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Linked (Open) Data
                                    But what does it buy me?
                                                                   Rinke Hoekstra
                                        VU University Amsterdam/University of Amsterdam
                                                       rinke.hoekstra@vu.nl




                  Linked (Open) Data - But what does it buy me? by Rinke Hoekstra
                  Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.


maandag 11 maart 13
maandag 11 maart 13
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ga1aSJXCFe0
maandag 11 maart 13
maandag 11 maart 13
http://www.ted.com/talks/tim_berners_lee_the_year_open_data_went_worldwide.html
maandag 11 maart 13
Linked Open Data




maandag 11 maart 13
Linked Open Data




  Texts taken from http://5stardata.info

maandag 11 maart 13
Why people go “Meh”

                      •     Data needs to be converted to RDF
                      •     Data needs to be published on the Web
                      •     An open license is required even for a single ★



              Pacific Barreleye, http://imgur.com/gallery/Mzyb5
              (can rotate its eyes forwards or upwards to look through the transparent head to prey above)

maandag 11 maart 13
Why people go “Meh”
           What if people draw incorrect
            conclusions from my data?

                      •     Data needs to be converted to RDF
                      •     Data needs to be published on the Web
                      •     An open license is required even for a single ★



              Pacific Barreleye, http://imgur.com/gallery/Mzyb5
              (can rotate its eyes forwards or upwards to look through the transparent head to prey above)

maandag 11 maart 13
Why people go “Meh”
       What if if people draw incorrect
        What journalists draw incorrect
         conclusions from my data?

                      •     Data needs to be converted to RDF
                      •     Data needs to be published on the Web
                      •     An open license is required even for a single ★



              Pacific Barreleye, http://imgur.com/gallery/Mzyb5
              (can rotate its eyes forwards or upwards to look through the transparent head to prey above)

maandag 11 maart 13
Why people go “Meh”
       What if if people draw incorrect
        What journalists draw incorrect
         conclusions from my data?

                      •     Data needs to be converted to RDF
                      •     Data needs to be published on the Web
                      •     An open license is required even for a single ★

                                                                                                     What if combining data results in
                                                                                                          privacy infringement?
              Pacific Barreleye, http://imgur.com/gallery/Mzyb5
              (can rotate its eyes forwards or upwards to look through the transparent head to prey above)

maandag 11 maart 13
... but LOD is just asking for more!



maandag 11 maart 13
... how can I sell this internally?



maandag 11 maart 13
maandag 11 maart 13
Linked Open Data


maandag 11 maart 13
Repeatable Transformation


          The missing ★                            Choose your Grain Size


                                 Linked Data
                                      Six Ingredients
              Contextualize!
                                                              Mix ‘n Mash

                                  Lower the Threshold

maandag 11 maart 13
1                     The missing ★




maandag 11 maart 13
1                     The missing ★




maandag 11 maart 13
1                                      The missing ★
        Version information                             Guessable



                           http://give.everything/a/URI
                                                  Version agnostic

         HTTPs URIs only please!
                      (or resolver + URN)


maandag 11 maart 13
Messy Data
                                   http://wetten.overheid.nl/BWBIdService/BWBIdList.xml.zip




                      NB: The problem with the XML processing instruction was reported and fixed, but returned some weeks later




maandag 11 maart 13
Example: Juriconnect
                                                                  1.0:c:BWBR0005416&artikel=6
                                                                               vs
                               http://wetten.overheid.nl/cgi-bin/deeplink/law1/bwbid=BWBR0005416/article=6/date=2005-01-14
                                                                               vs
                          http://wetten.overheid.nl/BWBR0005416/TitelII698946/HoofdstukII/Artikel16/geldigheidsdatum_14-01-2005




                      •      Existing identification standard: Juriconnect
                      •      URN-like... but no naming server
                             cf. Document Object Identifiers

                      •      Named elements do not carry identifier
                      •      No explicit version information, only contextual


maandag 11 maart 13
Levels of Identification
                                              Bibliographic
                                                                                                            Work
                                                  Entity




                      •
                                                                                               realizes


                          IFLA FRBR levels                                            Expression




                          •
                                                                           embodies


                              Work                               Manifestation




                          •   Expression          Item
                                                         exemplifies




