kidney diseases.ppt


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kidney diseases.ppt

  2. 2. STATISTICS from NKUDIC <ul><li>- 20 million people had impaired kidney function </li></ul><ul><li>- 3 million people were told they had kidney disease </li></ul><ul><li>- Cause more than 95,000 deaths a year </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why are your kidneys so vital? <ul><li>- Remove waste products and excess fluids from the body </li></ul><ul><li>- Maintain a critical balance of salt, potassium and acid </li></ul><ul><li>-Produce a hormone— erythropoietin EPO--that stimulates the production of red blood cells. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>- Other kidney hormones help regulate blood pressure and calcium metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>- The kidneys even synthesize the hormones that control tissue growth </li></ul><ul><li>BE AWARE OF OUR KIDNEY!!!! </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>- Inherited kidney disorders </li></ul><ul><li>- Congenital kidney diseases </li></ul><ul><li>- Acquired kidney diseases </li></ul>
  6. 6. Inherited kidney disorders <ul><li>polycystic kidney disease (PKD) </li></ul><ul><li>genetic disorder marked by the growth of numerous cysts in the kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>These PKD cysts compress functioning kidney tissue, eventually replace much of the mass of the kidneys </li></ul>
  7. 7. Medical professionals describe two major inherited forms of PKD: <ul><li>Autosomal Dominant PKD </li></ul><ul><li>Autosomal Recessive PKD </li></ul>
  8. 8. Autosomal Dominant PKD <ul><li>-&quot;Autosomal dominant&quot; means that if one parent has the disease, there is a 50-percent chance that the disease will pass to a child </li></ul><ul><li>- Many people with autosomal dominant PKD live for decades without developing symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>-The disease is thought to occur equally in men and women and equally in people of all races </li></ul>
  9. 9. What are the symptoms? <ul><li>People with autosomal dominant PKD can experience the following: </li></ul><ul><li>urinary tract infections </li></ul><ul><li>hematuria (blood in the urine) </li></ul><ul><li>liver and pancreatic cysts </li></ul><ul><li>abnormal heart valves </li></ul><ul><li>high blood pressure </li></ul>
  10. 10. How is it diagnosed? <ul><li>ultrasound imaging </li></ul><ul><li>computed tomography (CT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) </li></ul><ul><li>genetic test </li></ul>
  11. 11. How is it treated? <ul><li>Although a cure for autosomal dominant PKD is not available, treatment can ease the symptoms and prolong life. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Pain </li></ul><ul><li>-pain medications, such as aspirin or Tylenol </li></ul><ul><li>-surgery to shrink cysts can relieve pain in the back and flanks </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary tract infections </li></ul><ul><li>- antibiotics </li></ul>
  13. 13. Auotsomal Recessive PKD <ul><li>Only one parent carries the abnormal gene, the baby cannot get the disease </li></ul><ul><li>The symptoms of autosomal recessive PKD can begin before birth </li></ul>
  14. 14. How is it diagnosed? <ul><li>Ultrasound imaging of the fetus or newborn baby </li></ul><ul><li>Ultrasound examination of kidneys of relatives (e.g. father) </li></ul>
  15. 15. What are the symptoms ? <ul><li>Children with autosomal recessive PKD experience the following: </li></ul><ul><li>-          high blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>-          urinary tract infections </li></ul><ul><li>-          frequent urination. </li></ul>
  16. 16. How is it treated? <ul><li>-Medicines can control high blood pressure in autosomal recessive PKD </li></ul><ul><li>-Antibiotics can control urinary tract infections. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>-Eating increased amounts of nutritious food improves growth in children with autosomal recessive PKD. </li></ul><ul><li>-growth hormones are used </li></ul><ul><li>-dialysis or transplantation </li></ul>
  18. 18. Congenital kidney diseases <ul><li>There are two types of congenital kidney diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>1) Muscles of the bladder fail to contract </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>2) Malformations present at birth  blockage  </li></ul><ul><li>Disrupts the normal flow of urine  </li></ul><ul><li>Causing it to back up  </li></ul><ul><li>Exert increasing pressure on the kidneys  </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent damage of kidney!! </li></ul>
  20. 20. How is it diagnosed? <ul><li>- Early diagnosis: injecting dye into the bloodstream & taking X-ray </li></ul><ul><li>-Specific diagnostic procedures: intravenous urography & retrograde pyelography </li></ul><ul><li>-Non-invasive diagnostic techniques: renal scans, ultrasound, and CT scans </li></ul>
  21. 21. Acquired kidney diseases <ul><li>1)      Nephrotic Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Though not a disease in itself, this condition is often the result of other kidney disorders or more generalized diseases </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>1) Kidney Stones </li></ul><ul><li>Hard masses appear when certain chemicals in the urine form crystals that stick together </li></ul><ul><li>The crystals can grow into a stone as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. </li></ul><ul><li>Small stones are passed out of the body with the urine. </li></ul><ul><li>The larger ones can block urine flow or irritate the lining of the urinary tract </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>2) Chronic glomerulonephrit </li></ul><ul><li>a term used for a wide variety of diseases that cause progressive scarring of the kidneys over a long period of time, often without any initial symptoms. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>3)Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis </li></ul><ul><li>More common in children </li></ul><ul><li>Most people recover fully ,but the few who don't may develop chronic kidney failure within months. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>4)Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) </li></ul><ul><li>a decrease in urine output and progressive decline in kidney function </li></ul><ul><li>appears suddenly, and can quickly lead to kidney failure </li></ul>
  26. 26. Treatment of Kidney Failure <ul><li>       hemodialysis : an artificial kidney machine carries out the vital functions the kidneys can no longer perform </li></ul><ul><li>       peritoneal dialysis : waste products from the blood are flushed from the body with fluid instilled and drained through a catheter </li></ul><ul><li>       Kidney transplantation </li></ul>