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Strand4 writing k 2


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Strand4 writing k 2

  1. 1. Best Practices in Writing Instruction K-2 Marianne Oakes and Kathy Luiten
  2. 2. Acknowledgement: This presentation is largely based on the work of Dr. Steve Graham.
  3. 3. Challenges for Young Writers <ul><li>Imagine a first grader who has been asked to write about one thing she learned on a class field trip. </li></ul><ul><li>Table talk - What are the skills she will need for this assignment? </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1. Understanding how we use writing to communicate <ul><li>Writing needs to be modeled. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide authentic literacy activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Supply a range of writing materials. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 2. Unlocking the conventions of concepts of print <ul><li>Interactive book reading </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogic reading </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling of writing </li></ul>
  6. 6. 3. Discovering that the alphabet is used to represent speech sounds <ul><li>Print represents sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Letter names are important. </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic and phonologic relationships provide insight into how writing works. </li></ul><ul><li>Invented spelling promotes spelling development . </li></ul>
  7. 7. 4. Developing knowledge of the world of text genres <ul><li>Personal narrative is universal. </li></ul><ul><li>Read alouds introduce students to the ideas and language of books. </li></ul><ul><li>Students demonstrate early awareness that texts differ depending on purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Students need exposure to a variety of genres. </li></ul>
  8. 8. 5. Writing or typing well enough to fluently express ideas <ul><li>Fluent handwriting allows students to attend to other writing requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide explicit handwriting practice for not more than 5-10 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Writing in connected text follows instruction of letters. </li></ul><ul><li>Keyboarding skills should begin in first grade. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>“ I’d like to be an author, </li></ul><ul><li>but you have to be dead.” </li></ul>
  10. 10. Developmental Stages of Writing: Beginning <ul><li>Unclear ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-phonetic spelling </li></ul><ul><li>Marks, lines or scribbles </li></ul><ul><li>No words </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures hard to interpret </li></ul><ul><li>No beginning, end, or sequencing </li></ul>
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  12. 12. Developmental Stages of Writing: Emerging <ul><li>Ideas through texts, labels, and symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Phonetic, decodable, simple words </li></ul><ul><li>spelled correctly </li></ul><ul><li>Part of a sentence </li></ul><ul><li>A few words emerge </li></ul><ul><li>A general feeling in words and pictures </li></ul><ul><li>A beginning attempted </li></ul>
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  14. 14. Developmental Stages of Writing: Developing <ul><li>Simplistic ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Phonetic spelling; accurate spelling of some words </li></ul><ul><li>Sentences begin alike (I am…) </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary “known or safe” </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling expressed in few words/punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>Sequencing not present or confusing </li></ul>
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  16. 16. Developmental Stages of Writing: Capable <ul><li>Big Idea- simple story or explanation </li></ul><ul><li>Grade level words correct </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Basic words used correctly </li></ul><ul><li>Identifiable feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Transitions predictable </li></ul>
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  18. 18. Developmental Stages of Writing: Experienced <ul><li>Clear big idea, narrow topic </li></ul><ul><li>Correct end punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of sentence patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting word choice </li></ul><ul><li>Writer’s feelings evident </li></ul><ul><li>Correct sequencing </li></ul>
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  20. 20. Developmental Stages of Writing: Exceptional <ul><li>Big idea clear, original </li></ul><ul><li>Paragraphing indented, capitals and punctuation correct </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythm fluid, pleasant when read aloud </li></ul><ul><li>Word choice striking, some memorable phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptional audience awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Transitions smooth and varied </li></ul>
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  24. 24. Lets practice scoring!!
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  28. 28. Let’s Get Writing! <ul><li>Writing Prompt #1 </li></ul><ul><li>My Most Memorable School Year </li></ul><ul><li>30 seconds to plan </li></ul><ul><li>3 minutes to write </li></ul>
  29. 29. Now Try This… <ul><li>Writing Prompt #2 </li></ul><ul><li>An Inspirational Person in My Life </li></ul><ul><li>30 seconds to plan </li></ul><ul><li>3 minutes to write </li></ul>
  30. 30. A Few New Rules.. <ul><li>Reverse every “b”, “d”, “p”, and “q”. </li></ul><ul><li>Use manuscript only. </li></ul><ul><li>Spell every four-letter word backwards. </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalize every five-letter word, </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>Write with your non-dominant hand. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Top Two Least Glamorous Topics in all of Literacy: <ul><li>Spelling </li></ul><ul><li>Handwriting </li></ul>However…..
