Cell is the structural & functional unit of all living organisms.   Cell  Dr Khandaker Abu Rayhan Associate Professor  Ana...
<ul><li>Cell consist of   </li></ul><ul><li>1. Cell membrane  2. Protoplasm:  </li></ul><ul><li>  a) Cytoplasm      b) Nuc...
<ul><li>Cytoplasm contain :   </li></ul><ul><li>1. Membranous organelles  </li></ul><ul><li>2. Non membranous organelles  ...
<ul><li>2. Non membranous </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosome  </li></ul><ul><li>Centrosome  </li></ul><ul><li>Microtubules </li></...
PLASMA MEMBRANES
<ul><li>All eukaryotic of is cells are enveloped by </li></ul><ul><li>a  thin tough and elastic  limiting  membrane  </li>...
<ul><li>Compositions  </li></ul><ul><li>Protein- 55%  </li></ul><ul><li>Phospholipid- 25%  </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol- ...
<ul><li>Proteins are major molecular constituents of  membrane about 50% weight in the  plasma membrane.   Two type   Inte...
Integral proteins   are directly incorporated with in the lipid bilayer  providing channels for water soluble particles. <...
2. Lipid   all  the  lipids  of  the membrane form a lipid bilayer    composed of  a) Phospholipid &  b) cholesterol.   <u...
<ul><li>With in the  phospholipid  hydrophobic  </li></ul><ul><li>chain  directed  toward  the  center  of  the  </li></ul...
Cell controls the fluidity of the membrane through the amount of cholesterol.   <ul><li>3. Carbohydrate   </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Some  of  the protein molecules of  </li></ul><ul><li>the inner layer of plasma membrane provide  </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>FLUID MOSAIC MODEL OF THE PM, IN  </li></ul><ul><li>WHICH PR ARE EMBEDDED OR  </li></ul><ul><li>FLOATING OF VARIAB...
<ul><li>Function  </li></ul><ul><li>It maintains the shape of the cell.  </li></ul><ul><li>It provides microenvironment fo...
<ul><li>It is impermeable to intracellular  </li></ul><ul><li>protein & other organic anions but selective  </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>It relays any stimulation from cell to cell  </li></ul><ul><li>through intercellular contact.  </li></ul><ul><li>I...
MITOCHONDRIA
<ul><li>Are spherical or elongated or rod shape or filamentous organelles </li></ul><ul><li>0.5µm wide &  </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>  It tend to accumulate in parts of the cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>where the utilization of energy in more  </li>...
<ul><li>Number of mitochondria & the number of  </li></ul><ul><li>cristae in each mitochondrion are related to the  </li><...
<ul><li>Structure  </li></ul><ul><li>Under electron microscope it is composed  </li></ul><ul><li>an  outer mitochondrial m...
<ul><li>The omportment located  between </li></ul><ul><li>the  two  membranes  in  termed  the  </li></ul><ul><li>intermem...
<ul><li>  Most mitochondria have flat, shelf like </li></ul><ul><li>cristae in  their interior. Cristae increase  </li></u...
<ul><li>  Their important enzymes are found in the  </li></ul><ul><li>mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>Citric acid cycle enz...
<ul><li>Functions  </li></ul><ul><li>  1. It complete cell respiration by aerobic  </li></ul><ul><li>pathway  &  yield  hi...
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
  It  is  a  system of anastomosing and intercommunicating channels & sac formed by a continuous membrane, which encloses ...
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) <ul><li>  It called RER due to attachments of  </li></ul><ul><li>ribosome  to  the  oute...
<ul><li>Function:  </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis at exportable proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis of Phospholipid  </li><...
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) <ul><li>present in steroid H secreting cells  </li></ul><ul><li>adrenal cortex,  </li><...
Function  <ul><li>It is abundant in liver for oxidation,  </li></ul><ul><li>conjugation, methylation to degrade some </li>...
GOLGI COMPLEX
<ul><li>It consists of smooth surfaced & closely  </li></ul><ul><li>pocked  flattened  membranous cisternae  </li></ul><ul...
The Golgi cisterna nearest this point in called the forming,  convex or  cis-face ,   on the opposite is concave   or  tra...
RIBOSOME
<ul><li>Are small electro dense particles,  </li></ul><ul><li>20x30 nm in size,  </li></ul><ul><li>composed of 4 types of ...
