Frameworks for the Processes & Outcomes of MSP Stephen B. Olsen
Frameworks forthe Processes & Outcomes of MSPSimplification in a Context of Complexity Stephen B. Olsen Director, The Coastal Resources Center University of Rhode Island
Why? For Whom? Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) is A complex, lengthyprocess combining Often extending Politically charged,science, stakeholder over many years often rich in conflictsparticipation and policymaking• Can this complexity be portrayed to – highlight the most essential features of distinct phases? – How best to sequence the many actions?• Can such frameworks encourage transparency and accountability for all concerned?• Be applied at a range of spatial scales and socio-political settings?• And can such frameworks encourage comparison across initiatives and collaborative learning?
Two Frameworks How WhyThe Ecosystem Governance Cycle The Orders of OutcomesModeled on the learning cycle Disaggregate the ultimate goal of sustainable forms• designed to emphasize of development into a differences in the nature of each sequence of more tangible phase outcomes• essential actions associated with each phase
Socio-Environmental Systems Ecosystem Governance Ecosystem Good & ServicesEnvironmental Societal Domain Domain
Ecosystem GovernanceThe formal and informal arrangements, institutions,and mores that structure and influence: • How resources or an environment are utilized • How problems,opportunities are evaluated, analyzed • What behavior is acceptable or forbidden • What rules & sanctions are applied to affect how natural resources are distributed and used Juda and Hennessey, 2007
Principle Sources andMechanisms of Governance Market Civil Society Government Economic Legal/Political Social Mechanisms Mechanisms Mechanisms Human Uses of Ecosystems
Progressively larger cycles indicate growth in scope GESAMP, 1996
MSP is an Issue‐Driven Process • MSP research should be directed at the problems and the opportunities (issues) that the plan and policies will address • Stakeholders and the public engage in MSP when it addresses issues that matter to them • The perceived importance of individual issues often shifts with each step
Three Categories of Issues for Ecosystem GovernanceEnvironmental threats or declines in 1ecosystem goods and servicesSocietal needs, desires and conflicts 2Weaknesses in the governance system 3
Good process does not always generate the anticipated outcomes!
The Implementation Gap• Appears when issue analysis, planning, stakeholder involvement, and governmental mandates DO NOT• Produce the changes in behavior that signal implementation of a policy or plan of action AND THERFORE DO NOT GENERATE• The anticipated outcomes
The Orders of Outcomes Framework Assembly of Implementat The Harvest The Ultimate the ion as Achievement Goal Enabling Changes in of Selected Sustainable Conditions Behavior Societal and Forms of Goals Resource Environmenta Ecosystem Constituencies users l Goals Development Capacity Institutions Commitment Investments Time
The Orders of Outcomes Global Scale Regional National Local End Outcomes Intermediate Outcomes First Order: Second Order: Third Order: Fourth Order: Enabling Conditions Changed Behavior Attainment of Sustainable Ecosystem Program Goals Conditions & Uses Governmental commitment: authority, Changes in behavior of Some targets for social A desirable and funding; institutions and and/or environmental dynamic balance stakeholder groups; qualities maintained, between social and Institutional capacity to restored or improved. environmental implement; Changes in behaviors conditions is sustained. directly affecting Unambiguous goals; resources of concern; Constituencies present at Changes in investment local and national levels. strategies. TimeSource: Olsen et al., 2006
The Four 1st Order Enabling Conditions• GOALS for specified environmental and societal outcomes• Supportive and informed CONSTITUENCIES sufficient to generate political will• COMMITMENTS that provide the necessary authorities and resources for implementation• The necessary CAPACITY is present within implementing institutions
The Frameworks are a Basis for Monitoring and Evaluation• Graduated indicators have been developed for each element of the 5 step governance cycle and for each attribute of the 1st, 2nd and 3d Order Outcomes (UNEP, 2006; LOICZ, 2010)• These indicators can be applied to document baseline conditions and then periodically track progress and adaptation• Designed as “scorecards,” these can – encourage interdisciplinary engagement – promote a transparent process to stakeholders