IPv4 and IPv6current situationMarco Hogewoning, trainer
IPv4 addresses in the global pool    40%    38%                   36%                           34%                       ...
Reaching the next level•   The Internet has around 2 billion users•   They consumed 3.5 billion addresses•   Growing in al...
IPv4 exhaustion phases                    IPv4 still available.                                                    Final /...
Business as usual•   As long as there are IPv4 addresses left, the    RIPE NCC will keep on distributing them, based    on...
“Run Out Fairly”•    Gradually reduced allocation and assignment     periods•    Needs for “Entire Period” of up to...    ...
Final /8 policy•   Each LIR can get one /22 allocation     – 1024       IPv4 addresses     – New       and existing member...
Transfer of IPv4 allocations•   LIRs can transfer IPv4 address blocks:     – To   another LIR     – Only     when the bloc...
No changes yet•   Policy will only change when the RIPE NCC’s    final /8 is reached•   Be aware of the shorter assignment ...
Other RIRs•   APNIC ran out on 14 April 2011, final /8 policy    activated. Now allocating a maximum of /22•   ARIN plans f...
RIPE NCC Available Poolhttp://www.ripe.net/internet-coordination/ipv4-exhaustion/ipv4-available-pool-graph Marco Hogewonin...
IPv4 vs IPv6
Address format•   IPv4 uses 32 bit addresses     – ‘Dotted        decimal’     – 0.0.0.0       - 255.255.255.255•   IPv6 u...
Coexistence•   IPv4 and IPv6 can not talk to each other•   But they can exist together on the same network•   Known as ‘Du...
A perfect world                         IPv4        you                                           IPv6Marco Hogewoning, 17...
The plan (1995 - 2009)•   To have most computers and networks dual    stacked before the IPv4 pool runs out•   Traffic woul...
IPv6 deployment issues•   People are reluctant to change     – If   it isn’t broken...•   Changes cost money•   There wasn...
Alternatives
Extending the IPv4 pool•   Find unused addresses•   Use Network Address Translation (NAT)     – Common            techniqu...
Problems with NAT•   Does it really scale ?     – How       many users can share a single address ?•   Who is using addres...
Plan B•   Technical community is very active•   Countless protocols and proposals are around     – 6in4     – 6to4     – 6...
Transitioning techniques•   Most of them use ‘tunnels’     – Put    X in Y (IPv6 in IPv4)•   The end point has both protoc...
Tunnels                                     Tunnel               IPv4                  server   IPv6Marco Hogewoning, 17 N...
Drawbacks of tunnels•   Still require (public) IPv4 addresses•   Most of them work one way (IPv4 -> IPv6)     – IPv6     c...
Translation (NAT64/NAT-PT)•   Alternative #3: translate IPv4 into IPv6•   Customer will only get one protocol•   Translato...
Dual stack where you can•   “The most customer friendly way of transitioning    to IPv6”•   Long term solution•   IPv4 run...
IPv6 statisticsMarco Hogewoning, trainer
IPv6 RIPEness   •   Rating system:        – One       star if the member has an IPv6 allocation        – Additional       ...
IPv6 RIPEness: 7819 LIRs                                        1 star                                        14%         ...
IPv6 RIPEness over time100%80%60%40%20% 0%       09-2010    11-2010       01-2011         03-2011       05-2011   07-2011 ...
Questions?
The End!             Kрай             Y Diwedd                                       Fí                  Соңы             ...
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IPv4 and IPv6 Current Situation

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Presentation givent by Marco Hogewoning at Moving Ahead with IPv6 Networking Conference 2011.