                          •   Manifestation
                                              XML version of
                                               regulation on
                                                                 XML version of       Version of
                                                                                                          Regulation
                                                                   regulation         regulation
                                                my harddisk




maandag 11 maart 13
Transparent = Guessable

                      •   Hierarchical information (work)
                          http://doc.metalex.eu/id/BWBR0011823/hoofdstuk/1/artikel/1
                          http://doc.metalex.eu/id/BWBR0011823/artikel/1

                      •   Version and language (expression)
                          http://doc.metalex.eu/id/BWBR0011823/hoofdstuk/1/artikel/1/nl/2010-09-01

                      •   Format information (manifestation)
                          http://doc.metalex.eu/doc/BWBR0011823/hoofdstuk/1/artikel/1/nl/2010-09-01/data.xml




maandag 11 maart 13
Versioning Issues
                      •   URIs don’t carry semantics...
                      •   Detect changes:
                          •    which element versions are the same
                          •    ... and which versions are different?

                                                                       Art. 44, lid 4
                                                                      (2011-03-26)


          Art. 44, lid 4
         (2011-04-05)

        From: Besluit prudentiële regels Wft, BWBR0020420
maandag 11 maart 13
Opaque Identifiers
                          http://doc.metalex.eu/BWBR0011823/hoofdstuk/1/artikel/34b0cee26ee5138c74aa2c62caf2c117d3c616e9



                                              vermogen van de erflater




                                                   dcterms:subject



                                                       SW                                  SW
                                               Hoofdstuk I, Artikel 10             Hoofdstuk I, Artikel 10
                                                   2011-01-01                          2011-10-12


                                                     owl:sameAs


                                                      SHA1
                                                8738ef273ea4dbc73




                      •      Content information
                      •      Unique SHA1 Hash of text

maandag 11 maart 13
Opaque Identifiers
                          http://doc.metalex.eu/BWBR0011823/hoofdstuk/1/artikel/34b0cee26ee5138c74aa2c62caf2c117d3c616e9



                                              vermogen van de erflater




                                                   dcterms:subject



                                                       SW                                     SW
                                               Hoofdstuk I, Artikel 10                Hoofdstuk I, Artikel 10
                                                   2011-01-01                             2011-10-12


                                                     owl:sameAs          owl:sameAs


                                                      SHA1
                                                8738ef273ea4dbc73




                      •      Content information
                      •      Unique SHA1 Hash of text

maandag 11 maart 13
Opaque Identifiers
                          http://doc.metalex.eu/BWBR0011823/hoofdstuk/1/artikel/34b0cee26ee5138c74aa2c62caf2c117d3c616e9



                                              vermogen van de erflater




                                                   dcterms:subject        dcterms:subject




                                                       SW                                           SW
                                               Hoofdstuk I, Artikel 10    owl:sameAs        Hoofdstuk I, Artikel 10
                                                   2011-01-01                                   2011-10-12


                                                     owl:sameAs          owl:sameAs


                                                      SHA1
                                                8738ef273ea4dbc73




                      •      Content information
                      •      Unique SHA1 Hash of text

maandag 11 maart 13
Opaque Identifiers
                          http://doc.metalex.eu/BWBR0011823/hoofdstuk/1/artikel/34b0cee26ee5138c74aa2c62caf2c117d3c616e9



                                              vermogen van de erflater




                                                   dcterms:subject



                                                       SW                                  SW
                                               Hoofdstuk I, Artikel 10             Hoofdstuk I, Artikel 10
                                                   2011-01-01                          2011-10-12


                                                     owl:sameAs                          owl:sameAs


                                                      SHA1                                SHA1
                                                8738ef273ea4dbc73                  a433f53273c78a56f2




                      •      Content information
                      •      Unique SHA1 Hash of text

maandag 11 maart 13
Network Analysis

maandag 11 maart 13
2
                  Repeatable Transformation



                               Transformation should be part of routine ...
                                          ... manageable and scalable ...
                                                 ... repeatable ...
    http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-overview/

maandag 11 maart 13
2
                  Repeatable Transformation
                      Linked Data will not be the official source anytime soon