<ul><li>Subunits  then leave  the nucleus  via  </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear pores to enter the cytoplasm &  </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Functions  </li></ul><ul><li>  Free ribosome synthesizes  proteins, </li></ul><ul><li>which  are  utilized  for  t...
LYSOSOMES
<ul><li>Are membrane limited vesicles, usually </li></ul><ul><li>spherical in shape,  </li></ul><ul><li>  0.05 to 0.5 µ in...
<ul><li>Hydrolytic enzymes   </li></ul><ul><li>acid phosphatase, </li></ul><ul><li>ribonuclease,  </li></ul><ul><li>deoxyr...
<ul><li>    The enveloping membrane separates </li></ul><ul><li>the  lytic  enzymes  from  the cytoplasm,  </li></ul><ul><...
Lysosomes exist in three forms:  <ul><li>Primary lysosomes,   which have just been formed; </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary lys...
<ul><li>Lipofuscin/age pigments   some  long-lived  cells  </li></ul><ul><li>large quantities of residual bodies accumulat...
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Cell

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Cell

  1. 1. Cell is the structural & functional unit of all living organisms. Cell Dr Khandaker Abu Rayhan Associate Professor Anatomy department Bangladesh
  2. 2. <ul><li>Cell consist of </li></ul><ul><li>1. Cell membrane 2. Protoplasm: </li></ul><ul><li> a) Cytoplasm b) Nucleus </li></ul>Nucleus Nuclear membrane Nucleolus Nucleoplasm Chromatin
  3. 3. <ul><li>Cytoplasm contain : </li></ul><ul><li>1. Membranous organelles </li></ul><ul><li>2. Non membranous organelles </li></ul><ul><li>3. Secretary granules </li></ul><ul><li>1. Membranous </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi complex </li></ul><ul><li>Lysosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Peroxisomes </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>2. Non membranous </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosome </li></ul><ul><li>Centrosome </li></ul><ul><li>Microtubules </li></ul><ul><li>Microfilaments </li></ul> 3. Secretary granules Glycogen Lipids Pigments
  5. 5. PLASMA MEMBRANES
  6. 6. <ul><li>All eukaryotic of is cells are enveloped by </li></ul><ul><li>a thin tough and elastic limiting membrane </li></ul><ul><li>between the external & internal environment </li></ul><ul><li>membranes </li></ul><ul><li>range from 7.5 to 10 nm in thickness </li></ul><ul><li>visible only in the electron microscope. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Compositions </li></ul><ul><li>Protein- 55% </li></ul><ul><li>Phospholipid- 25% </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol- 13% </li></ul><ul><li>Other lipid- 4% </li></ul><ul><li>CHO - 3% </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Proteins are major molecular constituents of membrane about 50% weight in the plasma membrane. Two type Integral proteins Peripheral protein </li></ul>
  9. 9. Integral proteins are directly incorporated with in the lipid bilayer providing channels for water soluble particles. <ul><li>Peripheral protein </li></ul><ul><li>exhibits a looser association with </li></ul><ul><li>membrane surface </li></ul><ul><li>it is act as a enzyme. </li></ul>
  10. 10. 2. Lipid all the lipids of the membrane form a lipid bilayer composed of a) Phospholipid & b) cholesterol. <ul><li>a) Phospholipid </li></ul><ul><li>Within the membrane Phospholipid </li></ul><ul><li>are most stable when organized into a </li></ul><ul><li>double layer </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>With in the phospholipid hydrophobic </li></ul><ul><li>chain directed toward the center of the </li></ul><ul><li>membrane </li></ul><ul><li>their hydrophilic heads directed out word. </li></ul>b) Cholesterol It breakup the close packing of Phospholipid long chain & this disruption make the membrane more fluid.
