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Public Presentation

  1. 1. Making Global Transplantation Pathology Standards Truly Global. Extension to Resource-limited Settings. Kim Solez, M.D.
  2. 2. Goals and Objectives <ul><li>Global medical standards should be dynamic and fair. </li></ul><ul><li>The example of the Banff Classification of Kidney Transplant Pathology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginnings, evolution, the consensus process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamism - changing with the times can lead to use of expensive tests out of reach for poor countries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creativity needed for combined approach that works in both developed and developing world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General applicability. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Courtesy of Prof A. Rizvi Courtesy Prof. A Rizvi
  4. 8. Transplantation in Resource-limited Settings. <ul><li>Economies in operative procedure, donor and recipient operation done in same room. </li></ul><ul><li>Economies in choice of imunosuppression. </li></ul><ul><li>Economies in limited tissue typing approach. </li></ul><ul><li>What about economies in pathology? </li></ul>
  5. 9. A PROBLEM LOOMING <ul><li>When we incorporated immunostaining for C4d to detect antibody mediated rejection we began to exclude poor countries from the standard. </li></ul><ul><li>When we stuck with the technology of the 1950’s where the PAS stain was our most advanced technique the standard could be met in every country. </li></ul><ul><li>So suddenly it seemed we had a standard that worked only for rich countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Needed to find a mechanism for sharing pathology resources between rich and poor nations. </li></ul>
  6. 10. Background – The Banff Classification <ul><li>Acute renal failure in the transplanted kidney is a high stakes situation </li></ul><ul><li>Many different entities have the same clinical presentation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ATN, acute rejection, CsA, FK506 toxicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>misdiagnosis can rapidly lead to loss of the graft or sometimes the patient </li></ul></ul>
  7. 11. Background – The Banff Classification <ul><li>In 1990 all standard textbooks were inaccurate in interpretation of kidney transplant biopsies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggesting, for example, that arteritis meant that the kidney was doomed and antirejection treatment should be abandoned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It became imperative for the field to correct this and standardize interpretation </li></ul>
  8. 12. The Banff Schema was first developed by a group of pathologists, nephrologists, and transplant surgeons at a meeting in Banff Canada August 2-4, 1991. The Banff Schema was first developed by a group of pathologists, nephrologists, and transplant surgeons at a meeting in Banff Canada August 2-4, 1991. It has continued to evolve through meetings every two years and has become the worldwide standard for interpretation of transplant biopsies.
  9. 13. BANFF CLASSIFICATION STANDARD FOR TRANSPLANT BIOPSY INTERPRETATION <ul><li>Began in kidney (Solez et al. 1991), and was then extended to liver, pancreas, composite tissue grafts etc. Meetings also consider heart, lung, small bowel. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses semiquantitative lesion scoring 0-3+ and diagnostic categories. </li></ul>
  10. 14. BANFF CONFERENCES ON ALLOGRAFT PATHOLOGY 1991-?