                                              Provenance is key


                               Transformation should be part of routine ...
                                          ... manageable and scalable ...
                                                 ... repeatable ...
    http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-overview/

maandag 11 maart 13
maandag 11 maart 13
LODStats
                      http://stats.lod2.eu




maandag 11 maart 13
40.745.554.078 Triples!


maandag 11 maart 13
40.745.554.078 Triples!
                                    (1.6 Billion)


   (I tried to check the latest figures, but http://stats.lod2.eu was down)
maandag 11 maart 13
3
                            Choose your Grain Size
                      •   The document is the
                          traditional grain size
                          (dublin core)


                      •   Linked data allows for
                          deep links into data
                      •   Cost versus usefulness
                      •   Are you the right party to provide detailed descriptions?

     http://creatingandeducating.blogspot.nl/2011/11/blog-post.html

maandag 11 maart 13
Report Card Categories
                                                           Report Card Cate
                                       RDF Report Card

            Low Detail                                                                                        High Detail
                                                                               Structure
                            Metadata
                                                Scope                                             Internals




 RDF Report Card by Leigh Dodds, talk at Semtech Biz London, 2011, http://slideshare.net/ldodds
maandag 11 maart 13
4
                                                   Mix ‘n Mash
                        •         Multiple vocabularies won’t bite
                        •         Multiple identifiers won’t bite


                        •         Choose what’s useful for you...
                        •         ... then map to others!


    Image © David Sykes 2009 All rights reserved

maandag 11 maart 13
4
                                                   Mix ‘n Mash
                        •         Multiple vocabularies won’t bite
                        •         Multiple identifiers won’t bite


                        •         Choose what’s useful for you...
                        •         ... then map to others!
         Good News: the bulk has already been done for you!
    Image © David Sykes 2009 All rights reserved

maandag 11 maart 13
Semantically-Interlinked
                        Online Communities



maandag 11 maart 13
Semantically-Interlinked
                        Online Communities



maandag 11 maart 13
Example: Provenance
                 The date at which the expression was created




       "2009-10-23"^^xsd:date                                     time:Instant                               ml:Date                                  sem:Time
                                     rdf:value

                        sem:hasTimeStamp                                          rdf:type
                                                                    rdf:type                 sem:timeType
                  time:inXSDDateTime                                                                              rdf:type




           opmv:Process                             http://doc.metalex.eu/id/date/2009-10-23                           sem:Event                           ml:LegislativeModification



                                                                                    sem:hasTime                                      rdf:type
                          rdf:type               time:hasEnd                                                        rdf:type

                                                                                  ml:date                                                 sem:eventType                  The creation event of the regulation


          http://doc.metalex.eu/id/process/BWBR0017869/2009-10-23                    http://doc.metalex.eu/id/event/BWBR0017869/2009-10-23                               opmv:Artifact




                                                                   opmv:wasGeneratedAt
       The process that generated the expression                                                              ml:resultOf
                                                                                                                                                rdf:type                    ml:BibliographicExpression
                                                       opmv:wasGeneratedBy

                                                                                                                                                              rdf:type
                                                                                        http://doc.metalex.eu/id/BWBR0017869/2009-10-23



                                                                                      The expression (version) URI of a regulation




maandag 11 maart 13
5
                                          Contextualize!



                      •   Information is not always compatible
                      •   Make explicit in which context the information holds ...
                      •   ... and who stated the information, why and how.
     Flat Earth and Square Earth idea courtesy of Szymon Klarman
maandag 11 maart 13
<http://example.com/workbook1/sheet1>      <http://example.com/workbook1/sheet1/corrected>                                                              provo:Activity
                                                                                                                                                 rdf:type
                                                                                                                        :curation20120126
                      "1"^^xsd:int                            "11"^^xsd:int
                                                                                                    provo:wasGeneratedBy                     provo:hadAgent

                                                                                                                               provo:startedAt
                  d2s:populationSize d2s:populationSize                                                            provo:endedAt
                                                                      "1889"^^xsd:int                                                                          :RinkeHoekstra
                                          d2s:censusYear
                          _:x
                                          d2s:birthYears
                                                                              :1875--1874                         _:b                      _:a
                                               d2s:gemeente
                      d2s:dimension    d2s:ageGroup
                                                                                                           time:inXSDDateTime           time:inXSDDateTime
                                                                                   :Assendelft

