CHRONIC KIDNEYS DISEASE

Are You At Increased Risk for Chronic Kidney Disease? (CKD)
How do you know?

Your doctor or clin...
have a poor appetite
have trouble sleeping
have dry, itchy skin
have muscle cramping at night
have swollen feet and ankles...
needed)
 Can CKD progression be prevented?
Most likely. Early detection and treatment can often slow or stop chronic kidne...
If I had kidney failure, is it more of a chance my kids will have to kidney problems?
About 10 percent of kidney disease i...
Help your child understand about doctor's offices, hospitals, dialysis units and
laboratories and how they are used. By he...
Who is most prone to kidney disease?
Anyone can develop kidney disease. Approximately 12,000 Malaysians suffer from
ESRD.
...
disease (ESRD), or total kidney failure. Because the kidneys perform so many critical
functions, people whose kidneys fail...
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Microsoft Word - CHRONIC KIDNEYS DISEASE

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Microsoft Word - CHRONIC KIDNEYS DISEASE

  1. 1. CHRONIC KIDNEYS DISEASE Are You At Increased Risk for Chronic Kidney Disease? (CKD) How do you know? Your doctor or clinic should check to see if you have any risk factors for chronic kidney disease. These include: Diabetes High blood pressure A family history of chronic kidney disease Older age Why are Asians at increased risk for chronic kidney disease? Diabetes, the leading cause of chronic kidney disease, is more common in this group. Also, high blood pressure, the second leading cause of chronic kidney disease, appears more often in Asians. Many experts believe that certain groups may have an inherited tendency to develop these diseases. When combined with other things, such as being overweight, this tendency may lead to disease. Staying at a normal weight and getting enough exercise is very important for these groups to help prevent diabetes and high blood pressure. What should you do? You should visit your doctor or clinic and get tested. Your checkup should include: High blood pressure Having a simple test for protein in your urine. Protein is an important building block in your body. Any filtered protein is normally reabsorbed and kept in your body. When your kidneys are damaged, however, protein leaks into your urine. There are different tests to find protein in your urine. If you have two positive tests over several weeks, you are said to have persistent protein in your urine. This is a sign of chronic kidney disease. Older age Checking your blood pressure Having a simple blood test for creatinine, a waste product that comes from muscle activity. Your kidneys normally remove creatinine from your blood. When your kidneys are damaged, however, your blood creatinine may build to a high level. The results of your blood creatinine test should be used to estimate your glomerular filtration rate, or GFR. Your GFR tells how much kidney function you have. What are the symptoms? Most people do not have any severe symptoms until their kidney disease gets worse. However, you may: feel more tired have less energy have trouble thinking clearly
  2. 2. have a poor appetite have trouble sleeping have dry, itchy skin have muscle cramping at night have swollen feet and ankles have puffiness around your eyes, especially in the morning need to urinate more often, especially at night. What happens if my test results show I may have chronic kidney disease? Your doctor will want to pinpoint your diagnosis and check your kidney function to help plan your treatment. The doctor may do the following: Calculate your Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR), which is the best way to tell how much kidney function you have. You do not need to have another test to know your GFR. Your doctor can calculate it from your blood creatinine, your age, race, gender and other factors. Your GFR tells your doctor your stage of kidney disease and helps the doctor plan your treatment. (See chart “Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease.”) Perform an ultrasound or CT scan to get a picture of your kidneys and urinary tract. This tells your doctor whether your kidneys are too large or too small, whether you have a problem like a kidney stone or tumor and whether there are any problems in the structure of your kidneys and urinary tract. Perform a kidney biopsy, which is done in some cases to check for a specific type of kidney disease, see how much kidney damage has occurred and help plan treatment. To do a biopsy, the doctor removes small pieces of kidney tissue and looks at them under a microscope. Perform a kidney biopsy, which is done in some cases to check for a specific type of kidney disease, see how much kidney damage has occurred and help plan treatment. To do a biopsy, the doctor removes small pieces of kidney tissue and looks at them under a microscope. Your doctor may also ask you to see a kidney specialist who will consult on your case and help manage your care. 5 Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease Stage Description Glomerular Filtration Rate GFR) Risk factors for kidney disease (e.g., diabetes, high At increased blood pressure, family history, older age, ethnic More than 90 risk group) Kidney damage (protein in the urine) and normal 1 More than 90 GFR 2 Kidney damage and mild decrease in GFR 60 to 89 3 Moderate decrease in GFR 30 to 59 4 Severe decrease in GFR 15 to 29 5 Kidney failure (dialysis or kidney transplant Less than 15