  11. 15. BANFF CLASSIFICATION: MILESTONES <ul><li>1991 First Conference </li></ul><ul><li>1993 First Kidney International publication </li></ul><ul><li>1995 Integration with CADI </li></ul><ul><li>1997 Integration with CCTT classification </li></ul><ul><li>1999 Second KI paper. Clinical practice guidelines. Implantation biopsies, microwave. </li></ul><ul><li>2001 Classification of antibody-mediated rejection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulatory agencies participating </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2003 Genomics focus, ptc cell accumulation scoring </li></ul><ul><li>2005 Gene chip analysis. Elimination of CAN, identification of chronic antibody-mediated rejection. </li></ul><ul><li>2007 First meeting far from a town called “Banff” – La Coruna, Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>2009 Meeting in Banff, Canada, and on Second Life. </li></ul>
  12. 16. DIAGNOSTIC CATEGORIES <ul><li>1. Normal </li></ul><ul><li>2. Antibody-mediated rejection, </li></ul><ul><li>3. Borderline changes: ‘Suspicious’ for acute cellular rejection </li></ul><ul><li>4. T-cell-mediated rejection (may coincide with categories 2 and 5 and 6) </li></ul><ul><li>5. Sclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, and tubular atrophy, no evidence of any specific etiology </li></ul><ul><li>6. Other Changes not considered to be due to rejection </li></ul>
  13. 17. LESION SCORING (0-3+) <ul><ul><li>Transplant glomerulitis - g </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic transplant glomerulopathy - cg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interstitial Inflammation - i (ti) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interstitial fibrosis - ci </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tubulitis - t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tubular atrophy - ct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vasculitis, intimal arteritis - v </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibrous intimal thickening - cv </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arteriolar hyaline thickening - ah (aah) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesangial matrix increase - mm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peritubular capillary cell accumulation - ptc </li></ul></ul>
  14. 18. FUTURE BANFF MEETINGS: <ul><li>2009 - Banff, Alberta, Canada </li></ul><ul><li>2011 - Paris, France </li></ul><ul><li>2013 - Banff, Alberta, Canada </li></ul><ul><li>2015 - Stockholm, Sweden </li></ul><ul><li>2017, 2019 - Please make a proposal ! </li></ul>
  15. 19. GLOBAL CONSENSUS GENERATION WHILE MAINTAINING INTELLECTUAL FREEDOM.
  16. 20. LIKE THE MOSH PIT AT A GREAT ROCK CONCERT. NO PARTNER, THE ULTIMATE IN INDIVIDUALITY, DANGEROUS, BUT WHEN THE MUSIC IS GOOD EVERYONE DANCES IN SYNC AND LIFE IS GOOD!
  17. 21. HOW TO DANCE IN SYNCH IN A WAY THAT IS PRACTICAL AND BENEFITS THE DEVELOPING WORLD!
  18. 22. Polys in peritubular capillaries in antibody-mediated rejection.
  19. 25. NEED A PROGRAMATIC APPROACH TO PATHOLOGY IN LIMITED RESOURCES AREAS. NOT PRACTICAL TO LEAVE IT ON A PERSONAL FAVOR BASIS. DONATION OF EQUIPMENT. TRAINING OF MEDICAL AND TECHNICAL PERSONNEL.
  20. 26. CREATIVITY CAN BE TAUGHT! “INTERACTIVE SCREEN” COURSE IN BANFF SUMMER OF 2005. <ul><li>Frank Boyd – Creative London </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Director of BBC </li></ul>
  21. 27. BBC CREATIVITY PROJECT <ul><li>“ the most creative organisation in the world”? </li></ul>
  22. 28. BRAINSTORMING <ul><li>Appoint a facilitator and capture all ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Go for quantity: the more ideas, the better </li></ul><ul><li>Work together: combine, build, extend </li></ul><ul><li>Be playful: wild ideas are welcome. </li></ul><ul><li>Defer judgement </li></ul><ul><li>And remember... </li></ul><ul><li>it’s easier to make the interesting feasible than to make the feasible interesting </li></ul>
  23. 29. SOME LITERATURE ON CREATIVITY <ul><li>Creativity Games for Trainers: A Handbook of Group Activities for Jumpstarting Workplace Creativity (McGraw-Hill Training Series) (Paperback) by Robert Epstein </li></ul><ul><li>Thinkertoys (A Handbook of Business Creativity) (Paperback) by Michael Michalko </li></ul><ul><li>Six Thinking Hats (Paperback) by Edward De Bono </li></ul>
  24. 30. BBC CREATIVITY <ul><li>“ connecting with </li></ul><ul><li>audiences” </li></ul>
  25. 31. WE NEED TO CONNECT WITH AUDIENCES TOO! IF WE DO IT RIGHT WE WILL BE CHANGING THE FACE OF MEDICINE!
  26. 32. FUNDRAISING APPROACHES AND IDEA GENERATION TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM OF HOW TO MEET PATHOLOGY STANDARDS IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD IS SOMETHING WE SHOULD ALL BE INVOLVED IN. THE NEXT FRONTIER IN MEDICAL HUMANITARIAN WORK!

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