                :14--15_1875--1874                              :14-15
                                                                                                         "20120126T09:00:00"                 "20120126T08:30:00"




                      •         Namespaces don’t mean anything
                      •         Use named graphs to compartmentalize metadata
                      •         Add provenance information about groups of statements

maandag 11 maart 13
Compliance



                        Regulation A   Art 12   Art 14, lid 3, 2e volzin




maandag 11 maart 13
Compliance
                                                                                             start



                                                                                    State Name
                                                                           entry/action
                                                                           do/activity               action
                                                                                                              State
                                                                           exit/action
                                                                           event/action(arguments)



                                                                                                                      end




                        Regulation A   Art 12   Art 14, lid 3, 2e volzin




maandag 11 maart 13
Compliance
                                                                                             start



                                                                                    State Name
                                                                           entry/action
                                                                           do/activity               action
                                                                                                              State
                                                                           exit/action
                                                                           event/action(arguments)



                                                                                                                      end




                        Regulation A   Art 12   Art 14, lid 3, 2e volzin




maandag 11 maart 13
Compliance
                                                                                             start



                                                                                    State Name
                                                                           entry/action
                                                                           do/activity               action
                                                                                                              State
                                                                           exit/action
                                                                           event/action(arguments)



                                                                                                                      end




                        Regulation A   Art 12   Art 14, lid 3, 2e volzin




maandag 11 maart 13
Compliance
                                                                                             start



                                                                                    State Name
                                                                           entry/action
                                                                           do/activity               action
                                                                                                              State
                                                                           exit/action
                                                                           event/action(arguments)



                                                                                                                      end




                        Regulation A   Art 12   Art 14, lid 3, 2e volzin




maandag 11 maart 13
Compliance
                                                                                                                    start



                                                                                                           State Name
                                                                                                  entry/action
                                                                                                  do/activity               action
                                                                                                                                     State
                                                                                                  exit/action
                                                                                                  event/action(arguments)



                                                                                                                                             end




                        Regulation A   Art 12   Art 14, lid 3, 2e volzin   Art 14, lid 3, 2e volzin




maandag 11 maart 13
Compliance
                                                                                                                       start



                                                                                                              State Name
                                                                                                     entry/action
                                                                                                     do/activity               action
                                                                                                                                        State
                                                                                                     exit/action
                                                                                                     event/action(arguments)



                                                                                                                                                end




                         Regulation A       Art 12 Art 14, lid 3, 2e volzin   Art 14, lid 3, 2e volzin
                        (01-01-2011)    (04-02-2011)   (11-06-2008)               (01-07-2011)




maandag 11 maart 13
Contextual Annotation
                                        vermogen van de erflater




                                            Successiewet
                                                                  dcterms:subject      Successiewet
                                        vermogen van de erflater



                                            SW Hoofdstuk I                                  SW
                                                                  dcterms:subject
                                        vermogen van de erflater                          Hoofdstuk I



                                            SW Artikel 10                                   SW
                                                                  dcterms:subject
                                        vermogen van de erflater                     Hoofdstuk I, Artikel 10


                                                                                             SW
                                           SW Art. 10, zin 1                        Hoofdstuk I, Artikel 10
                                                                  dcterms:subject
                                        vermogen van de erflater                             Zin 1




  No nice background because Google Image search only returned boring images
maandag 11 maart 13
6
                             Lower the Threshold

                      •   Integrate Linked Data production into everyday tools
                      •   Allow tools to do the work for you
                      •   Use a built-in reward model




    Image courtesy of http://themaisonette.net
maandag 11 maart 13
6
                             Lower the Threshold
                                  Linked Data allows you to trace usage!