  12. 12. Cell controls the fluidity of the membrane through the amount of cholesterol. <ul><li>3. Carbohydrate </li></ul><ul><li>glycoprotein, </li></ul><ul><li>glycolipid & </li></ul><ul><li> protoglycans </li></ul><ul><li>make up the carbohydrate cover called </li></ul><ul><li>glycocalyx, projected from the external </li></ul><ul><li>surface of the plasma membrane. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Some of the protein molecules of </li></ul><ul><li>the inner layer of plasma membrane provide </li></ul><ul><li>anchorage to the </li></ul><ul><li> microfilaments and </li></ul><ul><li> microtubules, </li></ul><ul><li>which act as a cytoskeleton to attend </li></ul><ul><li>the cell-shape or movement of the cell. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>FLUID MOSAIC MODEL OF THE PM, IN </li></ul><ul><li>WHICH PR ARE EMBEDDED OR </li></ul><ul><li>FLOATING OF VARIABLE IN THE LIPID </li></ul><ul><li>BILAYER. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><li>It maintains the shape of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>It provides microenvironment for </li></ul><ul><li>cell function. </li></ul><ul><li>It allows free passage of water & </li></ul><ul><li>gases like O2 & CO2, because they are </li></ul><ul><li>highly soluble in lipid bilayer. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>It is impermeable to intracellular </li></ul><ul><li>protein & other organic anions but selective </li></ul><ul><li>permeable to Na, K, Ca, Cl, HCO3 </li></ul><ul><li>Receptors are the important </li></ul><ul><li>components of plasma membrane, which </li></ul><ul><li>participate, in important interaction such as </li></ul><ul><li>cell adhesion, recognition, and response to </li></ul><ul><li>protein hormones. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>It relays any stimulation from cell to cell </li></ul><ul><li>through intercellular contact. </li></ul><ul><li>It is endowed with two very important </li></ul><ul><li>processes endocytosis & exocytosis. </li></ul>
  18. 18. MITOCHONDRIA
  19. 19. <ul><li>Are spherical or elongated or rod shape or filamentous organelles </li></ul><ul><li>0.5µm wide & </li></ul><ul><li>up to 10 µm length. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li> It tend to accumulate in parts of the cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>where the utilization of energy in more </li></ul><ul><li>eg- </li></ul><ul><li>Apical each of ciliated cells </li></ul><ul><li>Middle piece of spermatozoa </li></ul><ul><li>Base of ion-transferring cells </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Number of mitochondria & the number of </li></ul><ul><li>cristae in each mitochondrion are related to the </li></ul><ul><li>energetic activity of cells with high-energy </li></ul><ul><li>metabolism- </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Cells of some kidney tubules. </li></ul><ul><li>Where cells with a low-energy metabolism have </li></ul><ul><li>few mitochondria with short cristae. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Under electron microscope it is composed </li></ul><ul><li>an outer mitochondrial membrane </li></ul><ul><li>an inner mitochondrial membrane </li></ul><ul><li>The inner membrane projects folds, termed </li></ul><ul><li>cristae ; into interior of the mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>these membranes enclose two </li></ul><ul><li>comportments. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>The omportment located between </li></ul><ul><li>the two membranes in termed the </li></ul><ul><li>intermembranous space. </li></ul>The inner membrane encloses the other compartment called interstate or matrix space, its membrane contains a large number of proteins molecules.
  24. 24. <ul><li> Most mitochondria have flat, shelf like </li></ul><ul><li>cristae in their interior. Cristae increase </li></ul><ul><li>the internal surface area of mitochondria. </li></ul><ul><li>Contents of matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium salt </li></ul><ul><li>Organic crystals </li></ul><ul><li>Glycogen </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosome </li></ul><ul><li>RNA </li></ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li> Their important enzymes are found in the </li></ul><ul><li>mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>Citric acid cycle enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory chain enzyme </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidative phospharylase </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><li> 1. It complete cell respiration by aerobic </li></ul><ul><li>pathway & yield high energy through the </li></ul><ul><li>formation of ATP. </li></ul><ul><li> 2.ATP provides energy for cell cellular </li></ul><ul><li>functions </li></ul><ul><li> 3. ATP is required for transport of ions </li></ul><ul><li>across the cell membrane. </li></ul><ul><li> 4. ATP cause muscular contraction </li></ul><ul><li> 5. It act as powerhouse of the cell. </li></ul>
  27. 27. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
  28. 28. It is a system of anastomosing and intercommunicating channels & sac formed by a continuous membrane, which encloses a space called a cisterna. <ul><li>The ER presents two varieties- </li></ul><ul><li>Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) <ul><li> It called RER due to attachments of </li></ul><ul><li>ribosome to the outer surface of the </li></ul><ul><li>membranous vesicles. </li></ul><ul><li> It is prominent in cells specialized for </li></ul><ul><li>protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>eg- pancreatic acinar, </li></ul><ul><li> Fibroblasts, </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma cells. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis at exportable proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis of Phospholipid </li></ul><ul><li>Post translation modification of newly </li></ul><ul><li>polypeptides </li></ul>
  31. 31. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) <ul><li>present in steroid H secreting cells </li></ul><ul><li>adrenal cortex, </li></ul><ul><li>testis, </li></ul><ul><li>ovary. </li></ul><ul><li>It not associated with ribosome’s </li></ul><ul><li>Its cisternae are more tubular </li></ul>
  32. 32. Function <ul><li>It is abundant in liver for oxidation, </li></ul><ul><li>conjugation, methylation to degrade some </li></ul><ul><li>H & neutralize noxious substance like </li></ul><ul><li>alcohol, barbiturate. </li></ul><ul><li>It involved in metabolism of lipid and </li></ul><ul><li>carbohydrate </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of steroid hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Detoxification </li></ul><ul><li>Participation in the contraction of </li></ul><ul><li>skeletal muscles </li></ul>
  33. 33. GOLGI COMPLEX
  34. 34. <ul><li>It consists of smooth surfaced & closely </li></ul><ul><li>pocked flattened membranous cisternae </li></ul><ul><li>arranged in a stack of four to six, together </li></ul><ul><li>they’re with clusters of small vesicle around </li></ul><ul><li>its surfaces. </li></ul>Near the complex, the RER can sometimes be seen budding of smell vesicle that shuttle newly synthesized proteins to the Golgi complex for further processing.
