candidate or party that violates it. 3. It can also order the government to follow some guideline, to prevent use and misuse of governmental power to enhance its chance to win elections, or to transfer some governmental officials 4. When on the election duty, government officers work under the control of the EC and not the government. 5. To give an advice to the President on some certain issues.
  36. 36. Mass Level Popular participation  Peoples participation in election is usually measured by voter turnout figures. Turnout indicates the percentage of eligible voters who actually cast their vote. In the last fifty years, the turnout in Europe and North America has declined. In India the turnout has either remained stable or actually gone up. ( See the graph- Figure 1, page No:70)  In India illiterate, poor and underprivileged people vote in larger portion as compared to rich and privileged section. This is a contrast to compare with western countries. In USA the poor, Afro Americans and Hispanics vote much less than the rich and white people.
  37. 37.  Common people in India attach a lot of importance to elections. They feel that through elections they can bring pressure on political partries to adopt policies and programmes favorable to them. They also feel that their vote matters in the way things are run in the country (See the diagram - Figure 3, Page No: 71)  The interest of the voters in election related activities has been increasing over the years. In 2004 election, more than one third voters took part in campaign related activities. More than half of the people identified themselves as being close to one or the other political party. One out of every seven voters is member of a political party. (See the graph- figure 4, page no: 71)
  38. 38. Acceptance of Election Result If the election are not free and fair, the outcome always favours the powerful. In such situation the ruling parties do not lose election and losing party does not accept the outcome of a rigged election The outcome of India’s election speaks it self 1. The ruling parties routinely lose elections in India both at national and state level. Every two out of three elections held in the last fifteen years, the ruling party lost. 2. In USA, an incumbent or sitting elected representatives rarely loses an election. In India about half of the sitting MP and MLA lose elections 3. Candidate who are known to have spent a lot of money on buying voters and those with criminal connection often lose election
  39. 39. Free and Fair Election Indian election are basically free and fair. The party that wins an election and forms government . But in some constituencies a few candidates may win purely on the basis of money power and unfair means. But the overall verdict of a general election still reflects popular reference. However many limitations and challenges in Indian election for to conduct the free and fair election in India.
  40. 40. Challenges of free and fair election in India 1. Candidates and parties with lot of money may not be sure of their victory but they do enjoy a big and unfair advantages over smaller parties and independence. 2. In some parts of the country, candidates with criminal connection have been able to push others out of the electoral race and to secure the ticket from major parties. 3. Some families rend to dominate political parties; tickets are distributed to relatives from these families. 4. Very often elections offer little choice to ordinary citizens, for both the major parties are quite similar to each other both in policies and practice. 5. Smaller parties and independent candidates suffer a huge disadvantages compared to bigger parties.
  41. 41. Short Notes About 1. Booth Capturing: Supporters or hired musclemen of party or a candidate gain physical control of a polling booth and cast false votes by threatening everyone or by preventing genuine voters from reaching the polling booth. 2. Code of Conduct: A set of norms and guidelines to be followed by political parties and contesting candidates during election time 3. Constituency: Voters in a geographical area who elect a representative to the legislative bodies. 4. Incumbent: The current holder of a political office. Usually the choices for the voters in elections is between the incumbent party or candidate and those
  42. 42. 5. Level Playing Field: Condition in which all parties and candidates contesting in an election have equal opportunities to appeal for votes and to carry out election campaign. 6. Rigging: Fraud and malpractices indulged by a party or candidate to increase its votes. It includes stuffing ballot boxes by a few persons using the votes of others; recording multiple votes by the same person; and bribing or coercing polling officers to favour a candidate. 7. Turnout : The percentage of eligible voters who cast their votes in an election