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IPv4 and IPv6 Current Situation

  1. 1. IPv4 and IPv6current situationMarco Hogewoning, trainer
  2. 2. IPv4 addresses in the global pool 40% 38% 36% 34% 32% 30% 30% 26% 22% 20% 17% 13% 10% 9% 5% 0% 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Marco Hogewoning, 17 November 2011 2
  3. 3. Reaching the next level• The Internet has around 2 billion users• They consumed 3.5 billion addresses• Growing in all directions – More users join up – More connections become ‘always on’ – More devices become ‘Internet aware’• IPv4 can no longer sustain this growthMarco Hogewoning, 17 November 2011 3
  4. 4. IPv4 exhaustion phases IPv4 still available. Final /8 policy RIPE NCC can only RIPE NCC continues triggered distribute IPv6 normal operation now time IANA pool RIPE NCC RIPE NCC exhausted reaches pool final /8 exhausted Each of the 5 RIRs received a /8Marco Hogewoning, 17 November 2011 4
  5. 5. Business as usual• As long as there are IPv4 addresses left, the RIPE NCC will keep on distributing them, based on justified need• Same allocation and assignment policies still apply (RIPE-530)• Until the final /8 is reachedMarco Hogewoning, 17 November 2011 5
  6. 6. “Run Out Fairly”• Gradually reduced allocation and assignment periods• Needs for “Entire Period” of up to... – 12 months (January 2010) –9 months (July 2010) –6 months (January 2011) –3 months (July 2011)• 50% has to be used up by half-period Marco Hogewoning, 17 November 2011 6
  7. 7. Final /8 policy• Each LIR can get one /22 allocation – 1024 IPv4 addresses – New and existing members – As long as supplies will last• You must meet the criteria for an (additional) allocation• Only when you already have IPv6 addressesMarco Hogewoning, 17 November 2011 7
  8. 8. Transfer of IPv4 allocations• LIRs can transfer IPv4 address blocks: – To another LIR – Only when the block is not in use – Meets minimum allocation size (/21)• Requests are evaluated by the RIPE NCC – Justified need• Registered in the RIPE DatabaseMarco Hogewoning, 17 November 2011 8
  9. 9. No changes yet• Policy will only change when the RIPE NCC’s final /8 is reached• Be aware of the shorter assignment period!• And start deploying IPv6 now!Marco Hogewoning, 17 November 2011 9
  10. 10. Other RIRs• APNIC ran out on 14 April 2011, final /8 policy activated. Now allocating a maximum of /22• ARIN plans for /28 - /24 when reaching final /8• LACNIC policy is /22 for ISP, /24 for critical infrastructure• AfriNIC has no specific final /8 policy See http://www.nro.net/rir-comparative-policy-overviewMarco Hogewoning, 17 November 2011 10
  11. 11. RIPE NCC Available Poolhttp://www.ripe.net/internet-coordination/ipv4-exhaustion/ipv4-available-pool-graph Marco Hogewoning, 17 November 2011 11
  12. 12. IPv4 vs IPv6
  13. 13. Address format• IPv4 uses 32 bit addresses – ‘Dotted decimal’ – 0.0.0.0 - 255.255.255.255• IPv6 uses 128 bit addresses – Hexadecimal notation, numbers between 0 and f – Separated by colons – ‘2001:980:3042:2:5a55:caff:fef6:bdbf’• IPv4 and IPv6 are not compatibleMarco Hogewoning, 17 November 2011 13
  14. 14. Coexistence• IPv4 and IPv6 can not talk to each other• But they can exist together on the same network• Known as ‘Dual stack’ – Computer has both an IPv4 and IPv6 address – Uses one of the two when communicating – If IPv6 is available it usually has preferenceMarco Hogewoning, 17 November 2011 14
  15. 15. A perfect world IPv4 you IPv6Marco Hogewoning, 17 November 2011 15
