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Making Sense of Design Patterns<br />Rinke Hoekstrahoekstra@few.vu.nl, hoekstra@uva.nlJoostBreukerbreuker@science.uva.nl<b...
How to build a “Good Ontology”<br />Design principles<br />Distinguish accidental from intrinsic properties<br />Abstract,...
What’s a good Design Pattern?<br />Categorise<br />Logical, content, lexico-syntactic, ...<br />Submit and Review<br />htt...
Linguistics<br />“Give a muffin to a moose” vs. “Give a moose a muffin”<br />“Biff drove the car to Chicago” vs. “Biff dro...
Design Decisions<br />Conceptual Model<br />Two Sides to a Coin<br />Ontology<br />DPs<br />... KADS, CommonKADS<br />“Kno...
Fundamental Design Decision<br />Design patterns<br />commit to a conceptualisation<br />express a structure in a language...
Roles<br />BONUS DP!!!<br />Are roles classes or relations?<br />Searle, The Structure of Social Reality, 1995<br />Rinke ...
It’s like Legotm!<br />
Discussion<br />Message: move beyond best practices<br />Design patterns<br />Capture fundamental design decisions, <br />...
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Making Sense of Design Patterns

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Making Sense of Design Patterns

  1. 1. Making Sense of Design Patterns<br />Rinke Hoekstrahoekstra@few.vu.nl, hoekstra@uva.nlJoostBreukerbreuker@science.uva.nl<br />There must be a reason why certain patterns are more useful than others<br />+ BONUS DP!!!<br />
  2. 2. How to build a “Good Ontology”<br />Design principles<br />Distinguish accidental from intrinsic properties<br />Abstract, difficult to apply<br />Reuse of existing ontologies<br />Nice bootstrap, but problematic<br />Large, heavyweight, hard to extend<br />Design patterns<br />Middle ground<br />Principles as concrete building blocks<br />
  3. 3. What’s a good Design Pattern?<br />Categorise<br />Logical, content, lexico-syntactic, ...<br />Submit and Review<br />http://ontologydesignpatterns.org<br />Incentive to share?<br />... preliminary evaluation results (Blomqvist et al., 2009)<br />Criteria<br />Mix required metadata, with quality criteria<br />Pros and cons, competency questions<br />“cognitively relevant” and “best practices”<br />
  4. 4. Linguistics<br />“Give a muffin to a moose” vs. “Give a moose a muffin”<br />“Biff drove the car to Chicago” vs. “Biff drove Chicago the car”<br />Linguistic expressions follow cognitive rules (Pinker, 2007)<br />Recurring structures in language<br />Can be reapplied to create new meaning<br />Signal fundamental concepts of thought<br />“We gather our ideas, put them into words, and if our verbiage is not empty or hollow, we might get these ideas across to a listener, who can unpack our words to extract their content”<br />
  5. 5. Design Decisions<br />Conceptual Model<br />Two Sides to a Coin<br />Ontology<br />DPs<br />... KADS, CommonKADS<br />“Knowledge modelling” (van Heijst et al., ‘97)<br />Design patterns bridge the gap<br />they are specific to a KR language<br />... but commit to a conceptual model that exists independently of it<br />
  6. 6. Fundamental Design Decision<br />Design patterns<br />commit to a conceptualisation<br />express a structure in a language<br />thereby exclude other solutions<br />Well known commitments...<br />Binary vs. n-ary relations (action)<br />Relative vs. absolute (time, place)<br />Reification vs. abstraction (roles)<br />Are roles classes or relations?<br />
  7. 7. Roles<br />BONUS DP!!!<br />Are roles classes or relations?<br />Searle, The Structure of Social Reality, 1995<br />Rinke Hoekstra. Representing Social Reality in OWL 2. In EvrenSirinand Kendall Clark, ed., Proceedings of OWLED 2010, June 2010<br />
  8. 8. It’s like Legotm!<br />
  9. 9. Discussion<br />Message: move beyond best practices<br />Design patterns<br />Capture fundamental design decisions, <br />Recurrent structures that reflect cognitive notions<br />Bridge the gap between conceptualization and implementation.<br />Give insight in expert knowledge<br />What next?<br />Domain theories, but also linguistics and cognition<br />Harvest recurring patterns in existing ontologies<br />Assess tradeoffs, i.e. discover design decisions<br />Design patterns as index to a library of ontologies<br />
  10. 10. There’s more in the paper...<br />Five requirements for design patterns<br />Structure patterns<br />... much more detail<br />Rinke Hoekstrahoekstra@few.vu.nl / hoekstra@uva.nl<br />There’s also a book <br />Rinke Hoekstra.Ontology Representation – Design <br />Patterns and Ontologies that Make Sense. IOS Press, 2009<br />

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