East Coast Shellfish
Aquaculture
Status and Trends
Production Value
and Ecosystem Services
Bob Rheault
Executive Director
...
Data Disclaimer
Data are collected from a wide variety of
sources
Some recent – some not so much
Some quite accurate – som...
Thanks to:
Chris Davis
Dana Morse
Sebastian Belle
Rich Langan
Ray Grizzle
Jerry Moles
Dave Beutel
Tessa Getchis
Dave Carey...
2012 East Coast
Shellfish Industry Snapshot

• About 1000 small farms
• ~30 with more than 10 employees
• 60% clams, 39% o...
Maine Production
• 2005 77 farms $ 2.8 M sales, 57FT jobs
• Up from 1998 15 farms $1.5 M sales
• 6 hatcheries, $1.8 M sale...
Massachusetts (2012)

•$11.6 M oysters – growing fast

•Almost half from Duxbury on just 72 acres
•MSX hit Duxbury in 2010...
MSX
Massachusetts Shellfish
Harvest Value in Millions
14
12
10
8

Value tripled
In 15 years

6
4

MSX

2
0
1997

1999

200...
Rhode Island Farm Gate
Will top $3 million in 2013

3

2

Almost all Oysters
Growing ~20% a year
50 farms
173 acres
105 jo...
CT Production ?
• Oysters

$12 M ? – 98% traditional extensive
bottom culture

• Clams $20.5 M
• 70,000 acres leased, but ...
Connecticut Clam and Oyster Landings
1990-2008 in millions
50
45

35

Oysters

?

30

1997 MSX

25
Good
Set

20
15

Clams
...
New York
• ~$7.6 M in oysters ?
• ~$2.3 M in clams
• 3 Commercial hatcheries
• 3 Towns have hatcheries for
enhancement

• ...
New Jersey Clams
• $2.6M price flat since 90s
• Leasing system appears “broken”
• 5 regulatory agencies in-fighting
• Hurr...
New Jersey Oysters

• About 12 growers using container
culture

• ~ $760,000 – up 3-fold in 2 years
• Expansion limited by...
Delaware

• Was illegal
• New laws passed this year allowing
first leases since 1930

• Where we were in RI 20-30 years ag...
Maryland
• Traditional watermen have thwarted leasing
• 2009 Governor acknowledged that
restoration efforts were not worki...
www.vims.edu/map/aquaculture
Thomas J. Murray, Karen Hudson
Virginia Sea Grant, VIMS
Number of Single, Cultured Market
Oysters (millions)
30
25

28.1

Ignores spat on shell for shucking
23.3

$ 9.6 M in oyst...
North Carolina

• A few small intensive oyster growers
• 2.39 M oysters worth $266,000
• 2.2 M clams from culture worth $2...
South
Carolina
• 54 farms
• $287,000 value
(intensive culture)

•
•

overset issues
permitting issues

• Not counting trad...
Georgia
• About 11 clam farmers
• Wild and cultured clams not reported
separately

• Oysters and clams the only two

fishe...
Florida (2007)

• 153 growers produced 185 M clams $19 M
• ($18M in 2001, down to $10.7M in 2005)
• Hurricanes and red tid...
Overall
East
Coast
Shellfish
Aquaculture
Oyster production growing
Clam production slowing
Growth strongest in Virginia an...
Overall Value of the East Coast
Shellfish Aquaculture Industry
Harvest value $73M clams, $47M oysters
$120M x 2.5 multipli...
Ecosystem Services for Valuation
Nutrient removal – bio-harvest, denitrification,
burial, sequestration
Habitat enhancemen...
Nutrient Removal at Harvest
Each oyster contains 0.2-0.5 grams N in tissue
and shell protein – (clams est. ~ 0.3 grams N)
...
Nutrient Removal
Denitrification –
Difficult to quantify, variable in time and space Not likely at this time
Could dwarf h...
Habitat Improvement
vertical structure and complexity
Valuation of the juvenile fish that survive or thrive
because of an ...
Turbidity Reduction
Filter feeding activity enhances the flux of
mirco-seston to the benthos where worms and
amphipods can...
Benthic Stabilization
and Erosion Prevention




In certain areas this is a huge concern.
Homeowners are desperate to p...
Valuations
Harvest
$120 million
Multiplier 2.5 x
~ $300 million
Jobs
1,200 full time, 1,300 part time
Nutrient removal (ha...
Conclusion:
The value of ecosystem services
may rival or exceed the value of
harvest.