  3. 3. needed) Can CKD progression be prevented? Most likely. Early detection and treatment can often slow or stop chronic kidney disease. How well your treatment can achieve this goal depends on: Your stage of chronic kidney disease when you start treatment. The earlier you start, the better you are likely to do. How carefully you follow your treatment plan. Learn all you can about chronic kidney disease and its treatment, and make sure to follow all the steps of your treatment faithfully. The cause of your kidney disease. Some kidney diseases are more difficult to control. Do recurrent kidney stones lead to kidney disease? Generally speaking, recurrent kidney stones don't lead to kidney failure, but they may, if they cause long-term obstruction of the kidney. Is kidney disease hereditary? About 10 percent of patients with kidney failure are due to hereditary causes. The commonest is a condition known as polycystic kidney disease. How long can you live with one kidney? As long as your the kidney is healthy, having only one kidney does not affect your survival at all. What can be does for fatigue when you have kidney disease? Fatigue is a very common problem with kidney failure. Sometimes it is due to a low red blood cell count. We have special medicines that can take care of that problem. Unfortunately, if fatigue is severe, due to kidney failure generally the best way to manage it is with dialysis. What causes recurrent kidney infections when you have kidney disease? Many people, particularly women, have recurrent urinary tract infections. These typically don't damage the kidney and aren't related to kidney disease but rather problems with the bladder. Occasionally, a patient with scarred kidneys will also have frequent kidney infections. This may be because it is harder to treat an infection in the presence of a lot of scarring. What else should be done to get tested to make sure kidney disease isn't imminent? There isn't a whole lot you can do besides to get your blood pressure checked and have your urine checked. Being over weight, can that cause your other kidney to shut down? People who are very seriously overweight have an increased frequency of kidney failure. That is not striking for patients who are only modestly overweight. However, being overweight is a major contributor to high blood pressure. Patients whose blood pressure is high should try to get their weight down. Can people with kidney failure still eat sweets? I’ve heard that they can't? There is no particular problem with sweets in kidney failure. Since one-third of patients with kidney failure have diabetes, and diabetics should be careful about sweets, many patients with dialysis should be careful about sweets.
  4. 4. If I had kidney failure, is it more of a chance my kids will have to kidney problems? About 10 percent of kidney disease is due to hereditary problems. Both high blood pressure and diabetes are more common in children whose parents have high blood pressure and diabetes. If your children don't have either high blood pressure or diabetes, then they won't be at increased risk. Children with Chronic Kidney Disease: Tips for Parents If your child has been diagnosed with chronic kidney disease, you are no doubt feeling distressed and bewildered. These feelings are normal. And once you realize that your child's illness is a reality the family must accept, you can develop some practical ways to cope with the day-to-day aspects of it. Here are some things others have found helpful. Learn about the disease and its treatments Learn as much about your child's disease and its treatment as you possibly can. And pass this information on to your child. You'd be surprised at how much even very young children can understand. And many times they will accept information more easily than an adult. Encourage your child to ask questions. Many times, your child will ask questions you had not thought about or were afraid to ask because you thought they sounded "dumb." Don't try to explain more than your child can understand, but don't lie and don't apologize for any treatments or procedures that have to be followed. Help your child understand that the doctors, nurses, social workers, dietitians, laboratory personnel and everyone else is on his or her side. They all want to help your child feel better, even if that means they have to do things that will cause some temporary pain or discomfort. Actively participate in your child's care Develop a spirit of mutual respect and cooperation with health professionals. Write out all the details of your child's medical history, including dates. This will make it easier for you each time you come in contact with a new doctor. Try to be with your child as much as possible during treatments and any hospitalization that might be necessary. If you cannot be there, arrange for someone else to be present i.e. a grandparent, other relative, or close family friend. And make sure a favorite book, stuffed animal or special blanket is taken along. Help your child take control of the illness Try to maintain a normal daily routine, even during hospitalization.