                      •   Integrate Linked Data production into everyday tools
                      •   Allow tools to do the work for you
                      •   Use a built-in reward model




    Image courtesy of http://themaisonette.net
maandag 11 maart 13
Wrap Legacy Systems


     http://www.w3.org/TR/r2rml/
maandag 11 maart 13
maandag 11 maart 13
Idea: use reward mechanisms of Web 2.0



maandag 11 maart 13
•      Lightweight Web Application
          •      Interface to API of existing data repositories
          •      Enrich metadata by linking to Linked Data resources
          •      Provide annotation services for data files
          •      Plugin based architecture                             http://linkitup.data2semantics.org
          •      Publish RDF metadata as new data publication
maandag 11 maart 13
recoprov
                 Reconstruct provenance using
                   Dropbox file edit history
                                                19




                                   7                                                                    5




                                                               8                                            14




                                           11                                                 9                  13




                         4                                16                      1                    22




                                                                        17   12




                                       2                                                  0




                                                                                                  23




        3           18                                                                6




            10      15                               20




                                                     21            24




                         Sara Magliacane and Paul Groth
maandag 11 maart 13
plsheet
                                      How are results calculated (1)?
     Analyse dependencies between     Automatic analyis of workflow in spreadsheets
     cells in complex spreadsheets




    Martine de Vos, Jan Wielemaker and Willem van Hage
maandag 11 maart 13
plsheet
                                      
                                      
                                                                                               
                                                                                            
                                                                                        
                                                                                 
                                                                                         
                                         
                                      




                                                                      
                                                                   




                  
               
                                             
                                           
                                                                        
                                                                                             Reconstruct and explain the
                                                                                                                    workflow of computations
                                               
                                         




    Martine de Vos, Jan Wielemaker and Willem van Hage
maandag 11 maart 13
TabLinker
      Semi-automatic RDF converter for
           eccentric spreadsheets




 Albert Merono-Penuela, Rinke Hoekstra,   http://www.cedar-project.nl
   Laurens Rietveld, Christophe Gueret
maandag 11 maart 13
TabLinker
      Semi-automatic RDF converter for
           eccentric spreadsheets




 Albert Merono-Penuela, Rinke Hoekstra,   http://www.cedar-project.nl
   Laurens Rietveld, Christophe Gueret
maandag 11 maart 13
Repeatable Transformation


          The missing ★                       Choose your Grain Size


                            Linked Data
                                 Six Ingredients
         Contextualize!
                                                         Mix ‘n Mash

                             Lower the Threshold

maandag 11 maart 13
Repeatable Transformation


          The missing ★                           Choose your Grain Size


                          Linked Open Data
                          ... be sure to use it internally too!
         Contextualize!
                                                                  Mix ‘n Mash

                               Lower the Threshold

maandag 11 maart 13

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Linked (Open) Data - But what does it buy me?

