Rinke Hoekstra<br />Law and the Semantic Web<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
Overview<br />Why?<br />Role of Artificial Intelligence<br />Legal Sources<br />MetaLex<br />Legal Knowledge Representatio...
WHY?<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
Law is …<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
Law is …<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
Law is …<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
Law is … rather peculiar<br />It is illegal to die in the Houses of Parliament<br />It is an act of treason to place a pos...
The Court<br />What happens in court?<br />Dispute between two parties<br />Dialectic<br />Exchange of arguments<br />Pres...
The Judge: Case Law<br />How does a judge come to a decision?<br />Weighing the arguments<br />Assessing and interpreting ...
The Government: Legislation<br />Conflicting interests<br />Every citizen should know the lawclarity, readability<br />Eve...
Law is … ambiguous and imprecise<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
Law is … inconsistent<br />Outcome of a case does not always follow ‘logically’ from premises<br />Freedom of judge to dec...
Law is ... tricky<br />Experts don’t want to be pinned down<br />Not about truth<br />Opaque<br />Ambiguous and imprecise<...
Law is … relevant<br />Relevant<br />Complex knowledge management issues<br />Well structured, man made<br />We’re all sub...
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE?<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
Two Perspectives<br /><ul><li>Epistemological</li></ul>Formal representation of legal theory<br />Status of facts as `lega...
… Different Requirements<br />Formal representation of legal theory<br />Dialectic, defeasible, non-monotonic<br />No real...
… Sounds Familiar?<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
Legal Layer Cake<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
Layer Cake<br />Representation of structure of legal texts<br />MetaLex XML<br />Lightweight annotation<br />Resource Desc...
legal sources:metalex<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
MetaLex (A. Boer, R. Winkels, R. Hoekstra)<br />Interchange format<br />Legal and legislative resources<br />References be...
Schema Structure<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
Features<br />Exchange<br />Common meaningful elements<br />Identification (URI’s)<br />Presentation<br />XHTML, PDF, …<br...
Versions<br />TextVersion elements<br />Language<br />Locale dependent schema<br />xml:lang tags<br />Time<br />10-12-2008...
10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />XSL<br />XSL<br />XSL<br />
Extensibility<br />Agnostic wrt. other XML standards<br />Search and Filtering<br />Search at meaningful XML element level...
More semantics<br />Metadata as inline RDF<br />References and Citations<br />RDFa attributes -&gt; RDF triples<br />Trans...
10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
Legal Knowledge Representation<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
Knowledge Types in Law<br />Modelling Perspective<br />Legal Abstract ModelBreuker (1990)<br />World Knowledge (Causal, De...
Functional Ontology of Law<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
Incremental Approach<br />Core Ontology <br />Bridges the gap between ‘common sense’ reality and the legal system<br />Nor...
Bridging the Gap<br />LKIF Core Ontology (Hoekstra et al., 2008)<br />Basic legal concepts<br />Shared by all legal domain...
Modules<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
Main categories<br />Change<br />Process<br />Action<br />Physical Entity<br />Objects<br />Mental Entity<br />Subjective ...
Step 2: Intentionality and Subjectivity<br />Intentional Stance (Dennett, 1987)<br />… Legal Stance<br />Construction of s...
Roles<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
Propositions, Attitudes and Expressions<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
Representing Norms<br />Traceability (T. van Engers & Glassée, 2001)<br />Connected to source<br />Isomorphic (T. Bench-Ca...
Representing Norms<br />Subjective entity<br />Context: legal system<br />Three types:<br />Permission<br />Prohibition<br...
Norms in LKIF Core<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
Structural Correspondence<br />Legal Assessment (van de Ven et al., 2008)<br />Protégé OWL Judge plugin<br />Tasks<br />Sp...
Simple norms: University Library<br />1a) 	Students registered at this university are allowed to check out a book from thi...
Default Norm<br />0) Default: Checking out books is disallowed.<br />Default_GC<br />			⊑ Generic_Case<br />⊑ ∃disallowed_...
Article 1a<br />1a) Students registered at this university are allowed to check out a book from this library.<br />Art1a_G...
Article 1c<br />1c) Students who have checked out more than five books are not allowed to check out another book.<br />Art...