Questions?
Bob@ECSGA.org
Bob Rheault, "East Coast Shellfish Aquaculture Status and TrendsProduction Value and Ecosystem Services," Baird Symposium
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Bob Rheault, "East Coast Shellfish Aquaculture Status and Trends Production Value and Ecosystem Services," Baird Symposium

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Bob Rheault, Executive Director, East Coast Shellfish Growers Association

Topic: Growing the Crop

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Bob Rheault, "East Coast Shellfish Aquaculture Status and Trends Production Value and Ecosystem Services," Baird Symposium

  1. 1. East Coast Shellfish Aquaculture Status and Trends Production Value and Ecosystem Services Bob Rheault Executive Director East Coast Shellfish Growers Association bob@ECSGA.org
  2. 2. Data Disclaimer Data are collected from a wide variety of sources Some recent – some not so much Some quite accurate – some is an “educated guesstimate”
  3. 3. Thanks to: Chris Davis Dana Morse Sebastian Belle Rich Langan Ray Grizzle Jerry Moles Dave Beutel Tessa Getchis Dave Carey Gregg Rivara Bill Hastback Gef Flimlin Walt Canzonier Karl Roscher Mike Oesterling Karen Hudson Tom Murray Stan Allen Michael Cosgrove Marc Turano Nancy Hadley Leslie Sturmer Several published reports USDA Aquaculture Census
  4. 4. 2012 East Coast Shellfish Industry Snapshot • About 1000 small farms • ~30 with more than 10 employees • 60% clams, 39% oysters, 1% mussels •~ $ 120 Million in sales (up from $93M in ’09 – most growth in oysters)
  5. 5. Maine Production • 2005 77 farms $ 2.8 M sales, 57FT jobs • Up from 1998 15 farms $1.5 M sales • 6 hatcheries, $1.8 M sales, 35 jobs • Growth in mussels – 8 leases ~ $1M • MSX killed ~ 25% of oysters in 2010-11
  6. 6. Massachusetts (2012) •$11.6 M oysters – growing fast •Almost half from Duxbury on just 72 acres •MSX hit Duxbury in 2010-2011 took ~50% •$1.6 M clams – dropping •349 lease holders •1031 total acres
  7. 7. MSX Massachusetts Shellfish Harvest Value in Millions 14 12 10 8 Value tripled In 15 years 6 4 MSX 2 0 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013
  8. 8. Rhode Island Farm Gate Will top $3 million in 2013 3 2 Almost all Oysters Growing ~20% a year 50 farms 173 acres 105 jobs $16,360/acre $2.84M In 2012 20% annual growth 1 0 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011
  9. 9. CT Production ? • Oysters $12 M ? – 98% traditional extensive bottom culture • Clams $20.5 M • 70,000 acres leased, but less than 1/3 planted • 35 firms (2 dominant) • 16,500 acres of protected seed beds
  10. 10. Connecticut Clam and Oyster Landings 1990-2008 in millions 50 45 35 Oysters ? 30 1997 MSX 25 Good Set 20 15 Clams 10 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 0 1991 5 1990 Millions of dollars 40
  11. 11. New York • ~$7.6 M in oysters ? • ~$2.3 M in clams • 3 Commercial hatcheries • 3 Towns have hatcheries for enhancement • Expansion of small leases following new lease law in Suffolk County
  12. 12. New Jersey Clams • $2.6M price flat since 90s • Leasing system appears “broken” • 5 regulatory agencies in-fighting • Hurricane Sandy did lots of damage
  13. 13. New Jersey Oysters • About 12 growers using container culture • ~ $760,000 – up 3-fold in 2 years • Expansion limited by leasing issues (eelgrass, horseshoe crabs) • Massive traditional shell planting effort in Delaware Bay Approx. $4 M ? landed value in 2008
  14. 14. Delaware • Was illegal • New laws passed this year allowing first leases since 1930 • Where we were in RI 20-30 years ago
  15. 15. Maryland • Traditional watermen have thwarted leasing • 2009 Governor acknowledged that restoration efforts were not working. • Rewrote all the regulations and lease laws pushed for development of aquaculture • Potential to become a major producer on over 3,300 acres of leases • Over 300 million oysters planted this year
  16. 16. www.vims.edu/map/aquaculture Thomas J. Murray, Karen Hudson Virginia Sea Grant, VIMS
  17. 17. Number of Single, Cultured Market Oysters (millions) 30 25 28.1 Ignores spat on shell for shucking 23.3 $ 9.6 M in oysters (price remains strong) Millions 20 $ 36 M clams (price flat) 15 16.9 Disease resistant lines triploidy 12.6 9.8 10 4.8 5 3.1 0.84 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