  35. 35. The Golgi cisterna nearest this point in called the forming, convex or cis-face , on the opposite is concave or trans face. <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><li>It initiates packing, concentration and </li></ul><ul><li>storage of secrete product. </li></ul><ul><li>It important in glycosylation, sulfating, </li></ul><ul><li>phosphorylation and limited proteolysis of </li></ul><ul><li>protein. </li></ul>
  36. 36. RIBOSOME
  37. 37. <ul><li>Are small electro dense particles, </li></ul><ul><li>20x30 nm in size, </li></ul><ul><li>composed of 4 types of ribosomal RNA & </li></ul><ul><li>80 different proteins. </li></ul> The RNA molecules are synthesized within the nucleus & their proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm then enter into nucleus then associated with rRNA.
  38. 38. <ul><li>Subunits then leave the nucleus via </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear pores to enter the cytoplasm & </li></ul><ul><li>participate in protein synthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Within the cytoplasm some of the </li></ul><ul><li>ribosome remains free, while others are </li></ul><ul><li>attached to the ER. </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><li> Free ribosome synthesizes proteins, </li></ul><ul><li>which are utilized for the metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>of the cells & its own growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosome associated with ER </li></ul><ul><li>synthesis exportable protein. </li></ul>
  40. 40. LYSOSOMES
  41. 41. <ul><li>Are membrane limited vesicles, usually </li></ul><ul><li>spherical in shape, </li></ul><ul><li> 0.05 to 0.5 µ in diameter, </li></ul><ul><li> Present a uniformly granular, electro </li></ul><ul><li>dense, contain a large variety of hydrolytic enzymes </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Hydrolytic enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>acid phosphatase, </li></ul><ul><li>ribonuclease, </li></ul><ul><li>deoxyribonuclease, </li></ul><ul><li>protease, </li></ul><ul><li>sulfatases, </li></ul><ul><li>lipases, </li></ul><ul><li>ß glucouronidase. </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li> The enveloping membrane separates </li></ul><ul><li>the lytic enzymes from the cytoplasm, </li></ul><ul><li>preventing digestion of cytoplasmic </li></ul><ul><li>components. </li></ul><ul><li> It enzymes are synthesized & segregate </li></ul><ul><li>in the RER & transferred to Golgi complex </li></ul><ul><li>where modification of enzyme take place. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Lysosomes exist in three forms: <ul><li>Primary lysosomes, which have just been formed; </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary lysosomes , which contain partially </li></ul><ul><li>digested material (myelin figures) </li></ul><ul><li>Residual bodies, in which the enzymes are inactive and which have evolved form digestible materials such as pigment and lipid. </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Lipofuscin/age pigments some long-lived cells </li></ul><ul><li>large quantities of residual bodies accumulate, </li></ul><ul><li>eg : </li></ul><ul><li>Neuron </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>F unction </li></ul><ul><li>Inter cellular digestion & turn over of </li></ul><ul><li>Unwanted cytoplasmic organelles & </li></ul><ul><li>act as a intercellular scavengers </li></ul><ul><li>bacterial phagocytosis. </li></ul>

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