kidney stones_1.ppt

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kidney stones_1.ppt

  1. 1. Effects of Microgravity on Kidney Stone Formation Richard Zhu Chelsea Feng
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Kidney stones </li></ul><ul><li>Microgravity versus normal gravity </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney Stone Formation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone Loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid shift </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space lifestyle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Possible preventative measures </li></ul>
  3. 3. Kidney stones <ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences </li></ul><ul><li>3 million visits to health care providers, ½ million visits to emergency rooms </li></ul><ul><li>What this means for astronauts… </li></ul><ul><li>Increased risk </li></ul><ul><li>No medical care in space </li></ul>http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/17091.htm
  4. 4. Microgravity <ul><li>Weightlessness </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in all systems of the body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skeletal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circulatory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renal </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Bones – in microgravity <ul><li>Dynamic Equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Important for maintaining Ca 2+ homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>Wolff’s Law: bone remodels to different loads </li></ul><ul><li>Less load on bones in space </li></ul><ul><li>bone resorption - osteoclasts </li></ul>osteoclasts calcium released into blood through bone resorption bone circulatory system
  6. 6. Circulatory Fluid Shift <ul><li>Hydrostatic pressure gradient on Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of gradient in microgravity  equalization of blood pressure </li></ul>“ Gravity and the circulation” (Howard 1977), Figure 5
  7. 7. Space Flight Conditions <ul><li>Imposed diet choices: “astronaut food” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dehydrated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher sodium content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for preservation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bad hydration habits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Busy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inconvenient </li></ul></ul>http://astronomy.neatherd.org/Space%20Loo.jpg
  8. 8. Renal Consequences <ul><li>Fluid shift and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) -> high urine volume </li></ul><ul><li>Dehydration: space flight conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Higher levels of calcium in blood </li></ul><ul><li>Resulting in… </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertonic urine </li></ul><ul><li>Increased risk of kidney stones (precipitation) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Preventative Measures <ul><li>Hydration </li></ul><ul><li>Altering diet choices </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise to maintain integrity of skeletal system </li></ul><ul><li>Citrate supplements </li></ul>

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