  18. 18. North Carolina • A few small intensive oyster growers • 2.39 M oysters worth $266,000 • 2.2 M clams from culture worth $247,000 • Declining water quality from coastal development • Leasing hampered by historical eelgrass concerns
  19. 19. South Carolina • 54 farms • $287,000 value (intensive culture) • • overset issues permitting issues • Not counting traditional cultch planting and relay • Most oysters go to shucked meat market or for roasting
  20. 20. Georgia • About 11 clam farmers • Wild and cultured clams not reported separately • Oysters and clams the only two fisheries with increased landings in the past decade
  21. 21. Florida (2007) • 153 growers produced 185 M clams $19 M • ($18M in 2001, down to $10.7M in 2005) • Hurricanes and red tides (Indian River) • Market competition continues to hurt prices • BP Spill suppressed market in 2011 by 30%
  22. 22. Overall East Coast Shellfish Aquaculture Oyster production growing Clam production slowing Growth strongest in Virginia and New England Potential for mussels if we can overcome leasing issues
  23. 23. Overall Value of the East Coast Shellfish Aquaculture Industry Harvest value $73M clams, $47M oysters $120M x 2.5 multiplier = $300M economic impact 1221 full time jobs, 1294 part time or seasonal What about evaluating ecosystem services ?
  24. 24. Ecosystem Services for Valuation Nutrient removal – bio-harvest, denitrification, burial, sequestration Habitat enhancement – complexity and vertical structure provides food and refuge, stimulates abundance and diversity like natural and artificial reefs Turbidity reduction and improved water quality Benthic stabilization – erosion mitigation Larvae production
  25. 25. Nutrient Removal at Harvest Each oyster contains 0.2-0.5 grams N in tissue and shell protein – (clams est. ~ 0.3 grams N) (Newell 2004 , Grizzle 2011, Stephenson & Shabman 2011) The harvest of 550M clams ~160 metric Tons N and 120M oysters ~58 metric Tons N @ $13/kg = $2.8 million 2.3% of landed value (Piehler and Smythe 2011) @ $330/kg = – 59% of harvest value (Stephenson et al. 2010)
  26. 26. Nutrient Removal Denitrification – Difficult to quantify, variable in time and space Not likely at this time Could dwarf harvest values (Newell et al. 2005, Stevenson & Brown 2006, Piehler & Smythe 2011, and Kellog in prep.) Could be insignificant (Stephenson 2011, Golen 2007) Piehler and Smythe 2011 valued nitrogen removal services of NC oyster reefs at $3,000 per acre. 20,000 acres @ $3,000 = $60 million
  27. 27. Habitat Improvement vertical structure and complexity Valuation of the juvenile fish that survive or thrive because of an acre of habitat with vertical structure as opposed to barren bottom…? Enhanced commercial fisheries landings estimates: (Grabowski et al. 2007) ~$1,670/acy (Kroeger & Guanel in prep.) ~$14,500/acy Willingness to pay for artificial and restored reef systems – $7,500 to >$100,000 per acre $7,500 x 20,000 Acres = $150 million
  28. 28. Turbidity Reduction Filter feeding activity enhances the flux of mirco-seston to the benthos where worms and amphipods can eat it. Enhanced light penetration deepens the euphotic zone and can allow eelgrass to recover. Grazing off the peaks of bloom events can lessen the severity of the crash that follows. Reduction in pathogen concentrations. All very challenging to evaluate…
  29. 29. Benthic Stabilization and Erosion Prevention    In certain areas this is a huge concern. Homeowners are desperate to preserve their homes. Resource managers trying to preserve marsh habitat. - Spatially variable - Tough to valuate
  30. 30. Valuations Harvest $120 million Multiplier 2.5 x ~ $300 million Jobs 1,200 full time, 1,300 part time Nutrient removal (harvest only) $2.6 - $67 million Habitat improvement $150 million Turbidity removal ? Shoreline stabilization ? Carbon credits $5-20/ton ?
  31. 31. Conclusion: The value of ecosystem services may rival or exceed the value of harvest. Questions? Bob@ECSGA.org

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