  • 1. Linked (Open) Data But what does it buy me? Rinke Hoekstra VU University Amsterdam/University of Amsterdam rinke.hoekstra@vu.nl Linked (Open) Data - But what does it buy me? by Rinke Hoekstra Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. maandag 11 maart 13
  • 7. Linked Open Data Texts taken from http://5stardata.info maandag 11 maart 13
  • 8. Why people go “Meh” • Data needs to be converted to RDF • Data needs to be published on the Web • An open license is required even for a single ★ Pacific Barreleye, http://imgur.com/gallery/Mzyb5 (can rotate its eyes forwards or upwards to look through the transparent head to prey above) maandag 11 maart 13
  • 9. Why people go “Meh” What if people draw incorrect conclusions from my data? • Data needs to be converted to RDF • Data needs to be published on the Web • An open license is required even for a single ★ Pacific Barreleye, http://imgur.com/gallery/Mzyb5 (can rotate its eyes forwards or upwards to look through the transparent head to prey above) maandag 11 maart 13
  • 10. Why people go “Meh” What if if people draw incorrect What journalists draw incorrect conclusions from my data? • Data needs to be converted to RDF • Data needs to be published on the Web • An open license is required even for a single ★ Pacific Barreleye, http://imgur.com/gallery/Mzyb5 (can rotate its eyes forwards or upwards to look through the transparent head to prey above) maandag 11 maart 13
  • 11. Why people go “Meh” What if if people draw incorrect What journalists draw incorrect conclusions from my data? • Data needs to be converted to RDF • Data needs to be published on the Web • An open license is required even for a single ★ What if combining data results in privacy infringement? Pacific Barreleye, http://imgur.com/gallery/Mzyb5 (can rotate its eyes forwards or upwards to look through the transparent head to prey above) maandag 11 maart 13
  • 12. ... but LOD is just asking for more! maandag 11 maart 13
  • 13. ... how can I sell this internally? maandag 11 maart 13
  • 16. Repeatable Transformation The missing ★ Choose your Grain Size Linked Data Six Ingredients Contextualize! Mix ‘n Mash Lower the Threshold maandag 11 maart 13
  • 17. 1 The missing ★ maandag 11 maart 13
  • 18. 1 The missing ★ maandag 11 maart 13
  • 19. 1 The missing ★ Version information Guessable http://give.everything/a/URI Version agnostic HTTPs URIs only please! (or resolver + URN) maandag 11 maart 13
  • 20. Messy Data http://wetten.overheid.nl/BWBIdService/BWBIdList.xml.zip NB: The problem with the XML processing instruction was reported and fixed, but returned some weeks later maandag 11 maart 13
  • 21. Example: Juriconnect 1.0:c:BWBR0005416&artikel=6 vs http://wetten.overheid.nl/cgi-bin/deeplink/law1/bwbid=BWBR0005416/article=6/date=2005-01-14 vs http://wetten.overheid.nl/BWBR0005416/TitelII698946/HoofdstukII/Artikel16/geldigheidsdatum_14-01-2005 • Existing identification standard: Juriconnect • URN-like... but no naming server cf. Document Object Identifiers • Named elements do not carry identifier • No explicit version information, only contextual maandag 11 maart 13
  • 22. Levels of Identification Bibliographic Work Entity • realizes IFLA FRBR levels Expression • embodies Work Manifestation • Expression Item exemplifies • Manifestation XML version of regulation on XML version of Version of Regulation regulation regulation my harddisk maandag 11 maart 13
  • 23. Transparent = Guessable • Hierarchical information (work) http://doc.metalex.eu/id/BWBR0011823/hoofdstuk/1/artikel/1 http://doc.metalex.eu/id/BWBR0011823/artikel/1 • Version and language (expression) http://doc.metalex.eu/id/BWBR0011823/hoofdstuk/1/artikel/1/nl/2010-09-01 • Format information (manifestation) http://doc.metalex.eu/doc/BWBR0011823/hoofdstuk/1/artikel/1/nl/2010-09-01/data.xml maandag 11 maart 13
  • 24. Versioning Issues • URIs don’t carry semantics... • Detect changes: • which element versions are the same • ... and which versions are different? Art. 44, lid 4 (2011-03-26) Art. 44, lid 4 (2011-04-05) From: Besluit prudentiële regels Wft, BWBR0020420 maandag 11 maart 13
  • 25. Opaque Identifiers http://doc.metalex.eu/BWBR0011823/hoofdstuk/1/artikel/34b0cee26ee5138c74aa2c62caf2c117d3c616e9 vermogen van de erflater dcterms:subject SW SW Hoofdstuk I, Artikel 10 Hoofdstuk I, Artikel 10 2011-01-01 2011-10-12 owl:sameAs SHA1 8738ef273ea4dbc73 • Content information • Unique SHA1 Hash of text maandag 11 maart 13