  16. 16. The plan (1995 - 2009)• To have most computers and networks dual stacked before the IPv4 pool runs out• Traffic would have switched to IPv6• Smooth transition from IPv4 to IPv6• This failed :(Marco Hogewoning, 17 November 2011 16
  17. 17. IPv6 deployment issues• People are reluctant to change – If it isn’t broken...• Changes cost money• There wasn’t a business case – IPv4 run out was a long term problem – It is a ‘hidden’ problem• Equipment wasn’t available – Cause or side-effect ?Marco Hogewoning, 17 November 2011 17
  18. 18. Alternatives
  19. 19. Extending the IPv4 pool• Find unused addresses• Use Network Address Translation (NAT) – Common technique in home environments – Machines get a ‘private IP address’ – And share a single public IP for connections• Do the same at the operator level – Customers will get a private IP – Carrier Grade NAT/Large Scale NATMarco Hogewoning, 17 November 2011 19
  20. 20. Problems with NAT• Does it really scale ? – How many users can share a single address ?• Who is using address X ? – Who am I talking to ? – Who to blame for abuse ?• It doesn’t allow to offer services• Some protocols will break• It does not talk to IPv6!Marco Hogewoning, 17 November 2011 20
  21. 21. Plan B• Technical community is very active• Countless protocols and proposals are around – 6in4 – 6to4 – 6RD – TSP – A+P – 4RD – ...etcMarco Hogewoning, 17 November 2011 21
  22. 22. Transitioning techniques• Most of them use ‘tunnels’ – Put X in Y (IPv6 in IPv4)• The end point has both protocols• And the network in between doesn’t• Requires assistance in the form of so called ‘tunnel servers’ – ‘Bridge’ between the 2 worlds – Unpacking and repacking the dataMarco Hogewoning, 17 November 2011 22
  23. 23. Tunnels Tunnel IPv4 server IPv6Marco Hogewoning, 17 November 2011 23
  24. 24. Drawbacks of tunnels• Still require (public) IPv4 addresses• Most of them work one way (IPv4 -> IPv6) – IPv6 content ?• Who owns the tunnel server ? – Does it come with some guarantee ? – Can you trust them ? – ‘man in the middle’• Filtering prohibits tunnelsMarco Hogewoning, 17 November 2011 24
  25. 25. Translation (NAT64/NAT-PT)• Alternative #3: translate IPv4 into IPv6• Customer will only get one protocol• Translator box sits in between – Talks to both IPv4 and IPv6 – Shares addresses• Drawbacks – Who is who – Can you trust the ‘man in the middle’ – Breaks DNSsecMarco Hogewoning, 17 November 2011 25
  26. 26. Dual stack where you can• “The most customer friendly way of transitioning to IPv6”• Long term solution• IPv4 run out is everybody’s problem• The key in solving it lies with those who already have IPv4 addresses• Worst case scenario: split brain!Marco Hogewoning, 17 November 2011 26
  27. 27. IPv6 statisticsMarco Hogewoning, trainer
  28. 28. IPv6 RIPEness • Rating system: – One star if the member has an IPv6 allocation – Additional stars if: - IPv6 Prefix is visible on the internet - A route6 object is in the RIPE Database - Reverse DNS is set up –A list of all 4 star LIRs: http://ripeness.ripe.net/Marco Hogewoning, 17 November 2011 28
  29. 29. IPv6 RIPEness: 7819 LIRs 1 star 14% 2 stars 5% No IPv6 54% 3 stars 11% 4 stars 16%Marco Hogewoning, 17 November 2011 29
  30. 30. IPv6 RIPEness over time100%80%60%40%20% 0% 09-2010 11-2010 01-2011 03-2011 05-2011 07-2011 09-2011 11-2011 No IPv6 1 star 2 star 3 star 4 star Marco Hogewoning, 17 November 2011 30
  31. 31. Questions?
  32. 32. The End! Kрай Y Diwedd Fí Соңы Finis Liðugt Ende Finvezh KiнецьKonec Kraj Ënn FundLõpp Beigas Vége Son Kpaj An Críoch ‫הסוף‬ EndirFine Sfârşit Fin Τέλος Einde Конeц Slut Slutt Pabaiga Amaia Loppu Tmiem Koniec Fim

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