  32. 32. They are Essential!!! <ul><li>While Spelling and Handwriting are </li></ul><ul><li>certainly not ends unto themselves, </li></ul><ul><li>serious deficits in one of both of these </li></ul><ul><li>skills can undercut success in Reading </li></ul><ul><li>and Writing. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Best Practices in Writing Instruction” </li></ul><ul><li>Graham, 2007 </li></ul>
  33. 33. Early Reading / Writing Connection <ul><li>Students learn letter names and letter sounds and map those sounds to print. </li></ul><ul><li>(map, sit, bed) </li></ul><ul><li>They move to sound spellings, i.e. “i” = “igh”, “ie”, i_e, “y”. </li></ul><ul><li>(light, pie, bike, sky) </li></ul><ul><li>In more advanced vocabulary, meaning relations take precedence over sound. </li></ul><ul><li>(sign–signature, compete–competition) </li></ul>
  34. 34. Developmental Spelling Instruction <ul><ul><li>Connect spelling and reading instruction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Map spelling instruction to decoding skills i.e. CVC readers should have CVC spelling words. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spelling should be explicitly taught. (not only as a dictation or homework activity) </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. What You’ll See <ul><li>Improved Spelling </li></ul><ul><li>Longer Papers </li></ul><ul><li>Better Sentence Construction </li></ul><ul><li>Better Word Choice </li></ul><ul><li>More Motivated Writers! </li></ul>
  36. 36. Do I Really Have to Teach Handwriting??? <ul><li>YES!! </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>We still handwrite things like: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Notes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essays for standardized tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short and extended responses on proficiency tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor handwriting can influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>judgments about the quality of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>student work. </li></ul></ul>WHY???
  38. 38. What We’ve Learned About Handwriting Instruction <ul><li>Start with manuscript and transition to cursive. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide explicit instruction in letter formation . </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure sufficient (short, engaging) practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide abundant opportunities for purposeful writing. </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>“ Just as a failure to develop accurate and automatic decoding can impair comprehension in readers, failure to develop legible and automatic letter and word formation may interfere with content in writing….. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of the excessive labor and unattractive results involved in such writing, students are more likely to avoid or minimize the process” </li></ul><ul><li>“ </li></ul><ul><li>“ Best Practices in Writing Instruction” </li></ul><ul><li>Graham, 2007 </li></ul>Think about it….
  40. 40. Self Regulated Strategy Development Stage 1: Develop Background Knowledge <ul><li>Goal: Ensure students </li></ul><ul><li>understand, learn and apply </li></ul><ul><li>the strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers must identify prerequisite skills and assess readiness. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Self Regulated Strategy Development Stage 2: Discuss It <ul><li>Goal: Ensure students are </li></ul><ul><li>motivated and willing to learn. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine and discuss current performance and perceptions of writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce progress monitoring. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students identify an aspect of writing to improve. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students graph their performance. (rockets) </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Self Regulated Strategy Development Stage 3: Model It <ul><li>Goal: Provide explicit instruction on </li></ul><ul><li>strategy use. </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling is most effective when teachers model a think-aloud highlighting “how” and “why”. </li></ul><ul><li>Model self-motivation statements and goal setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Students discuss ways to make the strategy more appropriate or effective. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Self Regulated Strategy Development Stage 4: Memorize It <ul><li>Goal: Ensure students </li></ul><ul><li>become familiar enough to </li></ul><ul><li>use steps with automaticity. </li></ul><ul><li>Make memorization fun. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider mnemonics. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Self Regulated Strategy Development Stage 5: Support It <ul><li>Goal: Students assume responsibility for using the strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>How you get there: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scaffolded instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent Feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other positive reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patience </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Self Regulated Strategy Development Stage 6: Independent Performance <ul><li>ULTIMATE Goal of SRSD is to </li></ul><ul><li>ensure that students consistently </li></ul><ul><li>use a strategy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In multiple settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With a variety of tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage students to recognize how a strategy improves their writing. </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Best Practices in Writing Instruction (Solving Problems in the Teaching of Literacy) by Steve Graham EdD, Charles A. MacArthur PhD and Jill Fitzgerald PhD (Feb 24, 2007) Guilford Press Resources
  47. 47. Resources <ul><li>Writing Project: </li></ul><ul><li>Writing Fix: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Read Write Think: </li></ul><ul><li>6+1 Traits Writing: </li></ul>