  5. 5. Help your child understand about doctor's offices, hospitals, dialysis units and laboratories and how they are used. By helping your child understand the places that are filled with strange and frightening instruments and machines, you can help eliminate a lot of your child's fear. Be creative in finding ways for your child to participate in his or her own care. Your child will feel much more in control if you provide as many opportunities to do so as you can. Help your child to understand and accept diet restrictions. Even a child as young as 2 or 3 can understand about "diet" if it is explained simply. Often, the child will be more compliant with dietary restrictions than an adult will. Have your child make a list of favorite foods and take him or her with you when you talk to the dietitian to see if these foods can be incorporated into the diet plan. Whatever you do, don't ever use bribes or force your child to eat. These tactics rarely work and more often turn mealtime into a very unpleasant experience. Don't let medicine time ruin your day. A matter-of-fact attitude is your best weapon in getting your child to take medication. Your child has no choice about whether or not to take prescribed medication, but you can offer a choice of when and where. And once the choice is made, make a schedule and stick to it. Unpleasantness is a lot easier to cope with if you know exactly when it is coming and don't procrastinate. Sometimes medication must be given with meals, but don't give it at the table where your child eats. Find someplace not associated with food and eating, such as the living or family room while your child is distracted by a favorite TV show. Another weapon you have at medicine time is plain, ordinary water. If your child is on a fluid-restricted diet, water may be one of the things he or she would like to have most, so reserve part of the day's fluid intake for a couple of swallows after medicine time. Share your experience with others Don't let yourself become isolated. Talk with the renal staff and with other families of children with kidney disease. Don't hesitate to ask relatives and friends for help. Chances are they want to, but don't know how, and are just waiting for you to ask. Sharing your experience will help you find ways to grow with it. What causes End Stage Renal Disease? Diabetes and high blood pressure are the two leading causes of ESRD, accounting for more than 50 percent of new cases in Malaysia. Kidney disease can also develop from infection, inflammation of blood vessels in the kidneys, kidney stones and cysts. Other possible causes include prolonged use of pain relievers and use of alcohol or other drugs (including prescription medications).
  6. 6. Who is most prone to kidney disease? Anyone can develop kidney disease. Approximately 12,000 Malaysians suffer from ESRD. What are the warning signs of ESRD? The warning signs of kidney disease include: What can I do to help fight ESRD? You can do a lot to help fight this life-threatening condition. First become familiar with the warning signs of kidney disease. To maintain kidney health, you should: Drink plenty of fluids Exercise regularly Don’t smoke Maintain your proper weight Can Long-Term Use of Analgesics Cause ESRD? An analgesic is any medicine intended to kill pain. Over-the-counter analgesics (medicines bought without a prescription) include aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, naproxen sodium, and others. These drugs present no danger for most people when taken in the recommended dosage. But some conditions make taking even these common painkillers dangerous for the kidneys. Also, taking one or a combination of these drugs regularly over a long period of time may increase the risk for kidney problems. Most drugs that can cause kidney damage are the ones that are excreted only through the kidneys. Case reports have attributed incidents of acute kidney failure to the use of painkillers, including aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen. The patients in these reports had risk factors such as systemic lupus erythematosus, advanced age, chronic renal conditions, or a recent binge of alcohol consumption. These cases involved a single dose in some instances and never more than 10 days of analgesic use. Acute kidney failure requires emergency dialysis to clean the blood. But normal kidney function often returns after the emergency is over. A different kind of problem can result from taking painkillers every day for several years. Analgesic nephropathy is a chronic kidney disease that gradually leads to end-stage renal disease and the permanent need for dialysis or a kidney transplant to restore renal function. The painkillers that combine two or more analgesics (for example, aspirin and acetaminophen together) with caffeine or codeine are most likely to damage the kidneys. These mixtures are often sold as powders. Single analgesics (e.g., aspirin alone) have not been found to cause kidney damage. Patients with conditions that put them at risk for acute kidney failure should check with their doctors before taking any medicine. People who take painkillers on a regular basis should check with their doctors to make sure they are not hurting their kidneys. The doctor may be able to recommend a safer alternative. What happens when the kidneys stop functioning? If both kidneys stop functioning due to disease, patients experience end-stage renal
  7. 7. disease (ESRD), or total kidney failure. Because the kidneys perform so many critical functions, people whose kidneys fail face an immediate life-threatening condition. Kidney failure means that the body can no longer rid itself of certain toxins and cannot properly regulate blood pressure and critical nutrients. Unless those experiencing kidney failure are treated, they can die within days due to the build-up of toxins and fluid in their blood. More than 12,000 Malaysian s today have ESRD and are dependent on artificial dialysis to stay alive.

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