Conflict Resolution<br />AmyC   {Amy :Student, book_1 :Library_Book, … , book_6 :Library_Book, Amychecks_outbook_1, … , A...
Temporal Validity<br />Versions and Applicability of Concept Definitions (Klarman, Hoekstra, Bron, 2008)<br />How to deal ...
Temporal Validity (1)<br />Definitions hold independently, at the same time<br />Complex determination of validity of defi...
Immediate<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
Retroactive<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
Delayed<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
Requirements<br />General purpose representation formalism<br />Incremental versioning<br />New version of a concept shoul...
Representation<br />A dynamic concept is a concept whose meaning changes over time<br />Each new concept variant is introd...
GeneralTRestriction<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
Dynamic Concept<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
Jurisdiction<br />Legal Atlas<br />Spatial Plans<br />Which activities are allowed where?<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course...
10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
The END<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
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Siks December 2008 Law And The Semanticweb

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  • Siks December 2008 Law And The Semanticweb

    1. 1. Rinke Hoekstra<br />Law and the Semantic Web<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    2. 2. Overview<br />Why?<br />Role of Artificial Intelligence<br />Legal Sources<br />MetaLex<br />Legal Knowledge Representation<br />OWL, LKIF<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    3. 3. WHY?<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    4. 4. Law is …<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    5. 5. Law is …<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    6. 6. Law is …<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    7. 7. Law is … rather peculiar<br />It is illegal to die in the Houses of Parliament<br />It is an act of treason to place a postage stamp bearing the British king or queen’s image upside-down<br />It is illegal for a woman to be topless in Liverpool except as a clerk in a tropical fish store<br />Eating mince pies on Christmas Day is banned<br />If someone knocks on your door in Scotland and requires the use of your toilet, you are required to let them enter<br />In the UK a pregnant woman can legally relieve herself anywhere she wants, including in a policeman’s helmet<br />It is legal to murder a Scotsman within the ancient city walls of York, but only if he is carrying a bow and arrow<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    8. 8. The Court<br />What happens in court?<br />Dispute between two parties<br />Dialectic<br />Exchange of arguments<br />Presenting a selection of the facts in a way convenient to the case of a client.<br />… is this about the truth?<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    9. 9. The Judge: Case Law<br />How does a judge come to a decision?<br />Weighing the arguments<br />Assessing and interpreting the facts<br />Legal interpretation<br />Causal analysis<br />Comparing to similar cases<br />Comparing to written law (legislation)<br />What is the effect of the decision?<br />Precedent for new cases: Law is self-reflexive<br />An actual change in the “real world” <br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    10. 10. The Government: Legislation<br />Conflicting interests<br />Every citizen should know the lawclarity, readability<br />Every person and organisation should abide by the laweffectiveness, ability to uphold<br />Versus<br />Political compromiseIntentionally cryptic and vague language<br />Legal professionAbstract, theoretical constructs, mystique<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    11. 11. Law is … ambiguous and imprecise<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    12. 12. Law is … inconsistent<br />Outcome of a case does not always follow ‘logically’ from premises<br />Freedom of judge to decide<br />Internal inconsistencies<br />Built-in conflict resolution<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    13. 13. Law is ... tricky<br />Experts don’t want to be pinned down<br />Not about truth<br />Opaque<br />Ambiguous and imprecise<br />Inconsistent<br />… and there’s lots and lots of it<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    14. 14. Law is … relevant<br />Relevant<br />Complex knowledge management issues<br />Well structured, man made<br />We’re all subject to it<br />European Union<br />Multilingual<br />Harmonisation<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    15. 15. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE?<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    16. 16. Two Perspectives<br /><ul><li>Epistemological</li></ul>Formal representation of legal theory<br />Status of facts as `legal’, creating legal knowledge<br />Reasoning: case based reasoning, argument theory, deontic logics, dispute resolution<br />Knowledge Representation<br />Representation of law itself<br />Annotation: versioning, authority, accessibility, cross-referencing <br />Reasoning: Assessment, planning, harmonisation, simulation<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    17. 