Science of Behavior Change for Adaptation to Climate James O. Prochaska, Ph.D. Change Director and Professor Cancer Prevention Research Center University of Rhode Island .
Transtheoretical Model (TTM)Model of Intentional Behavior Change OverviewBasis for developing interventions to promote (health) behavior changeDescribes how people:modify a problem behavior acquire a positive one
Precontemplation Stages of Change Not Ready to Take Action Have no intention to start taking action in the next 6 months. Stages of Change Example: * Currently not exercising. * Do not intend to begin exercising in the next 6 months.
1. UninformedCharacteristics of Precontemplation2. Demoralization3. Denial
Contemplation Stages of Change Thinking About Taking Action Intend to start in the next 6 months Stages of Change Example:* Currently not exercising.* Intend to begin exercising in the next 6 months.
Characteristics of Contemplation1. Doubt2. Delay
Preparation Stages of Change Getting Ready to Take Action Intend to start in the Stages of Change next 30 days Example:* Currently not exercising.* Intend to begin exercising in the next 30 days.
Characteristics of Preparation1. Fear of failure2. Be prepared
Action Stages of Change Behavior Change Recently Started Consistently for less than Stages of Change 6 months Example: * Exercising. * Have been exercising for less than 6 months.
Maintenance Stages of Change Has Changed Behavior for an Extended Time Consistently for more Stages of Change than 6 months Example: * Exercising. * Have been exercising for more than 6 months.
Two Examples Stages of Change Pre- Contemplation Preparation Action Maintenancecontemplation sump pump installation
How do people move from one stage to another? Stage Transition Processes of Change Decisional Self- Balance Efficacy STAGE
Decisional Balance Pros = Pros & Cons Cons = Advantages Disadvantages of changing of changing Exercising Exercising + more energy - takes time + sleep better - could get injured+ more productive at work - $ equipment/membership Adapting Adapting+ home/property protected - takes time+ reduce community burden - $ to adapt+ save money (in the future) - may not be worth it
How do people move from one stage to another? Decisional Balance Pros = Advantages of changing Cons = Disadvantages A growing awareness that the advantages (Pros) of of changing changing outweigh the disadvantages (Cons)
Stage Transitions 56 54 52 Pros Cons 50 48 46 44 The pros and cons of changing across stages of change for 48 PC Cont PR Action Maint behaviorsHall, K. L. & Rossi, J. S. (2008). Meta-analytic examination of the strong and weak principles across 48 healthbehaviors. Preventive Medicine, 46, 266-274.
Self-Efficacy ConfidenceNot at all Confident Very Confident 1-------2-------3-------4-------5 Exercising * When I am stressed. * When I am tired.* When I don’t have a workout buddy. Adapting * When it costs me too much $. * When I can’t find people to help me. * When I think about the uncertainty of damage.
Self-EfficacyHow do people move from one stage to another? Confidence 60 Confidence / Self-Efficacy 50 40 Precontemplation Contemplation Preparation Action Maintenance Confidence that they can make and maintain PC C PR A M changes in difficult situations
Strategies that can help people make and maintain change Processes of Change 10 Processes of Change; 2 types Consciousness Raising Self Liberation Experiential Processes Behavioral Processes Dramatic Relief Counter Conditioning Environmental Reevaluation Stimulus Control Social Liberation Reinforcement Management Self Reevaluation Helping Relationships Different processes are most effective at different Stages of Change