  • 26. Opaque Identifiers http://doc.metalex.eu/BWBR0011823/hoofdstuk/1/artikel/34b0cee26ee5138c74aa2c62caf2c117d3c616e9 vermogen van de erflater dcterms:subject SW SW Hoofdstuk I, Artikel 10 Hoofdstuk I, Artikel 10 2011-01-01 2011-10-12 owl:sameAs owl:sameAs SHA1 8738ef273ea4dbc73 • Content information • Unique SHA1 Hash of text maandag 11 maart 13
  • 27. Opaque Identifiers http://doc.metalex.eu/BWBR0011823/hoofdstuk/1/artikel/34b0cee26ee5138c74aa2c62caf2c117d3c616e9 vermogen van de erflater dcterms:subject dcterms:subject SW SW Hoofdstuk I, Artikel 10 owl:sameAs Hoofdstuk I, Artikel 10 2011-01-01 2011-10-12 owl:sameAs owl:sameAs SHA1 8738ef273ea4dbc73 • Content information • Unique SHA1 Hash of text maandag 11 maart 13
  • 28. Opaque Identifiers http://doc.metalex.eu/BWBR0011823/hoofdstuk/1/artikel/34b0cee26ee5138c74aa2c62caf2c117d3c616e9 vermogen van de erflater dcterms:subject SW SW Hoofdstuk I, Artikel 10 Hoofdstuk I, Artikel 10 2011-01-01 2011-10-12 owl:sameAs owl:sameAs SHA1 SHA1 8738ef273ea4dbc73 a433f53273c78a56f2 • Content information • Unique SHA1 Hash of text maandag 11 maart 13
  • 30. 2 Repeatable Transformation Transformation should be part of routine ... ... manageable and scalable ... ... repeatable ... http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-overview/ maandag 11 maart 13
  • 31. 2 Repeatable Transformation Linked Data will not be the official source anytime soon Provenance is key Transformation should be part of routine ... ... manageable and scalable ... ... repeatable ... http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-overview/ maandag 11 maart 13
  • 33. LODStats http://stats.lod2.eu maandag 11 maart 13
  • 35. 40.745.554.078 Triples! (1.6 Billion) (I tried to check the latest figures, but http://stats.lod2.eu was down) maandag 11 maart 13
  • 36. 3 Choose your Grain Size • The document is the traditional grain size (dublin core) • Linked data allows for deep links into data • Cost versus usefulness • Are you the right party to provide detailed descriptions? http://creatingandeducating.blogspot.nl/2011/11/blog-post.html maandag 11 maart 13
  • 37. Report Card Categories Report Card Cate RDF Report Card Low Detail High Detail Structure Metadata Scope Internals RDF Report Card by Leigh Dodds, talk at Semtech Biz London, 2011, http://slideshare.net/ldodds maandag 11 maart 13
  • 38. 4 Mix ‘n Mash • Multiple vocabularies won’t bite • Multiple identifiers won’t bite • Choose what’s useful for you... • ... then map to others! Image © David Sykes 2009 All rights reserved maandag 11 maart 13
  • 39. 4 Mix ‘n Mash • Multiple vocabularies won’t bite • Multiple identifiers won’t bite • Choose what’s useful for you... • ... then map to others! Good News: the bulk has already been done for you! Image © David Sykes 2009 All rights reserved maandag 11 maart 13
  • 40. Semantically-Interlinked Online Communities maandag 11 maart 13
  • 41. Semantically-Interlinked Online Communities maandag 11 maart 13
  • 42. Example: Provenance The date at which the expression was created "2009-10-23"^^xsd:date time:Instant ml:Date sem:Time rdf:value sem:hasTimeStamp rdf:type rdf:type sem:timeType time:inXSDDateTime rdf:type opmv:Process http://doc.metalex.eu/id/date/2009-10-23 sem:Event ml:LegislativeModification sem:hasTime rdf:type rdf:type time:hasEnd rdf:type ml:date sem:eventType The creation event of the regulation http://doc.metalex.eu/id/process/BWBR0017869/2009-10-23 http://doc.metalex.eu/id/event/BWBR0017869/2009-10-23 opmv:Artifact opmv:wasGeneratedAt The process that generated the expression ml:resultOf rdf:type ml:BibliographicExpression opmv:wasGeneratedBy rdf:type http://doc.metalex.eu/id/BWBR0017869/2009-10-23 The expression (version) URI of a regulation maandag 11 maart 13
  • 43. 5 Contextualize! • Information is not always compatible • Make explicit in which context the information holds ... • ... and who stated the information, why and how. Flat Earth and Square Earth idea courtesy of Szymon Klarman maandag 11 maart 13