17. … Different Requirements<br />Formal representation of legal theory<br />Dialectic, defeasible, non-monotonic<br />No real concern for tractability, completeness<br />… any practical use?<br />Representation of the law itself<br />Expert system perspective <br />Tractability & completeness important<br />Open world<br />Traceability to sources<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    18. 18. … Sounds Familiar?<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    19. 19. Legal Layer Cake<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    20. 20. Layer Cake<br />Representation of structure of legal texts<br />MetaLex XML<br />Lightweight annotation<br />Resource Description Framework (RDF)<br /><ul><li>Representation of content</li></ul>Web Ontology Language (OWL)<br />Legal Knowledge Interchange Format (LKIF)<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    21. 21. legal sources:metalex<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    22. 22. MetaLex (A. Boer, R. Winkels, R. Hoekstra)<br />Interchange format<br />Legal and legislative resources<br />References between sources<br />Europe<br />LexDania, Norme in Rete, chXML, etc.<br />Africa<br />AkomaNtoso (Fabio Vitali)<br />XML Schema<br />CEN Workshophttp://www.metalex.eu<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    23. 23. Schema Structure<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    24. 24. 10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    25. 25. Features<br />Exchange<br />Common meaningful elements<br />Identification (URI’s)<br />Presentation<br />XHTML, PDF, …<br />Multiple Languages<br />Version Management and Maintenance<br />Extensibility<br />Search and Filtering<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    26. 26. Versions<br />TextVersion elements<br />Language<br />Locale dependent schema<br />xml:lang tags<br />Time<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    27. 27. 10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />XSL<br />XSL<br />XSL<br />
    28. 28. Extensibility<br />Agnostic wrt. other XML standards<br />Search and Filtering<br />Search at meaningful XML element level<br />Identification & Citation<br />All elements have a URI<br />Citation of parts of documents<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    29. 29. More semantics<br />Metadata as inline RDF<br />References and Citations<br />RDFa attributes -&gt; RDF triples<br />Transformation to RDF/OWL<br />GRDDL<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    30. 30. 10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    31. 31. Legal Knowledge Representation<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    32. 32. Knowledge Types in Law<br />Modelling Perspective<br />Legal Abstract ModelBreuker (1990)<br />World Knowledge (Causal, Definitional)<br />Normative Knowledge<br />Responsibility Knowledge<br />Meta-Legal Knowledge<br />Functional Ontology of LawValente (1995)<br />Law as system that acts in and on society<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    33. 33. Functional Ontology of Law<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    34. 34. Incremental Approach<br />Core Ontology <br />Bridges the gap between ‘common sense’ reality and the legal system<br />Norms<br />Specify regulations that hold on reality<br />Norms ≠ Definitions<br />Conflicting norms  inconsistent reality?<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    35. 35. Bridging the Gap<br />LKIF Core Ontology (Hoekstra et al., 2008)<br />Basic legal concepts<br />Shared by all legal domains<br />Grounding in common sense<br />Roles<br />Special legal inference<br />Knowledge acquisition support<br />Prevent loss in translation<br />Semantic annotation<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    36. 36. Modules<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    37. 37. Main categories<br />Change<br />Process<br />Action<br />Physical Entity<br />Objects<br />Mental Entity<br />Subjective Entity<br />Abstract Entity<br />Occurrence<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    38. 38. Step 2: Intentionality and Subjectivity<br />Intentional Stance (Dennett, 1987)<br />… Legal Stance<br />Construction of social reality (Searle, 1995)<br />Constitutive rules (counts-as)<br />Subjective entities<br />Roles, functions<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    39. 39. Roles<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    40. 40. Propositions, Attitudes and Expressions<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    41. 41. Representing Norms<br />Traceability (T. van Engers & Glassée, 2001)<br />Connected to source<br />Isomorphic (T. Bench-Capon & Coenen, 1991)<br />Structural correspondence<br />Annotation of Regulations<br />Scoped representation<br />parts, temporal validity, jurisdiction<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    42. 