  • 44. <http://example.com/workbook1/sheet1> <http://example.com/workbook1/sheet1/corrected> provo:Activity rdf:type :curation20120126 "1"^^xsd:int "11"^^xsd:int provo:wasGeneratedBy provo:hadAgent provo:startedAt d2s:populationSize d2s:populationSize provo:endedAt "1889"^^xsd:int :RinkeHoekstra d2s:censusYear _:x d2s:birthYears :1875--1874 _:b _:a d2s:gemeente d2s:dimension d2s:ageGroup time:inXSDDateTime time:inXSDDateTime :Assendelft :14--15_1875--1874 :14-15 "20120126T09:00:00" "20120126T08:30:00" • Namespaces don’t mean anything • Use named graphs to compartmentalize metadata • Add provenance information about groups of statements maandag 11 maart 13
  • 45. Compliance Regulation A Art 12 Art 14, lid 3, 2e volzin maandag 11 maart 13
  • 46. Compliance start State Name entry/action do/activity action State exit/action event/action(arguments) end Regulation A Art 12 Art 14, lid 3, 2e volzin maandag 11 maart 13
  • 47. Compliance start State Name entry/action do/activity action State exit/action event/action(arguments) end Regulation A Art 12 Art 14, lid 3, 2e volzin maandag 11 maart 13
  • 48. Compliance start State Name entry/action do/activity action State exit/action event/action(arguments) end Regulation A Art 12 Art 14, lid 3, 2e volzin maandag 11 maart 13
  • 49. Compliance start State Name entry/action do/activity action State exit/action event/action(arguments) end Regulation A Art 12 Art 14, lid 3, 2e volzin maandag 11 maart 13
  • 50. Compliance start State Name entry/action do/activity action State exit/action event/action(arguments) end Regulation A Art 12 Art 14, lid 3, 2e volzin Art 14, lid 3, 2e volzin maandag 11 maart 13
  • 51. Compliance start State Name entry/action do/activity action State exit/action event/action(arguments) end Regulation A Art 12 Art 14, lid 3, 2e volzin Art 14, lid 3, 2e volzin (01-01-2011) (04-02-2011) (11-06-2008) (01-07-2011) maandag 11 maart 13
  • 52. Contextual Annotation vermogen van de erflater Successiewet dcterms:subject Successiewet vermogen van de erflater SW Hoofdstuk I SW dcterms:subject vermogen van de erflater Hoofdstuk I SW Artikel 10 SW dcterms:subject vermogen van de erflater Hoofdstuk I, Artikel 10 SW SW Art. 10, zin 1 Hoofdstuk I, Artikel 10 dcterms:subject vermogen van de erflater Zin 1 No nice background because Google Image search only returned boring images maandag 11 maart 13
  • 53. 6 Lower the Threshold • Integrate Linked Data production into everyday tools • Allow tools to do the work for you • Use a built-in reward model Image courtesy of http://themaisonette.net maandag 11 maart 13
  • 54. 6 Lower the Threshold Linked Data allows you to trace usage! • Integrate Linked Data production into everyday tools • Allow tools to do the work for you • Use a built-in reward model Image courtesy of http://themaisonette.net maandag 11 maart 13
  • 55. Wrap Legacy Systems http://www.w3.org/TR/r2rml/ maandag 11 maart 13
  • 57. Idea: use reward mechanisms of Web 2.0 maandag 11 maart 13
  • 58. Lightweight Web Application • Interface to API of existing data repositories • Enrich metadata by linking to Linked Data resources • Provide annotation services for data files • Plugin based architecture http://linkitup.data2semantics.org • Publish RDF metadata as new data publication maandag 11 maart 13
  • 59. recoprov Reconstruct provenance using Dropbox file edit history 19 7 5 8 14 11 9 13 4 16 1 22 17 12 2 0 23 3 18 6 10 15 20 21 24 Sara Magliacane and Paul Groth maandag 11 maart 13
  • 60. plsheet How are results calculated (1)? Analyse dependencies between Automatic analyis of workflow in spreadsheets cells in complex spreadsheets Martine de Vos, Jan Wielemaker and Willem van Hage maandag 11 maart 13
  • 61. plsheet                               Reconstruct and explain the workflow of computations   Martine de Vos, Jan Wielemaker and Willem van Hage maandag 11 maart 13
  • 62. TabLinker Semi-automatic RDF converter for eccentric spreadsheets Albert Merono-Penuela, Rinke Hoekstra, http://www.cedar-project.nl Laurens Rietveld, Christophe Gueret maandag 11 maart 13
  • 63. TabLinker Semi-automatic RDF converter for eccentric spreadsheets Albert Merono-Penuela, Rinke Hoekstra, http://www.cedar-project.nl Laurens Rietveld, Christophe Gueret maandag 11 maart 13
  • 64. Repeatable Transformation The missing ★ Choose your Grain Size Linked Data Six Ingredients Contextualize! Mix ‘n Mash Lower the Threshold maandag 11 maart 13
  • 65. Repeatable Transformation The missing ★ Choose your Grain Size Linked Open Data ... be sure to use it internally too! Contextualize! Mix ‘n Mash Lower the Threshold maandag 11 maart 13