42. Representing Norms<br />Subjective entity<br />Context: legal system<br />Three types:<br />Permission<br />Prohibition<br />Obligation<br />Qualify a Situation (Generic Case)<br />Allowed<br />Disallowed<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    43. 43. Norms in LKIF Core<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    44. 44. Structural Correspondence<br />Legal Assessment (van de Ven et al., 2008)<br />Protégé OWL Judge plugin<br />Tasks<br />Specify case<br />Match against set of norms<br />Conflict resolution<br />Standard DL reasoner (Pellet)<br />+ something extra<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    45. 45. Simple norms: University Library<br />1a) Students registered at this university are allowed to check out a book from this library<br />1b) Students registered at other universities are allowed to check out a book from this library provided that they are enrolled in at least one course given at this university.<br />1c) Students who have checked out more than five books are not allowed to check out another book.<br />Lexspecialishierarchy:Art1c ⊑ Art1a, Art1c ⊑ Art1b<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    46. 46. Default Norm<br />0) Default: Checking out books is disallowed.<br />Default_GC<br /> ⊑ Generic_Case<br />⊑ ∃disallowed_by.{defaultnorm}<br />≡ ∃checks_out.Library_Book<br /> <br />Default_Norm<br /> ⊑ Prohibition <br />⊑ ∀disallows.Default_GC<br />≡ {defaultnorm}<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    47. 47. Article 1a<br />1a) Students registered at this university are allowed to check out a book from this library.<br />Art1a_GC <br /> ⊑ Generic_Case<br />⊑ ∃allowed_by.art1a<br />≡ Registered_Student⊓<br />∃checks_out.Library_Book<br /> <br />Art1a_Permission <br /> ⊑ Permission<br />⊑ ∀allows.Art1a_GC<br />≡ {art1a}<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    48. 48. Article 1c<br />1c) Students who have checked out more than five books are not allowed to check out another book.<br />Art1c_GC_F <br /> ⊑Generic_Case<br />⊑∃disallowed_by.{art1c}<br />≡ Registered_Student⊓≥ 6 checks_out.Library_Book<br />Art1c_GC_P <br /> ⊑Generic_Case<br />⊑∃allowed_by.{art1c}<br />≡ Registered_Student⊓∃checks_out.Library_Book<br /> ≤ 5 checks_out.Library_Book<br />Art1c_Prohibition <br /> ⊑ Prohibition<br />⊑ ∀disallows.Art1c_GC_F ⊓ ∀allows.Art1c_GC_P <br />≡ {art1c}<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    49. 49. Conflict Resolution<br />AmyC  {Amy :Student, book_1 :Library_Book, … , book_6 :Library_Book, Amychecks_outbook_1, … , Amychecks_outbook_6}<br />Matches<br />Default_GC, Art1a_GC, Art1c_GC_F<br />… corresponding norms<br />Most specific GC<br />Art1c_GC_F<br />Outcome<br />Art1c_Prohibition: disallowed<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    50. 50. Temporal Validity<br />Versions and Applicability of Concept Definitions (Klarman, Hoekstra, Bron, 2008)<br />How to deal with versions?<br />Different classification of domain objects<br />Reasoning results in different outcome<br />Impact may be significant<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    51. 51. Temporal Validity (1)<br />Definitions hold independently, at the same time<br />Complex determination of validity of definitions<br />Applicability & Activity<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    52. 52. Immediate<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    53. 53. Retroactive<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    54. 54. Delayed<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    55. 55. Requirements<br />General purpose representation formalism<br />Incremental versioning<br />New version of a concept should have minimal impact<br />Co-existence of multiple (incompatible) versions<br />Ability to switch between versions<br />Reasoning on both versioned and version-independent concepts<br />Validity depends on multiple intervals<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    56. 56. Representation<br />A dynamic concept is a concept whose meaning changes over time<br />Each new concept variant is introduced as a defined class, subsumed by the dynamic concept class.<br />Concept variants are valid within some combination of intervals.<br />A DL reasoner classifies individuals as class members, based on the choice of a current interval.<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    57. 57. GeneralTRestriction<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    58. 58. Dynamic Concept<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    59. 59. 10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    60. 60. 10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    61. 61. 10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    62. 62. 10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    63. 63. 10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    64. 64. Jurisdiction<br />Legal Atlas<br />Spatial Plans<br />Which activities are allowed where?<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    65. 65. 10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    66. 66. 10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />
    67. 67. The END<br />10-12-2008<br />SIKS Course - Knowledge Modelling<br />

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